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definitions - Guglielmo_Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi (n.)

1.Italian electrical engineer who invented wireless telegraphy and in 1901 transmitted radio signals across the Atlantic Ocean (1874-1937)

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Guglielmo Marconi (n.)

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Guglielmo Marconi (n.)


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Guglielmo Marconi

                   
Guglielmo Marconi
Born (1874-04-25)25 April 1874
Palazzo Marescalchi, Bologna, Italy
Died 20 July 1937(1937-07-20) (aged 63)
Rome, Italy
Alma mater University of Bologna
Known for Radio
Notable awards Nobel Prize for Physics (1909)
Signature

Guglielmo Marconi (Italian pronunciation: [ɡuʎˈʎɛːlmo marˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, known as the father of long distance radio transmission[1] and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and indeed he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".[2][3][4] Much of Marconi's work in radio transmission was built upon previous experimentation[5] and the commercial exploitation of ideas by others such as Hertz, Maxwell, Faraday, Popov, Lodge, Fessenden, Stone, Bose, and Tesla. As an entrepreneur, businessman, and founder of the The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in Britain in 1897, Marconi succeeded in making a commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists.[6][7] In 1924, he was ennobled as Marchese Marconi. Back in Italy, he went on to become a member of the Grand Council of Fascism.

Contents

  Biography

  Early years

Marconi was born in Bologna on April 25, 1874, the second son of Giuseppe Marconi, an Italian landowner, and his Irish wife, Annie Jameson, daughter of Andrew Jameson of Daphne Castle in the County Wexford, Ireland and granddaughter of John Jameson, founder of whiskey distillers Jameson & Sons. Marconi was educated privately in Bologna in the lab of Augusto Righi, in Florence at the Istituto Cavallero and, later, in Livorno. As a child Marconi did not do well in school.[8] Baptized as a Catholic, he was also a member of the Anglican Church, being married into it; however, he still received a Catholic annulment.

  Radio work

During his early years, Marconi had an interest in science and electricity. One of the scientific developments during this era came from Heinrich Hertz, who, beginning in 1888, demonstrated that one could produce and detect electromagnetic radiation—now generally known as radio waves, at the time more commonly called "Hertzian waves" or "aetheric waves". Hertz's death in 1894 brought published reviews of his earlier discoveries, and a renewed interest on the part of Marconi. He was permitted to briefly study the subject under Augusto Righi, a University of Bologna physicist and neighbour of Marconi who had done research on Hertz's work.

  Early experimental devices

Marconi began to conduct experiments, building much of his own equipment in the attic of his home at the Villa Griffone in Pontecchio, Italy, with the help of his butler Mignani. His goal was to use radio waves to create a practical system of "wireless telegraphy"—i.e. the transmission of telegraph messages without connecting wires as used by the electric telegraph. This was not a new idea—numerous investigators had been exploring wireless telegraph technologies for over 50 years, but none had proven technically and commercially successful. Marconi's system had the following components:[9]

  • A relatively simple oscillator, or spark-producing radio transmitter.
  • A wire or capacity area placed at a height above the ground;
  • A coherer receiver, which was a modification of Edouard Branly's original device, with refinements to increase sensitivity and reliability;
  • A telegraph key to operate the transmitter to send short and long pulses, corresponding to the dots-and-dashes of Morse code; and
  • A telegraph register, activated by the coherer, which recorded the received Morse code dots and dashes onto a roll of paper tape.

Similar configurations using spark-gap transmitters plus coherer-receivers had been tried by others, but many were unable to achieve transmission ranges of more than a few hundred metres.

