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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
1.a west African bird having dark plumage mottled with white; native to Africa but raised for food in many parts of the world
2.a former British gold coin worth 21 shillings
1.a republic in western Africa on the Atlantic; formerly a French colony; achieved independence from France in 1958
2.(ethnic slur) offensive term for a person of Italian descent
3.(MeSH)A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry. Its coastal region was proclaimed a French protectorate in 1849, was established as a separate colony called French Guinea in 1893, and gained its independence in 1958. This Guinea gave its name to the coin originally made out of gold coming from there. Guinea is from a Tuareg word aginaw, meaning black people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p474&Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p222)
GuineaGuin"ea (gĭn"�), n.
1. A district on the west coast of Africa (formerly noted for its export of gold and slaves) after which the Guinea fowl, Guinea grass, Guinea peach, etc., are named.
2. A gold coin of England current for twenty-one shillings sterling, or about five dollars, but not coined since the issue of sovereigns in 1817.
The guinea, so called from the Guinea gold out of which it
was first struck, was proclaimed in 1663, and to go for twenty shillings; but it never went for less than twenty-one shillings. Pinkerton.
Guinea corn. (Bot.) See Durra. -- Guinea Current (Geog.), a current in the Atlantic Ocean setting southwardly into the Bay of Benin on the coast of Guinea. -- Guinea dropper one who cheats by dropping counterfeit guineas. [Obs.] Gay. -- Guinea fowl, Guinea hen (Zoöl.), an African gallinaceous bird, of the genus Numida, allied to the pheasants. The common domesticated species (Numida meleagris), has a colored fleshy horn on each aide of the head, and is of a dark gray color, variegated with small white spots. The crested Guinea fowl (Numida cristata) is a finer species. -- Guinea grains (Bot.), grains of Paradise, or amomum. See Amomum. -- Guinea grass (Bot.), a tall strong forage grass (Panicum jumentorum) introduced. from Africa into the West Indies and Southern United States. -- Guinea-hen flower (Bot.), a liliaceous flower (Fritillaria Meleagris) with petals spotted like the feathers of the Guinea hen. -- Guinea peach. See under Peach. -- Guinea pepper (Bot.), the pods of the Xylopia aromatica, a tree of the order Anonaceæ, found in tropical West Africa. They are also sold under the name of Piper Æthiopicum. -- Guinea plum (Bot.), the fruit of Parinarium excelsum, a large West African tree of the order Chrysobalaneæ, having a scarcely edible fruit somewhat resembling a plum, which is also called gray plum and rough-skin plum. -- Guinea worm (Zoöl.), a long and slender African nematoid worm (Filaria Medinensis) of a white color. It lives in the cellular tissue of man, beneath the skin, and produces painful sores.
Equatorial Guinea • Equatorial Guinea monetary unit • French Guinea • Guinea Baboon • Guinea Pigs • Guinea Worm • Guinea Worm Infection • Guinea corn • Guinea grains • Guinea pepper • Guinea pig cytomegalovirus • Guinea pigs • Guinea worm • Guinea worm disease • Guinea worm infection • Guinea, French • Guinea, Portuguese • Guinea, Republic of • Guinea-Bissau • Guinea-Bissau monetary unit • Guinea-Bissau peso • Guinea-Bissau, Republic of • Gulf of Guinea • Independent State of Papua New Guinea • Indonesian New Guinea • New Guinea • New Guinea, East • New Guinea, Indonesian • New Guinea, West • Papua New Guinea • Portuguese Guinea • Republic of Equatorial Guinea • Republic of Guinea • Republic of Guinea-Bissau • Spanish Guinea • capital of Guinea • capital of Guinea-Bissau • capital of Papua New Guinea • guinea flower • guinea fowl • guinea gold • guinea gold vine • guinea hen • guinea pig • guinea-hen flower • guinea-pig
