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definitions - Grape

grape (n.)

1.any of numerous woody vines of genus Vitis bearing clusters of edible berries

2.a cluster of small projectiles fired together from a cannon to produce a hail of shot

3.(biology)any of various juicy fruit of the genus Vitis with green or purple skins; grow in clusters

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Merriam Webster

GrapeGrape (?), n. [OF. grape, crape, bunch or cluster of grapes, F. grappe, akin to F. grappin grapnel, hook; fr. OHG. chrapfo hook, G. krapfen, akin to E. cramp. The sense seems to have come from the idea of clutching. Cf. Agraffe, Cramp, Grapnel, Grapple.]
1. (Bot.) A well-known edible berry growing in pendent clusters or bunches on the grapevine. The berries are smooth-skinned, have a juicy pulp, and are cultivated in great quantities for table use and for making wine and raisins.

2. (Bot.) The plant which bears this fruit; the grapevine.

3. (Man.) A mangy tumor on the leg of a horse.

4. (Mil.) Grapeshot.

Grape borer. (Zoöl.) See Vine borer. -- Grape curculio (Zoöl.), a minute black weevil (Craponius inæqualis) which in the larval state eats the interior of grapes. -- Grape flower, or Grape hyacinth (Bot.), a liliaceous plant (Muscari racemosum) with small blue globular flowers in a dense raceme. -- Grape fungus (Bot.), a fungus (Oidium Tuckeri) on grapevines; vine mildew. -- Grape hopper (Zoöl.), a small yellow and red hemipterous insect, often very injurious to the leaves of the grapevine. -- Grape moth (Zoöl.), a small moth (Eudemis botrana), which in the larval state eats the interior of grapes, and often binds them together with silk. -- Grape of a cannon, the cascabel or knob at the breech. -- Grape sugar. See Glucose. -- Grape worm (Zoöl.), the larva of the grape moth. -- Sour grapes, things which persons affect to despise because they can not possess them; -- in allusion to Æsop's fable of the fox and the grapes.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Grape

grape (n.) (biology)


see also - Grape


-Agawam (grape) • Albana (grape) • Albarello (grape) • Alexander grape • Almeria grape • Aramon (grape) • Arbois (grape) • Argaman (grape) • Aurore (grape) • BBCH-scale (grape) • Bacchus (grape) • Baga (grape) • Baroque (grape) • Bastardo (grape) • Bear grape • Bears grape • Beta (grape) • Black Grape • Black rose (grape) • Black rot (grape) • Blossomberry Grape • Bouvier (grape) • Bronner (grape) • Burger (grape) • Burmese grape • Canopy (grape) • Cardinal (grape) • Carnelian (grape) • Cassady grape • Catawba (grape) • Chancellor (grape) • Chilean grape scare • Clinton (grape) • Compact Grape-hyacinth • Completer (grape) • Concord (grape) • Coronation (grape) • Creeping Oregon-grape • César (grape) • Debina (grape) • Delano grape strike • Delaware (grape) • Dinka (grape) • Domina (grape) • Duras (grape) • Edelweiss (grape) • Favorita (grape) • Fiano (grape) • Fie (grape) • Flame Seedless grape • Flora (grape) • Frankish and Hunnic grape varieties • From the Vine Came the Grape • Frontenac (grape) • Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute • Goethe (grape) • Grape (disambiguation) • Grape Ape • Grape Creek Independent School District • Grape Creek, Texas • Grape Fruit • Grape Island • Grape Island (Essex County, Massachusetts) • Grape Island (Massachusetts) • Grape Island (West Virginia) • Grape Vine • Grape and raisin toxicity in dogs • Grape arbor (hieroglyph) • Grape festival • Grape hyacinth • Grape island, Ipswich • Grape juice • Grape leaf • Grape leaves • Grape pie • Grape seed extract • Grape seed oil • Grape tomato • Grape varieties • Grape variety • Grape-Nuts • Great Grape • Greco (grape) • Grolleau (grape) • Herbert (grape) • Hermitage (grape) • Hermitage (grape) (disambiguation) • I Heard It Through the Grape Vine • Indifference (Moby Grape song) • International Grape Genome Program • Isabella (grape) • Jaén (grape) • Jaén tinto (grape) • Juan García (grape) • Kabar (grape) • Kerner (grape) • Khader Grape Festival • Kyoho grape • La Crosse (grape) • Legendary Grape • List of Portuguese grape varieties • List of grape diseases • List of grape varieties • Listen My Friends! The Best of Moby Grape • Live Grape • Massasoit (grape) • Mauzac (grape) • Mission (grape) • Moby Grape • Moby Grape '69 • Moby Grape '84 • Moby Grape (album) • Molinara (grape) • Monica (grape) • Mourisco (grape) • Muscat (grape and wine) • Namibian grape • Naples Grape Festival • Niagara (grape) • Noah (grape) • Non-grape based wine • Non-grape wine • Norton (grape) • Onaka (grape) • Optima (grape) • Oregon-grape • Orion (grape) • Orléans (grape) • Ortega (grape) • Palomino (grape) • Pecorino (grape) • Perle (grape) • Phoenix (grape) • Pignolo (grape) • Pinotage grape • Red Globe grape • Red Grape Records • Regent (grape) • Requa (grape) • Reverend Black Grape • Romain (grape) • Rondo (grape) • Rosette (grape) • Ruby Roman grape • Sacy (grape) • Salvador (grape) • Sea Grape • Sea grape • Sea grape (plant) • Severny (grape) • Solaris (grape) • St. Laurent (grape) • St. Pepin (grape) • Strum (grape) • Sultana (grape) • Swenson Red grape • Symphony (grape) • Table grape • Temple Emanuel (Grape Street, Denver, Colorado) • The Grape Escape • The Great Grape Ape Show • The grape merchant • Tree grape • Vignoles (grape) • What's Eating Gilbert Grape • White grape • White-grape • Wild grape • Wow/Grape Jam

