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definitions - Grafting

grafting (n.)

1.the act of grafting something onto something else

graft (n.)

1.the allotment of some amount by dividing something"death gets more than its share of attention from theologians"

2.the act of grafting something onto something else

3.the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage

4.(surgery) tissue or organ transplanted from a donor to a recipient; in some cases the patient can be both donor and recipient

graft (v. trans.)

1.place the organ of a donor into the body of a recipient

2.cause to grow together parts from different plants"graft the cherry tree branch onto the plum tree"

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Merriam Webster

GraftingGraft"ing n. 1. (Hort.) The act, art, or process of inserting grafts.

2. (Naut.) The act or method of weaving a cover for a ring, rope end, etc.

3. (Surg.) The transplanting of a portion of flesh or skin to a denuded surface; autoplasty.

4. (Carp.) A scarfing or endwise attachment of one timber to another.

Cleft grafting (Hort.) a method of grafting in which the scion is placed in a cleft or slit in the stock or stump made by sawing off a branch, usually in such a manaer that its bark evenly joins that of the stock. -- Crown grafting or Rind grafting, (Hort.) a method of grafting which the alburnum and inner bark are separated, and between them is inserted the lower end of the scion cut slantwise. -- Saddle grafting, a mode of grafting in which a deep cleft is made in the end of the scion by two sloping cuts, and the end of the stock is made wedge-shaped to fit the cleft in the scion, which is placed upon it saddlewise. -- Side grafting, a mode of grafting in which the scion, cut quite across very obliquely, so as to give it the form of a slender wedge, is thrust down inside of the bark of the stock or stem into which it is inserted, the cut side of the scion being next the wood of the stock. -- Skin grafting. (Surg.) See Autoplasty. -- Splice grafting (Hort.), a method of grafting by cutting the ends of the scion and stock completely across and obliquely, in such a manner that the sections are of the same shape, then lapping the ends so that the one cut surface exactly fits the other, and securing them by tying or otherwise. -- Whip grafting, tongue grafting, the same as splice grafting, except that a cleft or slit is made in the end of both scion and stock, in the direction of the grain and in the middle of the sloping surface, forming a kind of tongue, so that when put together, the tongue of each is inserted in the slit of the other. -- Grafting scissors, a surgeon's scissors, used in rhinoplastic operations, etc. -- Grafting tool. (a) Any tool used in grafting. (b) A very strong curved spade used in digging canals. -- Grafting wax, a composition of rosin, beeswax tallow, etc., used in binding up the wounds of newly grafted trees.

GraftGraft (?), n. [OE. graff, F. greffe, originally the same word as OF. grafe pencil, L. graphium, Gr. �, �, fr. � to write; prob. akin to E. carve. So named from the resemblance of a scion or shoot to a pointed pencil. Cf. Graphic, Grammar.] (a) A small shoot or scion of a tree inserted in another tree, the stock of which is to support and nourish it. The two unite and become one tree, but the graft determines the kind of fruit. (b) A branch or portion of a tree growing from such a shoot. (c) (Surg.) A portion of living tissue used in the operation of autoplasty.

GraftGraft (?), n. [Prob. orig. so called because illegitimate or improper profit was looked upon as a graft, or sort of excrescence, on a legitimate business undertaking, in distinction from its natural proper development.]
1. Acquisition of money, position, etc., by dishonest or unjust means, as by actual theft or by taking advantage of a public office or any position of trust or employment to obtain fees, perquisites, profits on contracts, legislation, pay for work not done or service not performed, etc.; illegal or unfair practice for profit or personal advantage; also, anything thus gained. [Colloq.]

2. A “soft thing” or “easy thing;” a “snap.” [Slang]

GraftGraft, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grafted; p. pr. & vb. n. Grafting.] [F. greffer. See Graft, n.]
1. To insert (a graft) in a branch or stem of another tree; to propagate by insertion in another stock; also, to insert a graft upon. [Formerly written graff.]

2. (Surg.) To implant a portion of (living flesh or akin) in a lesion so as to form an organic union.

3. To join (one thing) to another as if by grafting, so as to bring about a close union.

And graft my love immortal on thy fame ! Pope.

4. (Naut.) To cover, as a ring bolt, block strap, splicing, etc., with a weaving of small cord or rope-yarns.