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languages • Economy of Equatorial Guinea • Economy of Guinea • Economy of Guinea-Bissau • Economy of Papua New Guinea • Education in Papua New Guinea • Emblem of Guinea-Bissau • Equatorial Guinea • Equatorial Guinea Workers' Union • Equatorial Guinea at the 2000 Summer Olympics • Evangelical Lutheran Church of Papua New Guinea • Flag of Equatorial Guinea • Flag of Guinea • Flag of Guinea-Bissau • Flag of Papau New Guinea • Flag of Papua New Guinea • Foreign relations of Equatorial Guinea • Foreign relations of Guinea • Foreign relations of Guinea-Bissau • Foreign relations of Papua New Guinea • French Guinea • General Union of the Workers of Guinea • Geography of Equatorial Guinea • Geography of Guinea • Geography of Guinea-Bissau • Geography of Papua New Guinea • German New Guinea • German Protectorate of New Guinea • Governor-General of Papua New Guinea • Green Islands (Papua New Guinea) • Guekedou Prefecture, Guinea • Guinea (British coin) • Guinea Current • Guinea Grass • Guinea Turaco • Guinea at the 1980 Summer Olympics • Guinea at the 2000 Summer Olympics • Guinea pepper • Guinea pig breed • Guinea-Bissau • Guinea-Bissau Creole • Guinea-Bissau at the 2000 Summer Olympics • Guinea-Bissau peso • Guinea-Bissauan music • Gulf of Guinea • Half guinea • Haute Guinea • History of Equatorial Guinea • History of Guinea • History of Guinea-Bissau • History of Papua New Guinea • House of Assembly of Papua and New Guinea • Islam in Guinea • Kiunga, Papua New Guinea • Kié-Ntem Province, Equatorial Guinea • Kol language (Papua New Guinea) • Kuman language (New Guinea) • Law of Papua New Guinea • Legislative Council of Papua and New Guinea • Lido, Papua New Guinea • List of Guinea-Bissau nationals • List of High Commissioners from New Zealand to Papua New Guinea • List of caves in Papua New Guinea • List of cities in Equatorial Guinea • List of cities in Guinea • List of cities in Guinea-Bissau • List of heads of state of Equatorial Guinea • List of heads of state of Guinea • List of heads of state of Guinea-Bissau • List of newspapers in Papua New Guinea • List of people on stamps of Papua New Guinea • List of political parties in Equatorial Guinea • List of political parties in Guinea • List of political parties in Guinea-Bissau • List of political parties in Papua New Guinea • List of schools in Guinea • Litoral Province (Equatorial Guinea) • Lower Guinea • Lower Guinea Forests • Lower Guinea forests • Maria language (Papua New Guinea) • Members of the National Parliament of Papua New Guinea, 2002–2007 • Middle Guinea • Military of Equatorial Guinea • Military of Guinea • Military of Guinea-Bissau • Moca, Equatorial Guinea • Music of Equatorial Guinea • Music of Guinea • Music of Guinea-Bissau • Music of Papua New Guinea • National Assembly of Guinea • National Organization of Free Unions of Guinea • National Parliament of Papua New Guinea • National People's Assembly of Guinea-Bissau • National Union for Democracy and Progress (Guinea-Bissau) • National Union of Workers of Guinea-Bissau • National Unity Party (Guinea-Bissau) • Netherlands New Guinea • New Guinea Big-eared Bat • New Guinea campaign • North East New Guinea • North New Guinea languages • Northern Province, Papua New Guinea • Nueva Guinea • Orders, decorations, and medals of Papua New Guinea • Organization of Japanese fortifications in New Guinea area • Papua New Guinea (song) • Papua New Guinea Council of Churches • Papua New Guinea Defence Force • Papua New Guinea Football Association • Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research • Papua New Guinea National Alliance Party • Papua New Guinea Trade Union Congress • Papua New Guinea University of Technology • Papua New Guinea at the 1996 Summer Olympics • Papua New Guinea at the 2000 Summer Olympics • Papua New Guinea at the 2006 Commonwealth Games • Papua New Guinea national Australian rules football team • Papua New Guinea national cricket team • Papua New Guinea stilt house • Papua and New Guinea Act 1949 • Politics of Equatorial Guinea • Politics of Guinea • Politics of Guinea-Bissau • Politics of Papua New Guinea • Port Guinea • Postage stamps of Western New Guinea • President