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1.a conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component
2.(MeSH)A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
1.(MeSH)A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
1.(MeSH)Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Acid alpha 1-Glycoprotein • Alpha(1)-Acid Glycoprotein • CD22 Glycoprotein • Cell Surface Glycoprotein • Cell Surface Glycoprotein L1 • Defects in glycoprotein degradation • Desmosomal Glycoprotein 1 • Desmosomal Glycoprotein 2 • Desmosomal Glycoprotein 3 • Disorder of glycoprotein metabolism, unspecified • Disorders of glycoprotein metabolism • Envelope Glycoprotein gp120, HIV • Envelope Glycoprotein gp160, HIV • F-Glycoprotein SV • F11 Glycoprotein • Fusion Glycoprotein, Viral • GPIIIb Platelet Glycoprotein • GPIV Platelet Glycoprotein • Glycoprotein GP-2 • Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Chain • Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Polypeptide • Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit • Glycoprotein Ia-IIa • Glycoprotein Ib • Glycoprotein Ib alpha • Glycoprotein Ib beta • Glycoprotein Ib-IX Complex • Glycoprotein MUC18 • Glycoprotein Sialyltransferase • Glycoprotein Syndrome, Carbohydrate-Deficient • Glycoprotein beta-Galactosyltransferase • Glycoprotein gp68 • Glycoprotein, Viral Fusion • HANA Glycoprotein • HIV Envelope Glycoprotein gp120 • HIV Envelope Glycoprotein gp160 • Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase • Membrane Glycoprotein • Membrane Glycoprotein IIb • Mo1 Glycoprotein • Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein • NGF-Inducible Glycoprotein • NILE Glycoprotein • Neutrophil Glycoprotein Gp150 • Opsonic Glycoprotein • P-Glycoprotein • P0 Glycoprotein • Pituitary Glycoprotein Hormone, alpha Subunit • Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein IIb • Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex • Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex • Platelet Glycoprotein I'c-IIa • Platelet Glycoprotein IIIa • Platelet Glycoprotein IIIb • Platelet Glycoprotein IV • Platelet Glycoprotein IX • Platelet Glycoprotein Ia • Platelet Glycoprotein Ic • Platelet Glycoprotein Ic/IIa • SPARC Glycoprotein • Sulfated Glycoprotein 2 • Sulfated Glycoprotein-2 • Surface Glycoprotein • Viral Envelope Glycoprotein gPr90 (Murine Leukemia Virus) • Viral Envelope Glycoprotein gp55 (Friend Virus) • alpha 1-Acid Glycoprotein • alpha 1-Acid Glycoprotein (Acute Phase) • alpha 1-Glycoprotein Acid • beta 1-Glycoprotein, Pregnancy-Specific • beta 2-Glycoprotein I • beta-1 Glycoprotein, Trophoblast-Specific • beta2-Glycoprotein I • gp120 Envelope Glycoprotein, HIV • gp160 Envelope Glycoprotein, HIV • p150,95 Glycoprotein
Anti-glycoprotein-210 antibodies • Anti-β2 glycoprotein 1 antibody • Cartilage glycoprotein 39 • Glycoprotein 130 • Glycoprotein 2-beta-D-xylosyltransferase • Glycoprotein 3-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase • Glycoprotein 6-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors • Glycoprotein IX • Glycoprotein Ib • Glycoprotein N-palmitoyltransferase • Glycoprotein O-fatty-acyltransferase • Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta-galactosyltransferase • Glycoprotein-fucosylgalactoside a-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase • Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein • Myelin-associated glycoprotein • P-glycoprotein • P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 • Platelet membrane glycoprotein • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain • Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein • UDP-glucose-glycoprotein glucose phosphotransferase
Glycoprotein (n.) [MeSH]
Glycoprotein Sialyltransferases (n.) [MeSH]
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains. The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as glycosylation. In proteins that have segments extending extracellularly, the extracellular segments are often glycosylated. Glycoproteins are often important integral membrane proteins, where they play a role in cell–cell interactions. Glycoproteins are also formed in the cytosol, but their functions and the pathways producing these modifications in this compartment are less well understood.
There are two types of glycoproteins:
Monosaccharides commonly found in eukaryotic glycoproteins include::526
|N-Acetylneuraminic acid||Aminononulosonic acid
The sugar group(s) can assist in protein folding or improve proteins' stability.
One example of glycoproteins found in the body is mucins, which are secreted in the mucus of the respiratory and digestive tracts. The sugars attached to mucins give them considerable water-holding capacity and also make them resistant to proteolysis by digestive enzymes.
Other examples of glycoproteins include:
Hormones that are glycoproteins include:
|Lubricant and protective agent||Mucins|
|Transport molecule||Transferrin, ceruloplasmin|
|Immunologic molecule||Immunoglobins, histocompatibility antigens|
|Hormone||Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)|
|Enzyme||Various, e.g., alkaline phosphatase|
|Cell attachment-recognition site||Various proteins involved in cell–cell (e.g., sperm–oocyte), virus–cell, bacterium–cell, and hormone–cell interactions|
|Antifreeze protein||Certain plasma proteins of coldwater fish|
|Interact with specific carbohydrates||Lectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies|
|Receptor||Various proteins involved in hormone and drug action|
|Affect folding of certain proteins||Calnexin, calreticulin|
|Regulation of development||Notch and its analogs, key proteins in development|
|Hemostasis (and thrombosis)||Specific glycoproteins on the surface membranes of platelets|
|Periodic acid-Schiff stain||Detects glycoproteins as pink bands after electrophoretic separation.|
|Incubation of cultured cells with glycoproteins as radioactive decay bands||Leads to detection of a radioactive sugar after electrophoretic separation.|
|Treatment with appropriate endo- or exoglycosidase or phospholipases||Resultant shifts in electrophoretic migration help distinguish among proteins with N-glycan, O-glycan, or GPI linkages and also between high mannose and complex N-glycans.|
|Agarose-lectin column chromatography, lectin affinity chromatography||To purify glycoproteins or glycopeptides that bind the particular lectin used.|
|Lectin affinity electrophoresis||Resultant shifts in electrophoretic migration help distinguish and characterize glycoforms, i.e. variants of a glycoprotein differing in carbohydrate.|
|Compositional analysis following acid hydrolysis||Identifies sugars that the glycoprotein contains and their stoichiometry.|
|Mass spectrometry||Provides information on molecular mass, composition, sequence, and sometimes branching of a glycan chain.|
|NMR spectroscopy||To identify specific sugars, their sequence, linkages, and the anomeric nature of glycosidic chain.|
|Dual Polarisation Interferometry||Measures the mechanisms underlying the biomolecular interactions, including reaction rates, affinities and associated conformational changes.|
|Methylation (linkage) analysis||To determine linkage between sugars.|
|Amino acid or cDNA sequencing||Determination of amino acid sequence.|