Marconi, just twenty years old, began his first experiments working on his own with the help of his butler Mignani. In the summer of 1894, he built a storm alarm made up of a battery, a coherer, and an electric bell, which went off if there was lightning. Soon after he was able to make a bell ring on the other side of the room by pushing a telegraphic button on a bench.[10]

One night in December, Guglielmo woke his mother up and invited her into his secret workshop and showed her the experiment he had created. The next day he also showed his father, who, when he was certain there were no wires, gave his son all of the money he had in his wallet so Guglielmo could buy more materials. In the summer of 1895 he moved his experimentation outdoors. After increasing the length of the transmitter and receiver antennas, and arranging them vertically, and positioning the antenna so that it touched the ground, the range increased significantly.[11] Soon he was able to transmit signals over a hill, a distance of approximately 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi).[12] By this point he concluded that with additional funding and research, a device could become capable of spanning greater distances and would prove valuable both commercially and militarily.

Marconi wrote to the ministry of Post and Telegraphs, which at the time was under the direction of the honorable Pietro Lacava, explaining his wireless telegraph machine and asking for funding. He never received a response to his letter which was eventually dismissed by the minister who wrote "to the Longara" on the document, referring to the insane asylum on via della Lungara in Rome.[13] In 1896, Marconi spoke with his family friend Carlo Gardini, the United States consulate in Bologna, about leaving Italy to go to England. Gardini wrote a letter to the Ambassador of Italy in London, Annibale Ferrero, explaining who Marconi was and about this extraordinary discoveries. In his response, ambassador Ferrero advised them not to reveal the results until after they had obtained the copyrights. He also encouraged him to come to England where he believed it would be easier to find the necessary funds to convert the findings from Marconi's experiment into a practical use. Finding little interest in his work in Italy, in early 1896 at the age of 21, Marconi traveled to London, accompanied by his mother, to seek support for his work; Marconi spoke fluent English in addition to Italian. While there, he gained the interest and support of William Preece, the Chief Electrical Engineer of the British Post Office. The apparatus that Marconi possessed at that time was similar to that of one in 1882 by A. E. Dolbear, of Tufts College, which used a spark coil generator and a carbon granular rectifier for reception.[14] A plaque[15] on the outside of BT Centre commemorates Marconi's first public transmission of wireless signals from that site.[16] A series of demonstrations for the British government followed—by March 1897, Marconi had transmitted Morse code signals over a distance of about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) across the Salisbury Plain. On 13 May 1897, Marconi sent the first ever wireless communication over open sea. It transversed the Bristol Channel from Lavernock Point (South Wales) to Flat Holm Island, a distance of 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). The message read "Are you ready".[17] The receiving equipment was almost immediately relocated to Brean Down Fort on the Somerset coast, stretching the range to 16 kilometres (9.9 mi).

Impressed by these and other demonstrations, Preece introduced Marconi's ongoing work to the general public at two important London lectures: "Telegraphy without Wires", at the Toynbee Hall on 11 December 1896; and "Signaling through Space without Wires", given to the Royal Institution on 4 June 1897.

Numerous additional demonstrations followed, and Marconi began to receive international attention. In July 1897, he carried out a series of tests at La Spezia in his home country, for the Italian government. A test for Lloyds between Ballycastle and Rathlin Island, Ireland, was conducted on 6 July 1898. The English channel was crossed on 27 March 1899, from Wimereux, France to South Foreland Lighthouse, England, and in the autumn of 1899, the first demonstrations in the United States took place, with the reporting of the America's Cup international yacht races at New York.

Marconi sailed to the United States at the invitation of the New York Herald newspaper to cover the America's Cup races off Sandy Hook, NJ. The transmission was done aboard the SS Ponce, a passenger ship of the Porto Rico Line.[18] Marconi left for England on 8 November 1899 on the American Line's SS St. Paul, and he and his assistants installed wireless equipment aboard during the voyage. On 15 November the St. Paul became the first ocean liner to report her imminent arrival by wireless when Marconi's Needles station contacted her sixty-six nautical miles off the English coast.