analogical dictionary


grape (n.) [biology]



  "White" table grapes
Grapes, purple or green
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 288 kJ (69 kcal)
Carbohydrates 18.1 g
- Sugars 15.48 g
- Dietary fiber 0.9 g
Fat 0.0 g
Protein 0.72 g
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.069 mg (6%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.07 mg (6%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.188 mg (1%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.05 mg (1%)
Vitamin B6 0.086 mg (7%)
Folate (vit. B9) 2 μg (1%)
Vitamin B12 0 μg (0%)
Vitamin C 10.8 mg (13%)
Vitamin K 22 μg (21%)
Calcium 10 mg (1%)
Iron 0.36 mg (3%)
Magnesium 7 mg (2%)
Manganese 0.071 mg (3%)
Phosphorus 20 mg (3%)
Potassium 191 mg (4%)
Sodium 3.02 mg (0%)
Zinc 0.07 mg (1%)
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus described as Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making jam, juice, jelly, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.



The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East.[1] Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. First traces of red wine are seen in ancient Armenia where apparently, to date, the oldest winery was found, dating to around 4,000 BCE. By the 9th century CE the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East. Thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production. The growing of grapes would later spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, and eventually in North America.

Native grapes belonging to various species of the Vitis genus proliferated in the wild across North America, and were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine, who imported vitis vinifera varieties for that purpose.


Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange, and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins which are responsible for the color of purple grapes.[2] Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.[3][4] Grapes are typically an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid.


  Yaquti Grapes production in 2008, Iran.

Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as:


Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. The juice is often sold in stores or fermented and made into wine, brandy, or vinegar. In the wine industry, grape juice that contains 7–23 percent of pulp, skins, stems and seeds is often referred to as "must". In North America, the most common grape juice is purple and made from Concord grapes while white grape juice is commonly made from Niagara grapes, both of which are varieties of native American grapes, a different species from European wine grapes. In California, Sultana (known there as Thompson Seedless) grapes are sometimes diverted from the raisin or table market to produce white juice.[5]

  Distribution and production

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 75,866 square kilometres of the world are dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year.