of Guinea • President of Guinea-Bissau • Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea • Quarter guinea • Regions of Guinea • Religion in Papua New Guinea • Resistance of Guinea-Bissau-Bafatá Movement • Roman Catholicism in Equatorial Guinea • Roman Catholicism in Guinea • Roman Catholicism in Guinea-Bissau • Roman Catholicism in Papua New Guinea • Rugby league in Papua New Guinea • Scouting in Equatorial Guinea • Sectors of Guinea-Bissau • Social Renewal Party (Guinea-Bissau) • Socialist Party of Guinea-Bissau • Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea • Tabubil, Papua New Guinea • Telecommunications in Equatorial Guinea • Telecommunications in Guinea • Telecommunications in Guinea-Bissau • Territory of New Guinea • The Guinea Pig (film) • The Independent (Papua New Guinea) • The Scout Association of Papua New Guinea • Third guinea (British coin) • Transport in Equatorial Guinea • Transport in Guinea • Transport in Guinea-Bissau • Transport in Papua New Guinea • Transportation in Papua New Guinea • Trans–New Guinea languages • Union for Progress and Renewal (Guinea) • Union for the Progress of Guinea • United Church in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands • University of Papua New Guinea • Upper Guinea Forests • Upper Guinea forests • Waigani, Papua New Guinea • Wele-Nzas Province, Equatorial Guinea • Yuri language (New Guinea)
qui est relatif à une région ou un pays (fr)[Classe...]
continent de la Terre (fr)[Classe...]
Guinea (n.) [géographie]
peuple européen (fr)[Classe...]
habitant d'un lieu précis (fr)[Classe...]
Italia, Italian Republic, Italy[membre]
Africa, Western, Western Africa[Hyper.]
Guinea (n.) [MeSH]
oiseau volant (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
petit gibier (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
gibier à plumes (fr)[Thème]
gibier à plume (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
genus Numida, Numida[membre]
objet en cuivre (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
chose en or (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
chose en argent (métal précieux) (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
chose en nickel (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
chose en bronze (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
cash-out, coin, mint, strike[Dérivé]
|Republic of Guinea
République de Guinée
|Motto: "Travail, Justice, Solidarité" (French)
"Work, Justice, Solidarity"
|Anthem: Liberté (French)
(and largest city)
|Vernacular languages||Mandinka, Fula and Susu|
|Ethnic groups||Fula (Peuhl) 40%
Mandingo (Malinke) 30%
Susu (Soussou) 20%
smaller ethnic groups 10%
|-||Prime Minister||Mohamed Said Fofana|
|-||from France||2 October 1958|
|-||Total||245,857 km2 (78th)
94,926 sq mi
|-||July 2009 estimate||10,057,975 (81st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|Gini (1994)||40.3 (medium)|
|HDI (2010)||0.340 (low) (156th)|
|Currency||Guinean franc (
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||GN|
Guinea i//, officially the Republic of Guinea (French: République de Guinée), is a country in West Africa. Formerly known as French Guinea (Guinée française), it is today sometimes called Guinea-Conakry to distinguish it from its neighbour Guinea-Bissau and the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. It has a population of 10,057,975 and an area of 246,000 square kilometres (94,981 sq mi). Forming a crescent as it curves from its western border on the Atlantic Ocean toward the east and the south, it shares Its northern border with Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mali, and its southern border with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d'Ivoire. The Niger River's source is in the Guinea Highlands in southeastern Guinea.
The country is geographically divided into eight administrative regions, which are further subdivided into thirty-three prefectures. Conakry is the capital, largest city, and economic centre. Other major cities in the country include Kankan, Nzérékoré, Kindia, Labe, Guéckédou, Mamou and Boke.
