1.any of numerous woody vines of genus Vitis bearing clusters of edible berries
2.a cluster of small projectiles fired together from a cannon to produce a hail of shot
3.(biology)any of various juicy fruit of the genus Vitis with green or purple skins; grow in clusters
GrapeGrape (?), n. [OF. grape, crape, bunch or cluster of grapes, F. grappe, akin to F. grappin grapnel, hook; fr. OHG. chrapfo hook, G. krapfen, akin to E. cramp. The sense seems to have come from the idea of clutching. Cf. Agraffe, Cramp, Grapnel, Grapple.]
1. (Bot.) A well-known edible berry growing in pendent clusters or bunches on the grapevine. The berries are smooth-skinned, have a juicy pulp, and are cultivated in great quantities for table use and for making wine and raisins.
2. (Bot.) The plant which bears this fruit; the grapevine.
3. (Man.) A mangy tumor on the leg of a horse.
4. (Mil.) Grapeshot.
Grape borer. (Zoöl.) See Vine borer. -- Grape curculio (Zoöl.), a minute black weevil (Craponius inæqualis) which in the larval state eats the interior of grapes. -- Grape flower, or Grape hyacinth (Bot.), a liliaceous plant (Muscari racemosum) with small blue globular flowers in a dense raceme. -- Grape fungus (Bot.), a fungus (Oidium Tuckeri) on grapevines; vine mildew. -- Grape hopper (Zoöl.), a small yellow and red hemipterous insect, often very injurious to the leaves of the grapevine. -- Grape moth (Zoöl.), a small moth (Eudemis botrana), which in the larval state eats the interior of grapes, and often binds them together with silk. -- Grape of a cannon, the cascabel or knob at the breech. -- Grape sugar. See Glucose. -- Grape worm (Zoöl.), the larva of the grape moth. -- Sour grapes, things which persons affect to despise because they can not possess them; -- in allusion to Æsop's fable of the fox and the grapes.
definition of Wikipedia
Cabernet Sauvignon grape • Concord grape • Oregon grape • Oregon holly grape • Pinot grape • Sauvignon grape • bear's grape • bullace grape • chardonnay grape • common grape hyacinth • common grape vine • daisy-leaved grape fern • daisyleaf grape fern • fox grape • grape arbor • grape arbour • grape fern • grape gathering • grape harvest • grape hyacinth • grape jelly • grape juice • grape louse • grape phylloxera • grape sugar • grape vine • grape-leaf begonia • grape-sized • leathery grape fern • mountain grape • muscat grape • slipskin grape • stuffed grape leaves • vinifera grape
Agawam (grape) • Albana (grape) • Albarello (grape) • Alexander grape • Almeria grape • Aramon (grape) • Arbois (grape) • Argaman (grape) • Aurore (grape) • BBCH-scale (grape) • Bacchus (grape) • Baga (grape) • Baroque (grape) • Bastardo (grape) • Bear grape • Bears grape • Beta (grape) • Black Grape • Black rose (grape) • Black rot (grape) • Blossomberry Grape • Bouvier (grape) • Bronner (grape) • Burger (grape) • Burmese grape • Canopy (grape) • Cardinal (grape) • Carnelian (grape) • Cassady grape • Catawba (grape) • Chancellor (grape) • Chilean grape scare • Clinton (grape) • Compact Grape-hyacinth • Completer (grape) • Concord (grape) • Coronation (grape) • Creeping Oregon-grape • César (grape) • Debina (grape) • Delano grape strike • Delaware (grape) • Dinka (grape) • Domina (grape) • Duras (grape) • Edelweiss (grape) • Favorita (grape) • Fiano (grape) • Fie (grape) • Flame Seedless grape • Flora (grape) • Frankish and Hunnic grape varieties • From the Vine Came the Grape • Frontenac (grape) • Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute • Goethe (grape) • Grape (disambiguation) • Grape Ape • Grape Creek Independent School District • Grape Creek, Texas • Grape Fruit • Grape Island • Grape Island (Essex County, Massachusetts) • Grape Island (Massachusetts) • Grape Island (West Virginia) • Grape Vine • Grape and raisin toxicity in dogs • Grape arbor (hieroglyph) • Grape festival • Grape hyacinth • Grape island, Ipswich • Grape juice • Grape leaf • Grape leaves • Grape pie • Grape seed extract • Grape seed oil • Grape tomato • Grape varieties • Grape variety • Grape-Nuts • Great Grape • Greco (grape) • Grolleau (grape) • Herbert (grape) • Hermitage (grape) • Hermitage (grape) (disambiguation) • I Heard It Through the Grape Vine • Indifference (Moby Grape song) • International Grape Genome Program • Isabella (grape) • Jaén (grape) • Jaén tinto (grape) • Juan García (grape) • Kabar (grape) • Kerner (grape) • Khader Grape Festival • Kyoho grape • La Crosse (grape) • Legendary Grape • List of Portuguese grape varieties • List of grape diseases • List of grape varieties • Listen My Friends! The Best of Moby Grape • Live Grape • Massasoit (grape) • Mauzac (grape) • Mission (grape) • Moby Grape • Moby Grape '69 • Moby Grape '84 • Moby Grape (album) • Molinara (grape) • Monica (grape) • Mourisco (grape) • Muscat (grape and wine) • Namibian grape • Naples Grape Festival • Niagara (grape) • Noah (grape) • Non-grape based wine • Non-grape wine • Norton (grape) • Onaka (grape) • Optima (grape) • Oregon-grape • Orion (grape) • Orléans (grape) • Ortega (grape) • Palomino (grape) • Pecorino (grape) • Perle (grape) • Phoenix (grape) • Pignolo (grape) • Pinotage grape • Red Globe grape • Red Grape Records • Regent (grape) • Requa (grape) • Reverend Black Grape • Romain (grape) • Rondo (grape) • Rosette (grape) • Ruby Roman grape • Sacy (grape) • Salvador (grape) • Sea Grape • Sea grape • Sea grape (plant) • Severny (grape) • Solaris (grape) • St. Laurent (grape) • St. Pepin (grape) • Strum (grape) • Sultana (grape) • Swenson Red grape • Symphony (grape) • Table grape • Temple Emanuel (Grape Street, Denver, Colorado) • The Grape Escape • The Great Grape Ape Show • The grape merchant • Tree grape • Vignoles (grape) • What's Eating Gilbert Grape • White grape • White-grape • Wild grape • Wow/Grape Jam
produit de la vigne (fr)[Classe]
fruit charnu (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
grape (n.) [biology]
produit de la vigne (fr)[Classe]
fruit charnu (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
grape (n.) [biology]
genus Vitis, Vitis[membre]
action de tirer un explosif (fr)[Classe]
total; set; whole; integer; whole number[Classe...]
tirer au canon (fr)[Classe]
hit, pip, shoot[Domaine]
tir au canon (fr)[Classe]
ensemble (réunion d'éléments) (fr)[Classe...]
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||288 kJ (69 kcal)|
|- Sugars||15.48 g|
|- Dietary fiber||0.9 g|
|Thiamine (vit. B1)||0.069 mg (6%)|
|Riboflavin (vit. B2)||0.07 mg (6%)|
|Niacin (vit. B3)||0.188 mg (1%)|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||0.05 mg (1%)|
|Vitamin B6||0.086 mg (7%)|
|Folate (vit. B9)||2 μg (1%)|
|Vitamin B12||0 μg (0%)|
|Vitamin C||10.8 mg (13%)|
|Vitamin K||22 μg (21%)|
|Calcium||10 mg (1%)|
|Iron||0.36 mg (3%)|
|Magnesium||7 mg (2%)|
|Manganese||0.071 mg (3%)|
|Phosphorus||20 mg (3%)|
|Potassium||191 mg (4%)|
|Sodium||3.02 mg (0%)|
|Zinc||0.07 mg (1%)|
|Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus described as Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making jam, juice, jelly, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.
The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. First traces of red wine are seen in ancient Armenia where apparently, to date, the oldest winery was found, dating to around 4,000 BCE. By the 9th century CE the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East. Thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production. The growing of grapes would later spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, and eventually in North America.
Native grapes belonging to various species of the Vitis genus proliferated in the wild across North America, and were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine, who imported vitis vinifera varieties for that purpose.
Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange, and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. Grapes are typically an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid.
Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. The juice is often sold in stores or fermented and made into wine, brandy, or vinegar. In the wine industry, grape juice that contains 7–23 percent of pulp, skins, stems and seeds is often referred to as "must". In North America, the most common grape juice is purple and made from Concord grapes while white grape juice is commonly made from Niagara grapes, both of which are varieties of native American grapes, a different species from European wine grapes. In California, Sultana (known there as Thompson Seedless) grapes are sometimes diverted from the raisin or table market to produce white juice.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 75,866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year.