  Concord is a variety of North American labrusca grape

The following table of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making:

Country Area dedicated
Spain 11,750 km2
France 8,640 km2
Italy 8,270 km2
Turkey 8,120 km2
United States 4,150 km2
Iran 2,860 km2
Romania 2,480 km2
Portugal 2,160 km2
Argentina 2,080 km2
Chile 1,840 km2
Australia 1,642 km2
Armenia 1,459 km2
Lebanon 1,122 km2

World production of grape and some of the important producers

Country Production: Tonnes in 2009 Footnote Production: Tonnes in 2010 (Footnote) Importance in World production in 2010
Italy 8,242,500 7,787,800 11.40%
China 8,039,091 8,651,831 12.67%
United States 6,629,160 6,220,360 9.11%
France 6,104,340 5,848,960 8.56%
Spain 5,573,400 6,107,200 8.94%
Turkey 4,264,720 4,255,000 6.23%
Iran 2,255,670 2,255,670 3.30%
Argentina 2,181,570 2,616,610 3.83%
Chile 2,500,000 F 2,755,700 (Im) 4.03%
India 1,878,000 2,263,100 (Im) 3.31%
World 67,901,744 | A 68,311,466 (A) | 100%
No symbol = official figure, A = May include official, semi-official or estimated data | F = FAO estimate | Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology;

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division

There are no reliable statistics that break down grape production by variety. It is believed that the most widely planted variety is Sultana, also known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2. (880,000 acres) dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Grenache, Tempranillo, Riesling and Chardonnay.[6]

  Table and wine grapes

  Wine grapes on the vine

Commercially cultivated grapes can usually be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw (table grapes) or used to make wine (wine grapes). While almost all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera, table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit (see below) with relatively thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a desirable characteristic in winemaking, since much of the aroma in wine comes from the skin). Wine grapes also tend to be very sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is approximately 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes is usually around 15% sugar by weight.[7]

  Seedless grapes

Although grape seeds contain many nutrients, some consumers choose seedless grapes; seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques.

There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario.[8]

An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds (see Health claims, below).[9][10]

  Raisins, currants and sultanas

In most of Europe, dried grapes are referred to as "raisins" or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents.

A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (from which the English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins).

A currant is a dried Zante Black Corinth grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Currant has also come to refer to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes.

A sultana was originally a raisin made from Sultana grapes of Turkish origin (known as Thompson Seedless in the United States), but the word is now applied to raisins made from either white grapes, or red grapes which are bleached to resemble the traditional sultana.

  Health claims

  French Paradox

Comparing diets among Western countries, researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, the incidence of heart disease remains low in France. This phenomenon has been termed the French Paradox, and is thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself, including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation,[11] polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits, such as:[12]

Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities,[13] a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption, such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men, may confer health benefits.[14][15][16] Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol[17] provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.[18]


Grape phytochemicals such as resveratrol (a polyphenol antioxidant), have been positively linked to inhibiting any cancer, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease, viral infections and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease.[19][20]

Protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol.[21] In laboratory studies, resveratrol bears a significant transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging, and prevent age-related heart failure.[22]

Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials,[23] among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.[24]

Synthesized by many plants, resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets.[25]

Resveratrol is found in wide amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds which, in muscadine grapes, have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp.[26] Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.[27]

  Anthocyanins and other phenolics

Anatomical-style diagram of three grapes on their stalks. Two of the grapes are shown in cross-section with all their internal parts labelled.
  Grape cross-section

Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (i.e. catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties.[28] Total phenolic content, a laboratory index of antioxidant strength, is higher in purple varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in purple grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin.[28] It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health.[29] Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar, soil composition, climate, geographic origin, and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases, such as fungal infections.

Red wine may offer health benefits more so than white because potentially beneficial compounds are present in grape skin, and only red wine is fermented with skins. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content.[30] Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/L,[31] depending on the grape variety, because it is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol. By contrast, a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins.

Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L, an exceptional phenolic content.[26][32] In muscadine skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics.[33] Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes.