It is a predominantly Islamic country, with Muslims representing about 85% of the population . Christians, mostly Roman Catholic, make up about 10% of the population, and are mainly found in the southern Guinea forestiere region.
French is the official language of Guinea, and is the main language of communication in schools, government administration, the media, and the country's security forces. More than twenty four indigenous languages are also spoken, of which the most common are Fula, Susu and Mandinka. Fula is widely used in the Fouta Djallon region in central Guinea, Mandinka in Eastern Guinea and part of the Guinea forestiere region, and Susu in the coastal region of northwestern Guinea.
The land that is now Guinea belonged to a series of African empires until France colonized it in the 1890s, and made it part of French West Africa. Guinea declared its independence from France on 2 October 1958. From independence until the presidential election of 2010, Guinea was governed by a number of autocratic rulers, which has contributed to making Guinea one of the poorest countries in the world.
Ahmed Sékou Touré became President upon Guinea's independence in 1958, establishing one-party dictatorship, with a closed, socialized economy and no tolerance for human rights, free expression, or political opposition, which was ruthlessly suppressed. The country was named the People's Revolutionary Republic of Guinea.
Economic costs were extensive. The state took over farms and other production. Imposition of price controls started an era of pervasive black markets and smuggling even though it was punishable by death. Touré relied on his own Malinke ethnic group to fill positions in the party and government. Touré's party officials took monopoly of social and economic life. A police and intelligence apparat spied on everyone. More than a million people fled the repression into neighboring countries. It has been estimated that almost 5,000 people were executed or died from torture or starvation at the Camp Boiro, a Soviet-style concentration camp.
After almost three decades in power, Touré died unexpectedly on 26 March 1984.
Following a brief coup d'état, Lansana Conté became the President after Touré. The constitution and parliament were suspended and a committee for national recovery was established. Conté clung to power until his death in 2008.
On 23 December 2008, Moussa Dadis Camara seized control of Guinea as the head of a junta. On 28 September 2009, the junta ordered its soldiers to attack people who had gathered to protest any attempt by Camara to become President. The soldiers went on a rampage of rape, mutilation, and murder.
On 3 December 2009, an aide shot Camara during a dispute about the rampage of September 2009. Camara went to Morocco for medical care. Vice-President (and defense minister) Sékouba Konaté flew back from Lebanon to run the country in Camara's absence.
On 12 January 2010 Camara was flown from Morocco to Burkina Faso. After meeting in Ouagadougou on 13 and 14 January, Camara, Konaté and Blaise Compaoré, President of Burkina Faso, produced a formal statement of twelve principles promising a return of Guinea to civilian rule within six months. It was agreed that the military would not contest the forthcoming elections, and Camara would continue his convalescence outside Guinea. On 21 January 2010 the military junta appointed Jean-Marie Doré as Prime Minister of a six-month transition government, leading up to elections.
The presidential election was set to take place on 27 June and 18 July 2010, it was held as being the first free and fair election since independence in 1958. The first round took place normally on the 27 June 2010 with ex Prime Minister Cellou Dalein Diallo and his rival Alpha Condé emerging as the two runners-up for the second round. However, due to allegations of electoral fraud, the second round of the election was postponed until 19 September 2010. A delay until 10 October was announced by the electoral commission (CENI), subject to approval by Sékouba Konaté. Yet another delay until 24 October was announced in early October. Elections were finally held on 7 November. Voter turnout was high, and the elections went relatively smoothly.
16 November 2010, Alpha Condé, the leader of the opposition party Rally of the Guinean People (RGP), was officially declared the winner of a 7 November run-off in Guinea's presidential election. He has promised to reform the security sector and review mining contracts if elected.
On the night of July 18, 2011, President Condé's residence was attacked in an attempted coup. The attack included a fierce firefight and rocket propelled grenades. The president was unharmed. Sixteen people have been charged with the attempted assassination. Most of those indicted are close associates of Sékouba Konaté.
After many delays, the legislative elections are set for July 7, 2012 and political parties will hold as many rallies as needed to ensure that they are free and fair. There is some skepticism that they will occur on that date. The legal voting age is 18.