  Transatlantic transmissions

  Marconi watching associates raising the kite (a "Levitor" by B.F.S. Baden-Powell[19]) used to lift the antenna at St. John's, Newfoundland, December 1901
See if you can hear anything, Mr. Kemp![20]

Around the turn of the 19th to 20th century, Marconi began investigating the means to signal completely across the Atlantic, in order to compete with the transatlantic telegraph cables. Marconi established a wireless transmitting station at Marconi House, Rosslare Strand, Co. Wexford in 1901 to act as a link between Poldhu in Cornwall and Clifden in Co. Galway. He soon made the announcement that on 12 December 1901, using a 152.4-metre (500 ft) kite-supported antenna for reception, the message was received at Signal Hill in St John's, Newfoundland (now part of Canada) signals transmitted by the company's new high-power station at Poldhu, Cornwall. The distance between the two points was about 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi). Heralded as a great scientific advance, there was—and continues to be—some skepticism about this claim, partly because the signals had been heard faintly and sporadically. There was no independent confirmation of the reported reception, and the transmissions, consisting of the Morse code letter S sent repeatedly, were difficult to distinguish from atmospheric noise. (A detailed technical review of Marconi's early transatlantic work appears in John S. Belrose's work of 1995.)[21] The Poldhu transmitter was a two-stage circuit.[22][23] The first stage operated at lower voltage and provided the energy for the second stage to spark at a higher voltage. Nikola Tesla, a rival in transatlantic transmission, stated after being told of Marconi's reported transmission that "Marconi [... was] using seventeen of my patents."[24][25]

  Marconi operating apparatus similar to that used by him to transmit first wireless signal across Atlantic, 1901.

Feeling challenged by skeptics, Marconi prepared a better organized and documented test. In February 1902, the SS Philadelphia sailed west from Great Britain with Marconi aboard, carefully recording signals sent daily from the Poldhu station. The test results produced coherer-tape reception up to 2,496 kilometres (1,551 mi), and audio reception up to 3,378 kilometres (2,099 mi). The maximum distances were achieved at night, and these tests were the first to show that for mediumwave and longwave transmissions, radio signals travel much farther at night than in the day. During the daytime, signals had only been received up to about 1,125 kilometres (699 mi), less than half of the distance claimed earlier at Newfoundland, where the transmissions had also taken place during the day. Because of this, Marconi had not fully confirmed the Newfoundland claims, although he did prove that radio signals could be sent for hundreds of kilometres, despite some scientists' belief they were essentially limited to line-of-sight distances.

On 17 December 1902, a transmission from the Marconi station in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, became the first radio message to cross the Atlantic from North America. In 1901, Marconi built a station near South Wellfleet, Massachusetts that on January 18, 1903 sent a message of greetings from Theodore Roosevelt, the President of the United States, to King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, marking the first transatlantic radio transmission originating in the United States. This station also was one of the first to receive the distress signals coming from the RMS Titanic. However, consistent transatlantic signalling was difficult to establish.

Marconi began to build high-powered stations on both sides of the Atlantic to communicate with ships at sea, in competition with other inventors. In 1904 a commercial service was established to transmit nightly news summaries to subscribing ships, which could incorporate them into their on-board newspapers. A regular transatlantic radio-telegraph service was finally begun on 17 October 1907[26] between Clifden Ireland and Glace Bay, but even after this the company struggled for many years to provide reliable communication.

  Titanic

The two radio operators aboard the TitanicJack Phillips and Harold Bride—were not employed by the White Star Line, but by the Marconi International Marine Communication Company. Following the sinking of the ocean liner, survivors were rescued by the RMS Carpathia of the Cunard Line.[27] Also employed by the Marconi Company was David Sarnoff, the only person to receive the names of survivors immediately after the disaster via wireless technology. Wireless communications were reportedly maintained for 72 hours between the Carpathia and Sarnoff,[28] but Sarnoff's involvement has been questioned by some modern historians. When the Carpathia docked in New York, Marconi went aboard with a reporter from The New York Times to talk with Bride, the surviving operator.[27] On 18 June 1912, Marconi gave evidence to the Court of Inquiry into the loss of the Titanic regarding the marine telegraphy's functions and the procedures for emergencies at sea.[29] Britain's postmaster-general summed up, referring to the Titanic disaster, "Those who have been saved, have been saved through one man, Mr. Marconi...and his marvelous invention."