The flavonols syringetin, syringetin 3-O-galactoside, laricitrin and laricitrin 3-O-galactoside are also found in purple grape but absent in white grape.[34]

  Seed constituents

Since the 1980s, biochemical and medical studies have demonstrated significant antioxidant properties of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins.[35] Together with tannins, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, these seed constituents display inhibitory activities against several experimental disease models, including cancer, heart failure and other disorders of oxidative stress.[36][37]

Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for many perceived health benefits. Grape seed oil is notable for its high contents of tocopherols (vitamin E), phytosterols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.[38][39][40]

  Concord grape juice

Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies, showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer,[41] platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis,[42] loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging[43] and hypertension in humans.[44]

  Grape toxicity in dogs

Grapes can cause renal failure in dogs. See the main article on grape and raisin toxicity in dogs.

  Religious significance

In the Bible, grapes are first mentioned when Noah grows them on his farm (Genesis 9:20–21). Instructions concerning wine are given in the book of Proverbs and in the book of Isaiah, such as in Proverbs 20:1 and Isaiah 5:20–25. Deuteronomy 18:3–5,14:22-27,16:13-15 tell of the use of wine during Jewish feasts. Grapes were also significant to both the Greeks and Romans, and their God of agriculture, Dionysus, was linked to grapes and wine, being frequently portrayed with grape leaves on his head.[45] Grapes are especially significant for Christians, who since the Early Church have used wine in their celebration of the Eucharist.[46] Views on the significance of the wine vary between denominations. In Christian art, grapes often represent the blood of Christ, such as the grape leaves in Caravaggio’s John the Baptist.

  Use in religion

Grape juice, because of its non-alcoholic content, is commonly used by those Christians who oppose the partaking of alcoholic beverages, as the "cup" or "wine" in the Lord's Supper.[47]

The Catholic Church uses wine in the celebration of the Eucharist because it is part of the tradition passed down through the ages starting with Jesus Christ at the Last Supper, where Catholics believe the consecrated bread and wine literally become the body and blood of Jesus Christ, a dogma known as transsubstantiation.[48] Wine is used (not grape juice) both due to its strong Scriptural roots, and also to follow the Tradition set by the early Christian Church.[49] The Code of Canon Law of the Catholic Church (1983), Canon 924 says that the wine used must be natural, made from grapes of the vine, and not corrupt.[50] In some circumstances, a priest may obtain special permission to use grape juice for the consecration, however this is extremely rare and typically requires sufficient impetus to warrant such a dispensation, such as personal health of the priest.

Although alcohol is permitted in Judaism, grape juice is sometimes used as an alternative for kiddush on Shabbat and Jewish holidays and it has the same blessing as wine. Many authorities maintain that grape juice must be capable of turning into wine naturally in order to be used for kiddush. Common practice, however, is to use any kosher grape juice for kiddush.