The Republic of Guinea covers 245,857 square kilometres (94,926 sq mi) of West Africa about 10 degrees north of the equator. Guinea is divided into four natural regions with distinct human, geographic, and climatic characteristics:
At 245,857 km2 (94,926 sq mi), Guinea is roughly the size of the United Kingdom and slightly smaller than the US state of Oregon. There are 320 km (200 mi) of coastline and a total land border of 3,400 km (2,100 mi). Its neighbours are Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone. It lies mostly between latitudes 7° and 13°N, and longitudes 7° and 15°W (a small area is west of 15°).
The country is divided into four main regions: the Basse-Coté lowlands, populated mainly by the Susu ethnic group; the cooler, mountainous Fouta Djallon that run roughly north-south through the middle of the country, populated by Fulas, the Sahelian Haute-Guinea to the northeast, populated by Malinké, and the forested jungle regions in the southeast, with several ethnic groups. Guinea's mountains are the source for the Niger, the Gambia, and Senegal Rivers, as well as the numerous rivers flowing to the sea on the west side of the range in Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast.
The highest point in Guinea is Mount Nimba at 1,750 m (5,740 ft). Although the Guinean and Ivorian sides of the Nimba Massif are a UNESCO Strict Nature Reserve, the portion of the so-called Guinean Backbone continues into Liberia, where it has been mined for decades; the damage is quite evident in the Nzérékoré Region at .
Guinea has abundant natural resources including 25% or more of the world's known bauxite reserves. Guinea also has diamonds, gold, and other metals. The country has great potential for hydroelectric power. Bauxite and alumina are currently the only major exports. Other industries include processing plants for beer, juices, soft drinks and tobacco. Agriculture employs 80% of the nation's labor force. Under French rule, and at the beginning of independence, Guinea was a major exporter of bananas, pineapples, coffee, peanuts, and palm oil.
Richly endowed with minerals, Guinea possesses over 25 billion tonnes (metric tons) of bauxite – and perhaps up to one-half of the world's reserves. In addition, Guinea's mineral wealth includes more than 4-billion tonnes of high-grade iron ore, significant diamond and gold deposits, and undetermined quantities of uranium. Guinea has considerable potential for growth in agricultural and fishing sectors. Soil, water, and climatic conditions provide opportunities for large-scale irrigated farming and agro industry. Possibilities for investment and commercial activities exist in all these areas, but Guinea's poorly developed infrastructure and rampant corruption continue to present obstacles to large-scale investment projects.
Joint venture bauxite mining and alumina operations in northwest Guinea historically provide about 80% of Guinea's foreign exchange. Bauxite is refined into alumina, which is later smelted into aluminium. The Compagnie des Bauxites de Guinea (CBG), which exports about 14 million tonnes of high-grade bauxite annually, is the main player in the bauxite industry. CBG is a joint venture, 49% owned by the Guinean Government and 51% by an international consortium known as Halco Mining Inc., a joint venture of Dadco Mining and Rio Tinto Alcan. The Compagnie des Bauxites de Kindia (CBK), a joint venture between the Government of Guinea and Russki Alumina, produces some 2.5 million tonnes annually, nearly all of which is exported to Russia and Eastern Europe. Dian Dian, a Guinean/Ukrainian joint bauxite venture, has a projected production rate of 1,000,000 t (1,102,311 short tons; 984,207 long tons) per year, but is not expected to begin operations for several years. The Alumina Compagnie de Guinée (ACG), which took over the former Friguia Consortium, produced about 2.4 million tonnes in 2004 as raw material for its alumina refinery. The refinery exports about 750,000 tonnes of alumina. Both Global Alumina and Alcoa-Alcan have signed conventions with the Government of Guinea to build large alumina refineries with a combined capacity of about 4 million tonnes per year.