  Continuing work

Have I done the world good, or have I added a menace?[30]

Over the years, the Marconi companies gained a reputation for being technically conservative, in particular by continuing to use inefficient spark-transmitter technology, which could only be used for radiotelegraph operations, long after it was apparent that the future of radio communication lay with continuous-wave transmissions, which were more efficient and could be used for audio transmissions. Somewhat belatedly, the company did begin significant work with continuous-wave equipment beginning in 1915, after the introduction of the oscillating vacuum tube (valve). In 1920, employing a vacuum tube transmitter, the Chelmsford Marconi factory was the location for the first entertainment radio broadcasts in the United Kingdom—one of these featured Dame Nellie Melba. In 1922 regular entertainment broadcasts commenced from the Marconi Research Centre at Writtle.

  Later years

In 1914 Marconi was made a Senator in the Italian Senate and appointed Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order in the UK. During World War I, Italy joined the Allied side of the conflict, and Marconi was placed in charge of the Italian military's radio service. He attained the rank of lieutenant in the Italian Army and of commander in the Italian Navy. In 1924, he was made a marquess by King Victor Emmanuel III.

Marconi joined the Italian Fascist party in 1923. In 1930, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini appointed him President of the Royal Academy of Italy, which made Marconi a member of the Fascist Grand Council.

Marconi died in Rome in 1937 at age 63 following a series of heart attacks, and Italy held a state funeral for him. As a tribute, all radio stations throughout the world observed two minutes of silence. His remains are housed in the Villa Griffone at Sasso Marconi, Emilia-Romagna, which assumed that name in his honour in 1938.

  Personal life

  American electrical engineer Alfred Norton Goldsmith and Marconi on 26 June 1922.

Marconi had a brother, Alfonso, and a stepbrother, Luigi. On 16 March 1905, Marconi married the Hon. Beatrice O'Brien (1882–1976), a daughter of Edward Donough O'Brien, 14th Baron Inchiquin. They had three daughters, Degna (1908–1998), Gioia (1916–1996), and Lucia (born and died 1906), and a son, Giulio, 2nd Marchese Marconi (1910–1971). The Marconis divorced in 1924, and, at Marconi's request, the marriage was annulled on 27 April 1927, so he could remarry.[31] Beatrice Marconi married her second husband, Liborio Marignoli, Marchese di Montecorona, on 3 March 1924 and had a daughter, Flaminia.[32]

On 12 June 1927 (religious 15 June), Marconi married Maria Cristina Bezzi-Scali (1900—1994), only daughter of Francesco, Count Bezzi-Scali. Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini was Marconi's best man at the wedding.[33][34] They had one daughter, Maria Elettra Elena Anna (born 1930), who married Prince Carlo Giovannelli (born 1942) in 1966; they later divorced.

For unexplained reasons, Marconi left his entire fortune to his second wife and their only child, and nothing to the children of his first marriage.[35]

Later in life, Marconi was an active Italian Fascist[36] and an apologist for their ideology and actions such as the attack by Italian forces in Ethiopia.

Marconi wanted to personally introduce in 1931 the first radio broadcast of a Pope, Pius XI, announcing at the microphone: "With the help of God, who places so many mysterious forces of nature at man's disposal, I have been able to prepare this instrument which will give to the faithful of the entire world the joy of listening to the voice of the Holy Father".[37]