  See also


  1. ^ Patrice This, Thierry Lacombe, Mark R. Thomash. "Historical Origins and Genetic Diversity of Wine Grapes". Trends in Genetics 22 (8). http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~ballardh/pbio480/thisetal2006-winegrapegeneticdiversity.pdf. 
  2. ^ Walker AR, Lee E, Bogs J, McDavid DA, Thomas MR, Robinson SP (2007). "White grapes arose through the mutation of two similar and adjacent regulatory genes". Plant J 49 (5): 772–85. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02997.x. PMID 17316172. 
  3. ^ Waterhouse AL (2002). "Wine phenolics". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 957: 21–36. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb02903.x. PMID 12074959. 
  4. ^ Brouillard R, Chassaing S, Fougerousse A (2003). "Why are grape/fresh wine anthocyanins so simple and why is it that red wine color lasts so long?". Phytochemistry 64 (7): 1179–86. DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00518-1. PMID 14599515. 
  5. ^ "Thompson Seedless Grape Juice". sweetwatercellars.com. http://www.sweetwatercellars.com/thompsonseedless.html. 
  6. ^ "The most widely planted grape in the world". http://www.freshplaza.com/news_detail.asp?id=29614. 
  7. ^ "Wine Grapes and Grape-y Wines". http://www.wineloverspage.com/dibbern/grapetaste07.phtml. Retrieved 03/07/2010. 
  8. ^ Reisch BI, Peterson DV, Martens M-H. "Seedless Grapes", in "Table Grape Varieties for Cool Climates", Information Bulletin 234, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, retrieved December 30, 2008
  9. ^ Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly JE, Kakuda Y (2003). "Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality". J Med Food 6 (4): 291–9. DOI:10.1089/109662003772519831. PMID 14977436. 
  10. ^ Parry, John; Su, Lan; Moore, Jeffrey; Cheng, Zhihong; Luther, Marla; Rao, Jaladanki N.; Wang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Liangli Lucy (2006). "Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (11): 3773–8. DOI:10.1021/jf060325k. PMID 16719495. 
  11. ^ Providência R (2006). "Cardiovascular protection from alcoholic drinks: scientific basis of the French Paradox" (Free full text). Rev Port Cardiol 25 (11): 1043–58. PMID 17274460. 
  12. ^ Opie, L. H.; Lecour, S. (2007). "The red wine hypothesis: from concepts to protective signalling molecules" (Free full text). Eur. Heart J. 28 (14): 1683–93. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm149. PMID 17561496. 
  13. ^ Alcohol, wine and cardiovascular disease. American Heart Association
  14. ^ Alcohol. Harvard School of Public Health
  15. ^ Mukamal, K. J.; Kennedy, M.; Cushman, M.; Kuller, L. H.; Newman, A. B.; Polak, J.; Criqui, M. H.; Siscovick, D. S. (2008). "Alcohol consumption and lower extremity arterial disease among older adults: the cardiovascular health study" (Free full text). Am. J. Epidemiol. 167 (1): 34–41. DOI:10.1093/aje/kwm274. PMID 17971339. 
  16. ^ de Lange DW, van de Wiel A (2004). "Drink to prevent: review on the cardioprotective mechanisms of alcohol and red wine polyphenols". Semin Vasc Med 4 (2): 173–86. DOI:10.1055/s-2004-835376. PMID 15478039. 
  17. ^ Das, S; Das, DK (2007). "Resveratrol: a therapeutic promise for cardiovascular diseases". Recent Patents Cardiovasc Drug Discov 2 (2): 133–8. DOI:10.2174/157489007780832560. PMID 18221111. 
  18. ^ Sato, Motoaki; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K. (2002). "Cardioprotection with alcohol: role of both alcohol and polyphenolic antioxidants". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 957: 122–35. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb02911.x. PMID 12074967. 
  19. ^ Shankar S, Singh G, Srivastava RK (2007). "Chemoprevention by resveratrol: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential". Front. Biosci. 12 (12): 4839–54. DOI:10.2741/2432. PMID 17569614. 
  20. ^ Mancuso, Cesare; Bates, Timothy E; Butterfield, D Allan; Calafato, Stella; Cornelius, Carolin; Lorenzo, Antonino De; Dinkova Kostova, Albena T; Calabrese, Vittorio (2007). "Natural antioxidants in Alzheimer's disease". Expert Opin Investig Drugs 16 (12): 1921–31. DOI:10.1517/13543784.16.12.1921. PMID 18042001. 
  21. ^ Gatz SA, Wiesmüller L (2008). "Take a break—resveratrol in action on DNA" (Free full text). Carcinogenesis 29 (2): 321–32. DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgm276. PMID 18174251. 
  22. ^ Barger, Jamie L.; Kayo, Tsuyoshi; Vann, James M.; Arias, Edward B.; Wang, Jelai; Hacker, Timothy A.; Wang, Ying; Raederstorff, Daniel et al. (2008). Tomé, Daniel. ed. "A Low Dose of Dietary Resveratrol Partially Mimics Caloric Restriction and Retards Aging Parameters in Mice" (Free full text). PLoS ONE 3 (6): e2264. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0002264. PMC 2386967. PMID 18523577. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2386967. 
  23. ^ "Listing of resveratrol clinical trials". US National Institutes of Health. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=resveratrol. 