GraftGraft, v. i. To insert scions from one tree, or kind of tree, etc., into another; to practice grafting.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Grafting

grafting (n.)

graft

graft (v. trans.)

engraft, ingraft, transplant  (medicine)

see also - Grafting

graft (v. trans.)

transplantation, transplanting scion

graft (n.)

transplant

phrases

-Blair-Brown graft • Davis graft • Delayed Graft Function • Enhancement, Immunologic Graft • Graft Enhancement, Immunologic • Graft Occlusion, Vascular • Graft Rejection • Graft Restenosis, Vascular • Graft Survival • Graft Tolerance • Graft vs Host Disease • Graft vs Host Reaction • Graft vs Leukemia Effect • Graft vs Leukemia Response • Graft vs Neoplasm Effect • Graft vs Tumor Effect • Graft-versus-host reaction or disease • Graft-vs-Host Disease • Graft-vs-Leukemia Effect • Graft-vs-Leukemia Response • Graft-vs-Neoplasm Effect • Graft-vs-Neoplasm Response • Graft-vs-Tumor Effect • Graft-vs-Tumor Response • Host vs Graft Reaction • Ollier-Thierschs graft • Reverdin's graft • corneal graft • coronary artery bypass graft • graft copolymer • graft polymer • presence of vascular graft • skin graft

-Atlanta graft ring • Bridge graft • Coronary artery bypass graft surgery • Gingival graft • Graft (1915 serial) • Graft (1931 film) • Graft (Netherlands) • Graft (album) • Graft (disambiguation) • Graft architects • Graft chimera • Graft hybrid • Graft rejection • Graft versus host disease • Graft-De Rijp • Graft-chimaera • Graft-chimera • Graft-versus-host • Graft-versus-host disease • Homostatic graft • Host vs. graft • Host-versus-graft disease • Human umbilical vein graft • J. E. S. de Graft-Hayford • Joe De Graft • Joe de Graft • Lichenoid reaction of graft-versus-host disease • Noordeinde (Graft-De Rijp) • Rejection of the graft • Saphenous vein graft • Skin Graft Records • Skin graft (disambiguation) • Split thickness skin graft • Transfusion-associated graft versus host disease • Vein graft disease • Walking-stalk skin graft

analogical dictionary

Wikipedia

Grafting

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Grafted apple tree Malus sp., consolidated 'V' graft
File:Newly Grafted Cherry Tree.JPG
Newly grafted cherry tree, tape has been used to bind the rootstock and scion at the graft and tar paint to protect the cut end of the scion from desiccation. The buds will burst within the next few weeks to produce leaves and shoots
File:Grafted blossoming tree unidentified white pink.JPG
A grafted tree showing two different color blossoms

Grafting is a method of asexual plant propagation widely used in agriculture and horticulture where the tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of another. It is most commonly used for the propagation of trees and shrubs grown commercially.

In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots, and this is called the stock or rootstock. The other plant is selected for its stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits and is called the scion. The scion contains the desired genes to be duplicated in future production by the stock/scion plant.

In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type. In another common form called budding, a dormant side bud is grafted on the stem of another stock plant, and when it has fused successfully, it is encouraged to grow by cutting out the stem above the new bud.

For successful grafting to take place, the vascular cambium tissues of the stock and scion plants must be placed in contact with each other. Both tissues must be kept alive until the graft has taken, usually a period of a few weeks. Successful grafting only requires that a vascular connection takes place between the two tissues. A physical weak point often still occurs at the graft, because the structural tissue of the two distinct plants, such as wood, may not fuse.