Diamonds and gold also are mined and exported on a large scale. AREDOR, a joint diamond-mining venture between the Guinean Government (50%) and an Australian, British, and Swiss consortium, began production in 1984 and mined diamonds that are 90% gem quality. Production stopped from 1993 until 1996, when First City Mining, of Canada, purchased the international portion of the consortium. The bulk of diamonds are mined artisanally. The largest gold mining operation in Guinea is a joint venture between the government and Ashanti Goldfields of Ghana. Société Minière de Dinguiraye (SMD) also has a large gold mining facility in Lero, near the Malian border.
Guinea has large reserves of the steel-making raw material, iron ore. Rio Tinto is the majority owner of the $6 billion Simandou iron ore project, which the firm says is the world's best unexploited resource. Rio Tinto has signed a binding agreement with Aluminum Corp. of China Ltd. to establish the joint venture for the Simandou iron ore project. This project is said to be of the same magnitude as the Pilbara in Western Australia. In the 1960s, Thomas Price, then vice president of US-based steel company Kaiser Steel, said, "I think this [the Pilbara] is one of the most massive ore bodies in the world."
In September 2011, Guinea adopted a new mining code. The law set up a commission to review deals struck during the chaotic days between the end of dictatorship in 2008 and Condé coming to power.
In June 2012 The Sunday Times revealed that in April 2011, five months before the Mining Code became law, Mohamed Lamine Fofana, the mining minister, agreed a USD25 million loan with Palladino Capital, an investment vehicle registered in the British Virgin Islands by South African business man Walter Hennig. The deal was also signed by the finance minister, Kerfalla Yansane. This loan of USD25 million has never been publicly revealed to Guineans, or ticked off in the national budget, although President Alpha Conde has said that "contracts that commit Guinea will be published on the Internet." The terms of the loan include a provision that if the cash-strapped Guinean government defaults, Palladino can convert the debt into a 30% stake in the operations of the national mining company, worth billions of Dollars.
This type agreement is in violation with the Mining Code, which stipulates in Article 150 that "The State reserves the right to sell all or part of its participation in cash, without pre-emption rights of other shareholders of the holder of the mining company, through a bidding process that is open and transparent."
The Guinean Government adopted policies in the 1990s to return commercial activity to the private sector, promote investment, reduce the role of the state in the economy, and improve the administrative and judicial framework. Guinea has the potential to develop, if the government carries out its announced policy reforms, and if the private sector responds appropriately. So far, corruption and favouritism, lack of long-term political stability, and the lack of a transparent budgeting process continue to dampen foreign investor interest in major projects in Guinea.
Reforms since 1985 include eliminating restrictions on agriculture and foreign trade, liquidation of some government-owned corporations, the creation of a realistic exchange rate, increased spending on education, and cutting the government bureaucracy. In July 1996, President Lansana Conté appointed a new government, which promised major economic reforms, including financial and judicial reform, rationalization of public expenditures, and improved government revenue collection. Under 1996 and 1998 International Monetary Fund (IMF)/World Bank agreements, Guinea continued fiscal reforms and privatization, and shifted governmental expenditures and internal reforms to the education, health, infrastructure, banking, and justice sectors.
The government revised the private investment code in 1998 to stimulate economic activity in the spirit of free enterprise. The code does not discriminate between foreigners and nationals and allows for repatriation of profits. While the code restricts development of Guinea's hydraulic resources to projects in which Guineans have majority shareholdings and management control, it does contain a clause permitting negotiations of more favourable conditions for investors in specific agreements. Foreign investments outside Conakry are entitled to more favourable terms. A national investment commission has been formed to review all investment proposals. Guinea and the United States have an investment guarantee agreement that offers political risk insurance to American investors through the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). In addition, Guinea has inaugurated an arbitration court system, which allows for the quick resolution of commercial disputes.
Cabinet changes in 1999, which increased corruption, economic mismanagement, and excessive government spending, combined to slow the momentum for economic reform. The informal sector continues to be a major contributor to the economy.