  Legacy and honours

  Honours and awards

  • In 1909, Marconi shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Braun for his contributions to radio communications.[2]
  • In 1918, he was awarded the Franklin Institute's Franklin Medal.
  • In 1924, he was made a marquess by King Victor Emmanuel III., thus becoming Marchese Marconi.
  • In 1977, Marconi was inducted into the National Broadcasters Hall of Fame.[38]
  • In 1988, the Radio Hall of Fame (Museum of Broadcast Communications, Chicago) inducted Marconi as a Pioneer (soon after the inception of its awards).[39]
  • In 2001, Britain released a commemorative British two pound coin celebrating the 100th anniversary of Marconi's first wireless communication.
  • Marconi's early experiments in wireless telegraphy were the subject of two IEEE Milestones; one in Switzerland in 2003[40] and most recently in Italy in 2011.[41]
  • In 2009, Italy issued a commemorative silver 5 EURO coin honouring the centennial of Marconi's Nobel Prize.
  • In 2009, he was inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame.[42]
  • The Dutch radio academy bestows the Marconi Awards annually for outstanding radio programmes, presenters and stations.[citation needed]
  • The National Association of Broadcasters (US) bestows the annual NAB Marconi Radio Awards also for outstanding radio programs and stations.

  Tributes

  • A funerary monument to the effigy of Marconi can be seen in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence but his remains are in Sasso, near Bologna.
  • A sculpture devoted to Marconi resides in Washington, D.C.
  • The premier collection of Marconi artifacts was held by The General Electric Company, p.l.c. (GEC) of the United Kingdom which later renamed to Marconi plc and Marconi Corporation plc. In December 2004 the extensive Marconi Collection, held at the former Marconi Research Centre at Great Baddow, Chelmsford, Essex UK was gifted to the Nation by the Company via the University of Oxford. This consisted of the BAFTA award-winning MarconiCalling website, some 250+ physical artifacts and the massive ephemera collection of papers, books, patents and many other items. The artifacts are now held by The Museum of the History of Science and the ephemera Archives by the nearby Bodleian Library. The latest release, following three years work at the Bodleian, is the Online Catalogue to the Marconi Archives, released in November 2008.
  • The Bermuda rig, developed in the 17th century by Bermudians, became ubiquitous on sailboats around the world in the 20th century. The tall masts and triangular fore-and-aft sails reminded some people of Marconi's wireless towers, hence the rig became known also as the Marconi rig.
  • Ira Gershwin's lyrics to "They All Laughed" include the line, "They told Marconi wireless was a phony."
  • The band Jefferson Starship references him in their song "We Built This City", which lyrics state: "Marconi plays the mamba, listen to the radio".
  • The band Tesla references him in the lyrics to "Edison's Medicine": They'll sell you on Marconi, familiar, but a phony."
  • The 1955 play Inherit the Wind by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee includes a reference to Marconi in scene 1.
  • The 1979 play 'The Man From Mukinupin' by Dorothy Hewett makes several references to Marconi by the character The Flasher, who imagines he is communicating with Marconi through a box of matches. "Marconi the great one, speak to me!", "Marconi, Marconi, must I kill?" and "Marconi says I must not frighten the ladies..."
  Guglielmo Marconi Memorial in Washington, D.C.

  Places and organizations named after Marconi

  Asia

  People's Republic of China

  Europe

  Ireland
  • Marconi Park, Ballycastle
  Italy
  • Guglielmo Marconi Airport (IATA: BLQ – ICAO: LIPE), of Bologna, Italy, is named after Marconi, its native son.
  • "Guglielmo Marconi" University in Rome, Italy.(Università degli Studi "Guglielmo Marconi" di Roma).
  • Via Guglielmo Marconi in virtually all Italian towns and villages
United Kingdom

  Middle East

  Israel
  • Marconi Street in the city of Haifa.

  Oceania

  Australia

  North America

  Canada
  Mexico
  • Guillermo Marconi Street, in Mexico City.
  United States
  California
  • Marconi Conference Center and State Historic Park, Marshall, California. Site of the transoceanic Marshall Receiving Station.
  • Marconi monument at Fulton intersection, Sacramento, CA
  • Marconi Avenue in Sacramento, California.
  • Marconi memorial statue on Telegraph Hill, San Francisco
  Massachusetts
  Missouri
  New Jersey
  New York
  • Marconiville section of the town of Copiague
  • La Scuola D'Italia on New York City's Upper East Side
  • Marconi Boulevard in Rocky Point, New York; his original radio shack is found along that road at the Frank J. Carasiti Elementary School in Rocky Point.
  • Marconi Avenue in Ronkonkoma, New York.
  Ohio
  Pennsylvania
  Rhode Island
  • Piazza Guglielmo Marconi, northeast sector of the intersection of Atwood Avenue and Plainfield Street, Johnston, Rhode Island[44]