  24. ^ "Randomized Trial of a Nutritional Supplement in Alzheimer's Disease". US Department of Veterans Affairs, Mount Sinai School of Medicine. May 2008. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00678431?term=resveratrol&rank=5. 
  25. ^ Chan, William K.; Delucchi, Anthony B. (2000). "Resveratrol, a red wine constituent, is a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450 3A4". Life Sci. 67 (25): 3103–12. DOI:10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00888-2. PMID 11125847. 
  26. ^ a b LeBlanc, MR (2005). "Cultivar, Juice Extraction, Ultra Violet Irradiation and Storage Influence the Stilbene Content of Muscadine Grapes (Vitis Rotundifolia Michx". PhD Dissertation. Louisiana State University. http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-01202006-082858/. 
  27. ^ Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Benhong; Wang, Lijun; Li, Shaohua (2006). "Extractable amounts of trans-resveratrol in seed and berry skin in Vitis evaluated at the germplasm level". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (23): 8804–11. DOI:10.1021/jf061722y. PMID 17090126. 
  28. ^ a b Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A. (2002). "Varietal differences among the polyphenol profiles of seven table grape cultivars studied by LC-DAD-MS-MS". J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (20): 5691–6. DOI:10.1021/jf0204102. PMID 12236700. 
  29. ^ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Presents Research from the 2007 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ACS Publications, February 2008
  30. ^ Resveratrol. Pennington Nutrition Series 2005 No. 7. pbrc.edu
  31. ^ Gu, Xuelin; Creasy, Le; Kester, April; Zeece, Michael (1999). "Capillary electrophoretic determination of resveratrol in wines". J. Agric. Food Chem. 47 (8): 3223–7. DOI:10.1021/jf981211e. PMID 10552635. 
  32. ^ Ector BJ, Magee JB, Hegwood CP, Coign MJ (1996). "Resveratrol Concentration in Muscadine Berries, Juice, Pomace, Purees, Seeds, and Wines". Am. J. Enol. Vitic 47 (1): 57–62. http://www.ajevonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/47/1/57. 
  33. ^ Pastrana-Bonilla, Eduardo; Akoh, Casimir C.; Sellappan, Subramani; Krewer, Gerard (2003). "Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine grapes". J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (18): 5497–503. DOI:10.1021/jf030113c. PMID 12926904. 
  34. ^ Fulvio Mattivi, Raffaele Guzzon, Urska Vrhovsek, Marco Stefanini and Riccardo Velasco (2006). "Metabolite Profiling of Grape: Flavonols and Anthocyanins". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (20): 7692–702. DOI:10.1021/jf061538c. PMID 17002441. 
  35. ^ Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Stohs, Sidney J; Das, Dipak K; Ray, Sidhartha D; Kuszynski, Charles A; Joshi, Shantaram S; Pruess, Harry G (2000). "Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention". Toxicology 148 (2–3): 187–97. DOI:10.1016/S0300-483X(00)00210-9. PMID 10962138. 
  36. ^ Agarwal, C.; Singh, RP; Agarwal, R (2002). "Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release". Carcinogenesis 23 (11): 1869–76. DOI:10.1093/carcin/23.11.1869. PMID 12419835. 
  37. ^ Bagchi, Debasis; Sen, Chandan K; Ray, Sidhartha D; Das, Dipak K; Bagchi, Manashi; Preuss, Harry G; Vinson, Joe A (2003). "Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Mutat. Res. 523–524: 87–97. DOI:10.1016/S0027-5107(02)00324-X. PMID 12628506. 
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  39. ^ Crews, Colin; Hough, Patrick; Godward, John; Brereton, Paul; Lees, Michelle; Guiet, Sebastien; Winkelmann, Wilfried (2006). "Quantitation of the main constituents of some authentic grape-seed oils of different origin". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (17): 6261–5. DOI:10.1021/jf060338y. PMID 16910717. 
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  45. ^ Grape Leaf Significance. Garden Guides. Retrieved on 2012-05-28.
  46. ^ Justin Martyr, First Apology, "Chapter LXV. Administration of the sacraments" and "Chapter LXVII. Weekly worship of the Christians".
  47. ^ "Why do most Methodist churches serve grape juice instead of wine for Holy Communion?". The United Methodist Church. http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1339. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  48. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1413". Vatican.va. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P44.HTM. Retrieved 2012-02-01. 
  49. ^ "The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist". Newadvent.org. 1909-05-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05573a.htm. Retrieved 2012-02-01. 
  50. ^ "Altar wine, Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. 1907-03-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01358a.htm. Retrieved 2012-02-01. 

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