Contents

Advantages

  • Dwarfing: To induce dwarfing or cold tolerance or other characteristics to the scion. Most apple trees in modern orchards are grafted on to dwarf or semi-dwarf trees planted at high density. They provide more fruit per unit of land, higher quality fruit, and reduce the danger of accidents by harvest crews working on ladders.
  • Ease of propagation: Because the scion is difficult to propagate vegetatively by other means, such as by cuttings. In this case, cuttings of an easily rooted plant are used to provide a rootstock. In some cases, the scion may be easily propagated, but grafting may still be used because it is commercially the most cost-effective way of raising a particular type of plant.
  • Hybrid breeding: To speed maturity of hybrids in fruit tree breeding programs. Hybrid seedlings may take ten or more years to flower and fruit on their own roots. Grafting can reduce the time to flowering and shorten the breeding program.
  • Hardiness: Because the scion has weak roots or the roots of the stock plants have roots tolerant of difficult conditions. e.g. many showy Western Australian plants are sensitive to dieback on heavy soils, common in urban gardens, and are grafted onto hardier eastern Australian relatives. Grevilleas and eucalypts are examples.
  • Sturdiness: In order to provide a strong, tall trunk for certain ornamental shrubs and trees. In these cases, a graft is made at a desired height on a stock plant with a strong stem. This is used to raise 'standard' roses, which are rose bushes on a high stem, and it is also used for some ornamental trees, such as certain weeping cherries.
  • Pollen source: To provide pollenizers. For example, in tightly planted or badly planned apple orchards of a single variety, limbs of crab apple may be grafted at regularly spaced intervals onto trees down rows, say every fourth tree. This takes care of pollen needs at blossom time, yet does not confuse pickers who might otherwise mix varieties while harvesting, as the mature crab apples are so distinct from other apple varieties.
  • Repair: To repair damage to the trunk of a tree which would prohibit nutrient flow, such as the stripping of the bark by rodents which completely girdles the trunk. In this case a bridge graft may be used to connect the tissues receiving flow from the roots to the tissues above the damage which have been severed from the flow. Where a watersprout, basal shoot or sapling of the same species is growing nearby, any of these can be grafted to the area above the damage by a method called inarch grafting. These alternatives to scions must be of the correct length to span the gap of the wound.
  • Changing cultivars: To change the cultivar in a fruit orchard to a more profitable cultivar, called topworking. It may be faster to graft a new cultivar onto existing limbs of established trees than to replant an entire orchard.
  • Maintain consistency: Apples are notorious for their genetic variability, even differing in multiple characteristics, such as, size, color, and flavor, of fruits located on the same tree. In the commercial farming industry, consistency is maintained by grafting a scion with desired fruit traits onto a hardy stock.
An example of approach grafting by Axel Erlandson.
  • Curiosities
    • A practice sometimes carried out by gardeners is to graft related potatoes and tomatoes so that both are produced on the same plant, one above ground and one underground.
    • Cacti of widely different forms are sometimes grafted on to each other.
    • Multiple cultivars of fruits such as apples are sometimes grafted on a single tree. This so-called "family tree" provides more fruit variety for small spaces such as a suburban backyard, and also takes care of the need for pollenizers. The drawback is that the gardener must be sufficiently trained to prune them correctly, or one strong variety will usually "take over".
    • Ornamental and functional, tree shaping uses grafting techniques to join separate trees or parts of the same tree to itself. Furniture, hearts, entry archways are examples. Axel Erlandson was a prolific tree shaper growing over 75 mature shaped and grafted trees.

Techniques

Approach

Approach grafting or inarching is used to join plants that are otherwise difficult to join. The plants are grown close together, and then joined so that each plant has roots below and growth above the point of union.[1] Both scion and stock retain their respective parents that may or may not be removed after joining. Also used in pleaching. The graft can be successfully accomplished any time of year.[2]

Budding

T budding
Grafting with a single eye or bud. Normally performed at the height of the growing season by inserting a dormant bud into a shallow slice under the rind of the tree. The bud is sealed from drying and bound in place. There are many styles of budding depending on the cutting and fitting methods, the most popular being shield budding.

Other budding styles include the inverted T, patch budding, double shield, flute budding and chip budding.

Cleft

The most common form of grafting is cleft grafting. The stock is simply split and the scion is inserted. It is best if the stock is 2–7 cm (0.79–2.8 in) in diameter and has 3-5 buds, and the cleft is around 3 cm (1.2 in) deep. is cut in a wedge shape and inserted into the tree with the cambium. The bare stock is covered with grafting compound, otherwise the cambium layer quickly dries and the graft fails.

Whip

The whip graft is considered the most difficult to master, but has the highest rate of success. It is the most common graft used in top-dressing commercial fruit trees. It is limited to stock less than 12 in (1.3 cm) diameter, with the ideal diameter closer to 38 in (0.95 cm) . It offers the highest cambium overlap between the 2 species, increasing the rate of success. The elongated "Z" shape adds strength, removing the need for a companion rod in the first season (see illustration).