  Patents

  British patents

  • British patent No. 12,039, Date of Application 2 June 1896; Complete Specification Left, 2 March 1897; Accepted, 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent)

  US patents

  Reissued (US)

  • U.S. Patent RE11,913 "Transmitting electrical impulses and signals and in apparatus, there-for". Filed 1 April 1901; Issued 4 June 1901.

  See also

  Notes

  1. ^ "Guglielmo Marconi – The father of long distance radio communication – An engineer's tribute". http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login.jsp?url=http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4137114/4137241/04137304.pdf%3Farnumber%3D4137304&authDecision=-203. 
  2. ^ a b "Guglielmo Marconi: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909"
  3. ^ "Welcome to IEEE Xplore 2.0: Sir J.C. Bose diode detector received Marconi's first transatlanticwireless signal of December 1901 (the "Italian Navy Coherer"Scandal Revisited)". Ieeexplore.ieee.org. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=658778. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  4. ^ Roy, Amit (2008-12-08). "Cambridge 'pioneer' honour for Bose". The Telegraph (Calcutta: Telegraphindia.com). http://www.telegraphindia.com/1081208/jsp/nation/story_10221833.jsp. Retrieved 2010-06-10. 
  5. ^ Williams, H. S., & Williams, E. H. (1910). Every-day science. New York: Goodhue Company. Page 54.
  6. ^ Icons of invention: the makers of the modern world from Gutenberg to Gates. ABC-CLIO. http://books.google.com/books?id=WKuG-VIwID8C&pg=PA161&dq=British+High+Court+upheld+patent+7777&hl=en&ei=8hc_TujkFubb0QGUvantAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 07-08-2011. 
  7. ^ Ingenious Ireland: A County-by-County Exploration of the Mysteries and Marvels of the Ingenious Irish. Simon and Schuster. http://books.google.com/books?id=exics12jmtwC&pg=PA313&dq=Marconi+successful+at+commercializing+radio&hl=en&ei=wTpATvudJ9OftgeNzMnFBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 07-08-2011. 
  8. ^ Robert McHenry, "Guglielmo Marconi," in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1993.
  9. ^ Marconi delineated his 1895 apparatus in his Nobel Award speech. See: Marconi, "Wireless Telegraphic Communication: Nobel Lecture, 11 December 1909." Nobel Lectures. Physics 1901–1921. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1967: 196–222. Page 198.
  10. ^ Guglielmo Marconi, padre della radio
  11. ^ See: Marconi, "Wireless Telegraphic Communication: Nobel Lecture, 11 December 1909." Nobel Lectures. Physics 1901–1921. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1967: 196–222. Page 206.
  12. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909". http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1909/marconi-bio.html. 
  13. ^ Luigi Solari, Guglielmo Marconi e la Marina Militare Italiana, Rivista Marittima, febbraio 1948
  14. ^ Alfred Thomas Story, The Story of Wireless Telegraphy. 1904. Page 58.
  15. ^ Plaque #2389 on Open Plaques.
  16. ^ "Flickr Photo". http://www.flickr.com/photos/psd/164193649/. 
  17. ^ BBC Wales, "Marconi's Waves"