Until June 2001, private operators managed the production, distribution, and fee-collection operations of water and electricity under performance-based contracts with the Government of Guinea. However, the two utilities are plagued by inefficiency and corruption. Foreign private investors in these operations departed the country in frustration.
In 2002, the IMF suspended Guinea's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) because the government failed to meet key performance criteria. In reviews of the PRGF, the World Bank noted that Guinea had met its spending goals in targeted social priority sectors. However, spending in other areas, primarily defense, contributed to a significant fiscal deficit. The loss of IMF funds forced the government to finance its debts through Central Bank advances. The pursuit of unsound economic policies has resulted in imbalances that are proving hard to correct.
Under then-Prime Minister Diallo, the government began a rigorous reform agenda in December 2004 designed to return Guinea to a PRGF with the IMF. Exchange rates have been allowed to float, price controls on gasoline have been loosened, and government spending has been reduced while tax collection has been improved. These reforms have not reduced inflation, which hit 27% in 2004 and 30% in 2005. Currency depreciation is also a concern. The Guinea franc was trading at 2550 to the dollar in January 2005. It hit 5554 to the dollar by October 2006.
Despite the opening in 2005 of a new road connecting Guinea and Mali, most major roadways remain in poor repair, slowing the delivery of goods to local markets. Electricity and water shortages are frequent and sustained, and many businesses are forced to use expensive power generators and fuel to stay open.
Even though there are many problems plaguing Guinea's economy, not all foreign investors are reluctant to come to Guinea. Global Alumina's proposed alumina refinery has a price tag above $2 billion. Alcoa and Alcan are proposing a slightly smaller refinery worth about $1.5 billion. Taken together, they represent the largest private investment in sub-Saharan Africa since the Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline. Also, Hyperdynamics Corporation, an American oil company, signed an agreement in 2006 to develop Guinea's offshore Senegal Basin oil deposits in a concession of 31,000 square miles (80,000 km2); it is pursuing seismic exploration.
On 13 October 2009, Guinean Mines Minister Mahmoud Thiam announced that the China International Fund would invest more than $7bn (£4.5bn) in infrastructure. In return, he said the firm would be a "strategic partner" in all mining projects in the mineral-rich nation. He said the firm would help build ports, railway lines, power plants, low-cost housing and even a new administrative centre in the capital, Conakry. In September 2011, Mohamed Lamine Fofana, the Mines Minister following the 2010 election, said that the government had overturned the agreement by the ex-military junta.
Youth unemployment, however, remains a large problem. Guinea needs an adequate policy to address the concerns of the urban youth. The problem is the disparity between their life and what they see on television. As the youth cannot find jobs, seeing the economic power and consumerism of richer countries only serves to frustrate them further.
Guinea signed a Production sharing agreement with Hyperdynamics Corporation of Houston in 2006 to explore a large offshore tract, recently in partnership with Dana Petroleum PLC (Aberdeen, United Kingdom). The initial well, the Sabu-1, is scheduled to begin drilling in October 2011 at a site in approximately 700 meters of water. The Sabu-1 will target a four-way anticline prospect with upper Cretaceous sands and is anticipated to be drilled to a total depth of 3,600 meters.
The railway which operated from Conakry to Kankan ceased operating in the mid-1980s. Domestic air services are intermittent. Most vehicles in Guinea are 20+ years old, and cabs are any four-door vehicle which the owner has designated as being for hire. Locals, nearly entirely without vehicles of their own, rely upon these taxis (which charge per seat) and small buses to take them around town and across the country. There is some river traffic on the Niger and Milo rivers. Horses and donkeys pull carts, primarily to transport construction materials.
Iron mining at Simandou (South) in the southeast beginning in 2007 and at Kalia in the east is likely to result in the construction of a new heavy-duty standard gauge railway and deepwater port. Iron mining at Simandou North will load to a new port near Buchanan in Liberia, in exchange for which, rehabilitation of the Conakry to Kankan line will occur.
Conakry International Airport is the largest airport in the country, with flights to other cities in Africa as well as to Europe.