Stub

Stub grafting is a technique that requires less stock than cleft grafting, and retains the shape of a tree. Also scions are generally of 6-8 buds in this process.

An incision is made into the branch 1 cm (0.39 in) long, then the scion is wedged and forced into the branch. The scion should be at an angle of at most 35° to the parent tree so that the crotch remains strong. The graft is covered with grafting compound.

After the graft has taken, the branch is removed and treated a few cm above the graft, to be fully removed when the graft is strong.

Awl

Awl grafting takes the least resources and the least time. It is best done by an experienced grafter, as it is possible to accidentally drive the tool too far into the stock, reducing the scion's chance of survival. Awl grafting can be done by using a screwdriver to make a slit in the bark, not penetrating the cambium layer completely. Then inset the wedged scion into the incision.

Veneer

Veneer grafting, or inlay grafting, is a method used for stocks larger than three centimeters in diameter. The scion is recommended to be about as thick as a pencil. Clefts are made of the same size as the scion on the side of the branch, not on top. The scion end is shaped as a wedge, inserted, and wrapped with tape to the scaffolding branches to give it more strength.

Natural grafting

File:Husband and Wife Trees - Linncraigs, Dalry.JPG
A Husband and Wife tree - Natural grafting in blackthorn Prunus spinosa

Tree branches and more often roots of the same species will sometimes naturally graft, this is called inosculation. When roots make physical contact with each other they often grow together. A group of trees can share water and mineral nutrients via root grafts, which may be advantageous to weaker trees, and may also form a larger rootmass as an adaptation to promote fire resistance and regeneration as exemplified by the California Black Oak (Quercus kelloggii).[3]

A problem with root grafts is that they allow transmission of certain pathogens, such as Dutch elm disease. Inosculation also sometimes occurs where two stems on the same tree, shrub or vine make contact with each other. This is common in plants such as strawberries and potatoes.

Graft hybrids

Occasionally, a so-called "graft hybrid" can occur where the tissues of the stock continue to grow within the scion. Such a plant can produce flowers and foliage typical of both plants as well as shoots intermediate between the two. The best-known example is probably +Laburnocytisus 'Adamii', a graft hybrid between laburnum and broom, which originated in a nursery near Paris, France in 1825. This small tree bears yellow flowers typical of Laburnum anagyroides, purple flowers typical of Chamaecytisus purpureus and curious coppery-pink flowers which show characteristics of both "parents".

Scientific uses

Grafting has been important in flowering research. Leaves or shoots from plants induced to flower can be grafted onto uninduced plants and transmit a floral stimulus that induces them to flower.[4]

The transmission of plant viruses has been studied using grafting. Virus indexing involves grafting a symptom-less plant that is suspected of carrying a virus onto an indicator plant that is very susceptible to the virus.

Herbaceous grafting

Grafting is often done for non-woody and vegetable plants (tomato, cucumber, eggplant and watermelon).[5] Tomato grafting is very popular in Asia and Europe, and is gaining popularity in the United States. The main advantage of grafting is for disease-resistant rootstocks. In Japan there is an automated process using grafting robots.

History

Grafting with detached scions has been practiced for thousands of years. It was in use by the Chinese before 2000 B.C and spread to the rest of Eurasia. The practice was almost commonplace in ancient Greece.[6] Without the development of grafting, heterosexual fruit trees such as apples and cherries would never had been domesticated as their natural sexual reproductive method prevents useful genes from being passed on consistently.

References

  1. ^ Principles of Agricultural Botany, p 101, Alexander Nelson, Read Books, 2007, ISBN 1406746622
  2. ^ Garner, R.J. (1988) The Grafters Handbook P. 131 ISBN 0-304-32172-9
  3. ^ C.Michael Hogan (2008) Quercus kelloggii, Globaltwitcher, ed. nicklas Stromberg [1]
  4. ^ Lang, A., Chailakhyan, M.K. and Frolova, I.A. 1977. Promotion and inhibition of flower formation in a dayneutral plant in grafts with a short-day plant and a long-day plant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 74(6): 2412-2416. [2]
  5. ^ Core, J. (2005). Grafting watermelon onto squash or gourd rootstock makes firmer, healthier fruit.. Agricultural Research. p. 53. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jul05/fruit0705.htm. 
  6. ^ Garner, R.J. (1988) The Grafters Handbook P.46 ISBN 0-304-32172-9

External links

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