  18. ^ Helgesen, Henry N.. "Wireless Goes to Sea: Marconi's Radio and SS Ponce". Sea History (Spring 2008): 122. 
  19. ^ First Atlantic Ocean crossing by a wireless signal
  20. ^ Page, Walter Hines, and Arthur Wilson Page, The World's Work. Doubleday, Page & Company, 1908. Page 9625
  21. ^ "Fessenden and Marconi: Their Differing Technologies and Transatlantic Experiments During the First Decade of this Century". Ieee.ca. http://www.ieee.ca/millennium/radio/radio_differences.html. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  22. ^ "Marconi and the History of Radio".
  23. ^ John S. Belrose, "Fessenden and Marconi: Their Differing Technologies and Transatlantic Experiments During the First Decade of this Century". International Conference on 100 Years of Radio – 5–7 September 1995.
  24. ^ Margaret Cheney, Tesla, Man Out of Time, New Jersey : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981
  25. ^ Margaret Cheney and Robert Uth, Tesla: Master of Lightning, Barnes & Noble, 1999.
  26. ^ "The Clifden Station of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph System". Scientific American. 23 November 1907. 
  27. ^ a b John P. Eaton & Charles A. Haas Titanic – Triumph and Tragedy, A Chronicle in Words and Pictures. 1994
  28. ^ Herron, Edward A. (1969). Miracle of the Air Waves: A History of Radio. Messner. ISBN 0-671-32079-3. 
  29. ^ Court of Inquiry Loss of the S.S. Titanic 1912
  30. ^ William John Baker, "History Of The Marconi Company 1874–1965". 1996. 416 pages. Page 296
  31. ^ Degna Marconi, My Father, Marconi (Guernica Editions, 2001), pages 218–227
  32. ^ Kelly's Handbook to the Titled, Landed, and Official Classes (Kelly's, 1969), page 623
  33. ^ George P. Oslin, The Story of Telecommunications. 1992. 507 pages. Page 294.
  34. ^ Gerald Sussman, Communication, Technology, and Politics in the Information Age. 1997. Page 90.
  35. ^ Degna Marconi, My Father, Marconi (Guernica Editions, 2001), pages 232
  36. ^ Physicsworld.com, "Guglielmo Marconi: radio star", 2001
  37. ^ "80 Years of Vatican Radio, Pope Pius XI and Marconi . . . and Father Jozef Murgas?". Saint Benedict Center. http://catholicism.org/80-years-of-vatican-radio-pope-pius-xi-and-marconi-and-father-jozef-murgas.html. 
  38. ^ National Broadcasters Hall of Fame. Accessed 2009-02-10
  39. ^ "Pioneer: Guglielmo Marconi". http://www.radiohof.org/pioneer/marconi.html. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  40. ^ "Milestones:Marconi's Early Wireless Experiments, 1895". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones:Marconi%27s_Early_Wireless_Experiments,_1895. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  41. ^ "List of IEEE Milestones". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestones:List_of_IEEE_Milestones. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  42. ^ New Jersey to Bon Jovi: You Give Us a Good Name Yahoo News, 2 February 2009
  43. ^ a b "CMC Electronics' Profile". CMC Electronics Inc.. http://www.cmcelectronics.ca/En/About/cmc_profile_en.html. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  44. ^ 01-S 879 R.I. State Senate act, April 25, 2001 Retrieved August 23, 2010