The following table of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making:
|United States||4,150 km2|
World production of grape and some of the important producers
|Country||Production: Tonnes in 2009||Footnote||Production: Tonnes in 2010 (Footnote)||Importance in World production in 2010|
|World||67,901,744 |||A||68,311,466 (A) |||100%|
|No symbol = official figure, A = May include official, semi-official or estimated data | F = FAO estimate | Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology;
There are no reliable statistics that break down grape production by variety. It is believed that the most widely planted variety is Sultana, also known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2. (880,000 acres) dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Grenache, Tempranillo, Riesling and Chardonnay.
Commercially cultivated grapes can usually be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw (table grapes) or used to make wine (wine grapes). While almost all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera, table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit (see below) with relatively thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a desirable characteristic in winemaking, since much of the aroma in wine comes from the skin). Wine grapes also tend to be very sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is approximately 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes is usually around 15% sugar by weight.
Although grape seeds contain many nutrients, some consumers choose seedless grapes; seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques.
There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario.
In most of Europe, dried grapes are referred to as "raisins" or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents.
A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (from which the English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins).
A currant is a dried Zante Black Corinth grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Currant has also come to refer to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes.
A sultana was originally a raisin made from Sultana grapes of Turkish origin (known as Thompson Seedless in the United States), but the word is now applied to raisins made from either white grapes, or red grapes which are bleached to resemble the traditional sultana.
Comparing diets among Western countries, researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, the incidence of heart disease remains low in France. This phenomenon has been termed the French Paradox, and is thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself, including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation, polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits, such as:
Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities, a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption, such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men, may confer health benefits. Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.
Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol (a polyphenol antioxidant), have been positively linked to inhibiting any cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease, viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease.
Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol. In laboratory studies, resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging, and prevent age-related heart failure.
Synthesized by many plants, resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets.
Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds which, in muscadine grapes, have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp. Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.
Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (i.e. catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties. Total phenolic content, a laboratory index of antioxidant strength, is higher in purple varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in purple grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin. It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health. Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar, soil composition, climate, geographic origin, and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases, such as fungal infections.
Red wine may offer health benefits more so than white because potentially beneficial compounds are present in grape skin, and only red wine is fermented with skins. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content. Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/L, depending on the grape variety, because it is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol. By contrast, a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins.
Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L, an exceptional phenolic content. In muscadine skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics. Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes.
Since the 1980s, biochemical and medical studies have demonstrated significant antioxidant properties of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Together with tannins, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, these seed constituents display inhibitory activities against several experimental disease models, including cancer, heart failure and other disorders of oxidative stress.
Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for many perceived health benefits. Grape seed oil is notable for its high contents of tocopherols (vitamin E), phytosterols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.
Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies, showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer, platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis, loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging and hypertension in humans.
In the Bible, grapes are first mentioned when Noah grows them on his farm (Genesis 9:20–21). Instructions concerning wine are given in the book of Proverbs and in the book of Isaiah, such as in Proverbs 20:1 and Isaiah 5:20–25. Deuteronomy 18:3–5,14:22-27,16:13-15 tell of the use of wine during Jewish feasts. Grapes were also significant to both the Greeks and Romans, and their God of agriculture, Dionysus, was linked to grapes and wine, being frequently portrayed with grape leaves on his head. Grapes are especially significant for Christians, who since the Early Church have used wine in their celebration of the Eucharist. Views on the significance of the wine vary between denominations. In Christian art, grapes often represent the blood of Christ, such as the grape leaves in Caravaggio’s John the Baptist.
The Catholic Church uses wine in the celebration of the Eucharist because it is part of the tradition passed down through the ages starting with Jesus Christ at the Last Supper, where Catholics believe the consecrated bread and wine literally become the body and blood of Jesus Christ, a dogma known as transsubstantiation. Wine is used (not grape juice) both due to its strong Scriptural roots, and also to follow the Tradition set by the early Christian Church. The Code of Canon Law of the Catholic Church (1983), Canon 924 says that the wine used must be natural, made from grapes of the vine, and not corrupt. In some circumstances, a priest may obtain special permission to use grape juice for the consecration, however this is extremely rare and typically requires sufficient impetus to warrant such a dispensation, such as personal health of the priest.
Although alcohol is permitted in Judaism, grape juice is sometimes used as an alternative for kiddush on Shabbat and Jewish holidays and it has the same blessing as wine. Many authorities maintain that grape juice must be capable of turning into wine naturally in order to be used for kiddush. Common practice, however, is to use any kosher grape juice for kiddush.
Vineyard in the Troodos Mountains
|Look up grape in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
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