The population of Guinea is estimated at 10.2 million. Conakry, the capital and largest city, is the hub of Guinea's economy, commerce, education, and culture.
The population of Guinea comprises about 24 ethnic groups. The Fulas or Fulani (French: Peuls; Fula: Fulɓe), comprise 35% of the population and are mostly found in the Futa Djallon region. The Mandinka, also known as Mandingo or Malinké, comprise 25% of the population and are mostly found in eastern Guinea concentrated around the Kankan and Kissidougou prefectures. The Soussou, comprising 15%, are predominantly in western areas around the capital Conakry, Forécariah, and Kindia. Smaller ethnic groups make up the remaining 15% of the population, including Kpelle, Kissi, Zialo, Toma and others. Approximately 10,000 non-Africans live in Guinea, predominantly Lebanese, French, and other Europeans.
Islam is the majority religion. Approximately 85% of the population is Muslim, while 8% is Christian, and 7% holds traditional animist beliefs. Guinean Muslims are generally Sunni and Sufi; there are relatively few Shi'a in Guinea. Christian groups include Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, and other Evangelical groups. Jehovah's Witnesses are active in the country and recognized by the Government. There is a small Baha'i community. There are small numbers of Hindus, Buddhists, and traditional Chinese religious groups among the expatriate community.
Guinea's armed forces are divided into five branches – army, navy, air force, the paramilitary National Gendarmerie and the Republican Guard – whose chiefs report to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who is subordinate to the Minister of Defense. In addition, regime security forces include the National Police Force (Sûreté National). The Gendarmerie, responsible for internal security, has a strength of several thousand.
The army, with about 15,000 personnel, is by far the largest branch of the armed forces. It is mainly responsible for protecting the state borders, the security of administered territories, and defending Guinea's national interests. Air force personnel total about 700. The force's equipment includes several Russian-supplied fighter planes and transports. The navy has about 900 personnel and operates several small patrol craft and barges.
Guinea has been reorganizing its health system since the Bamako Initiative of 1987 formally promoted community-based methods of increasing accessibility of drugs and health care services to the population, in part by implementing user fees. The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based healthcare (including community ownership and local budgeting), resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. A comprehensive strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in health indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost. Ethnographic research conducted in rural and urban areas of the Republic of Guinea explored perceived distinctions between biomedical and traditional health practices and found that these distinctions shape parental decisions in seeking infant health care, with 93% of all health expenditure taking place outside the state sector.
Guinea's public health code is defined by Law No. L/97/021/AN of 19 June 1997 promulgating the Public Health Code. The law provides for the protection and promotion of health and for the rights and duties of the individual, the family, and community throughout the territory of the Republic of Guinea.
In June 2011, the Guinean government announced the establishment of an air solidarity levy on all flights taking off from national soil, with funds going to UNITAID to support expanded access to treatment for HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. Guinea is among the growing number of countries and development partners using market-based transactions taxes and other innovative financing mechanisms to expand financing options for health care in resource-limited settings.
In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World's Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Guinea is 680. This is compared with 859.9 in 2008 and 964.7 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 146 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 29. The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – improve maternal death. In Guinea the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 1 and 1 in 26 shows us the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women. 
The first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported in 1986. Though levels of AIDS are significantly lower than in a number of other African countries, as of 2005, Guinea was considered by the World Health Organization to face a generalized epidemic.
An estimated 170,000 adults and children were infected at the end of 2004. The spread of the epidemic was attributed to factors such as proximity to high-prevalence countries, a large refugee population, internal displacement and subregional instability.
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Like other West African countries, Guinea has a rich musical tradition. The group Bembeya Jazz became popular in the 1960s after Guinean independence.
The literacy rate of Guinea is one of the lowest in the world: in 2003 it was estimated that only 29.5% of adults were literate (42.6% of males and 18.1% of females). Primary education is compulsory for 8 years, but most children do not attend for so long, and many do not go to school at all. In 1999, primary school attendance was 40 percent.Children, particularly girls, are kept out of school in order to assist their parents with domestic work or agriculture.
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