  Further reading

Relatives and company publications
  • Bussey, Gordon, Marconi's Atlantic Leap, Marconi Communications, 2000. ISBN 0-9538967-0-6
  • Marconi, Degna, My Father, Marconi, James Lorimer & Co, 1982. ISBN 0-919511-14-7 – (Italian version): Marconi, mio padre, Di Renzo Editore, 2008, ISBN 88-8323-206-2
  • Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company, Year book of wireless telegraphy and telephony, London: Published for the Marconi Press Agency Ltd., by the St. Catherine Press / Wireless Press. LCCN 14017875 sn 86035439
Other
  • Ahern, Steve (ed), Making Radio (2nd Edition) Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 2006.
  • Aitken, Hugh G. J., Syntony and Spark: The Origins of Radio, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976. ISBN 0-471-01816-3
  • Aitken, Hugh G. J., The Continuous Wave: Technology and American Radio, 1900–1932, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-691-08376-2.
  • Anderson, Leland I., Priority in the Invention of Radio — Tesla vs. Marconi
  • Baker, W. J., A History of the Marconi Company, 1970.
  • Brodsky, Ira. "The History of Wireless: How Creative Minds Produced Technology for the Masses" (Telescope Books, 2008)
  • Cheney, Margaret, "Tesla: Man Out Of Time" Laurel Publishing, 1981. Chapter 7, esp pp 69, re: published lectures of Tesla in 1893, copied by Marconi.
  • Clark, Paddy, "Marconi's Irish Connections Recalled," published in ";100 Years of Radio," IEE Conference Publication 411, 1995.
  • Coe, Douglas and Kreigh Collins (ills), Marconi, pioneer of radio, New York, J. Messner, Inc., 1943. LCCN 43010048
  • Garratt, G. R. M., The early history of radio: from Faraday to Marconi, London, Institution of Electrical Engineers in association with the Science Museum, History of technology series, 1994. ISBN 0-85296-845-0 LCCN gb 94011611
  • Geddes, Keith, Guglielmo Marconi, 1874–1937, London : H.M.S.O., A Science Museum booklet, 1974. ISBN 0-11-290198-0 LCCN 75329825 (ed. Obtainable in the U.S.A. from Pendragon House Inc., Palo Alto, California.)
  • Hancock, Harry Edgar, Wireless at sea; the first fifty years: A history of the progress and development of marine wireless communications written to commemorate the jubilee of the Marconi International Marine Communication Company, Limited, Chelmsford, Eng., Marconi International Marine Communication Co., 1950. LCCN 51040529 /L
  • Hong, Sungook, Wireless: From Marconi’s Black-Box to the Audio, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001. ISBN 0-262-08298-5.
  • Hughes, Michael and Bosworth, Katherine, Titanic Calling : Wireless Communications During the Great Disaster, Oxford, The Bodleian Library, 2012, ISBN 978-1-85124-377-8
  • Janniello, Maria Grace, Monteleone, Franco and Paoloni, Giovanni (eds) (1996), One hundred years of radio: From Marconi to the future of the telecommunications. Catalogue of the extension, Venice: Marsilio.
  • Jolly, W. P., Marconi, 1972.
  • Kinzie, P. A., Early Wireless: Marconi was not Alone.
  • Larson, Erik, Thunderstruck, New York: Crown Publishers, 2006. ISBN 1-4000-8066-5 A comparison of the lives of Hawley Harvey Crippen and Marconi. Crippen was a murderer whose Transatlantic escape was foiled by the new invention of shipboard radio.
  • Masini, Giancarlo, Guglielmo Marconi, Turin: Turinese typographical-publishing union, 1975. LCCN 77472455 (ed. Contains 32 tables outside of the text)
  • Mason, H. B. (1908). Encyclopaedia of ships and shipping, Wireless Telegraphy. London: Shipping Encyclopaedia. 1908. 707 pages.
  • Page, Walter Hines, and Arthur Wilson Page, The World's Work. Doubleday, Page & Company, 1908. Page 9625
  • Perry, Lawrence (March 1902). "Commercial Wireless Telegraphy". The World's Work: A History of Our Time V: 3194–3201. http://books.google.com/books?id=DoDNAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA3194. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  • Stone, Ellery W., Elements of Radiotelegraphy
  • Weightman, Gavin, Signor Marconi's magic box: the most remarkable invention of the 19th century & the amateur inventor whose genius sparked a revolution, 1st Da Capo Press ed., Cambridge, MA : Da Capo Press, 2003. ISBN 0-306-81275-4
  • Winkler, Jonathan Reed. Nexus: Strategic Communications and American Security in World War I. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008). Account of rivalry between Marconi's firm and the U.S. government during World War I.

  External links

Wikimedia
General achievements
Foundations and academics
Multimedia and books
Transatlantic "signals" and radio
Keys and "signals"
Priority of invention

vs Tesla

Personal
Other
Academic offices
Preceded by
Jan Smuts
Rector of the University of St Andrews
1934–1937
Succeeded by
Robert MacGregor Mitchell
   
               

 

All translations of Guglielmo_Marconi


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