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definition - HENRY III OF FRANCE

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Henry III of France

                   
Henry III
Henry III, 1570 by Jean de Court,
Musée Condé
King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Reign 16 May 1573 – 12 May 1575
Coronation 21 February 1574 (Wawel)
Predecessor Sigismund II Augustus
Interrex
Successor Anna the Jagiellonian and
Stephen Bathory
Regent Jakub Uchański, Interrex
King of France
Reign 30 May 1574 – 2 August 1589
Coronation 13 February 1575 (Reims)
Predecessor Charles IX
Successor Henry IV
Spouse Louise of Lorraine
House House of Valois
Father Henry II of France
Mother Catherine de' Medici
Born (1551-09-19)19 September 1551
Château de Fontainebleau, France
Died 2 August 1589(1589-08-02) (aged 37)
Saint-Cloud, France
Burial Saint Denis Basilica, France
Signature

Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Polish: Henryk Walezy, Lithuanian: Henrikas Valua) was King of France from 1574 to 1589. As Henry of Valois, he was the first elected monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with the dual titles of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1573 to 1575.

Contents

  Early life

  Childhood

Henry was born at the Royal Château de Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, third son of King Henry II and Catherine de' Medici, grandson of Francis I of France and Claude of France, and brother of Francis II of France and Charles IX of France. He was made Duke of Angoulême and Duke of Orléans in 1560, and Duke of Anjou in 1566.

In 1564, his name became Henri.[citation needed] He was his mother's favourite; she called him chers yeux ("Precious Eyes") and lavished fondness and affection upon him for most of his life. His elder brother, Charles, grew to detest him, resenting Henry's greater health and activity.[citation needed]

  Youth

In his youth, he was considered the best of the sons of Catherine de' Medici and Henry II. Unlike his father and elder brothers, he had little interest in the traditional Valois pastimes of hunting and physical exercise. Although he was both fond of fencing and skilled in it, he preferred to indulge his tastes for the arts and reading. These predilections were attributed to his Italian mother.

At one point in his youth he showed a tendency towards Protestantism as a means of rebelling. At the age of nine, calling himself un petit Huguenot, he refused to attend Mass, sang Protestant psalms to his sister Margaret (exhorting her all the while to change her religion and cast her Book of Hours into the fire), and even bit the nose off a statue of Saint Paul. His mother firmly cautioned her children against such behaviour, and he would never again show any Protestant tendencies—instead becoming nominally Roman Catholic.[1]

  Rumored homosexuality

It has long been claimed that Henry was homosexual or at least bisexual.[2][3] The scholar Louis Crompton provides substantial contemporary evidence of Henry III's homosexuality, and the associated problems at court and politics.[4] Despite this, it is still disputed. For example, some modern historians, such as P. Erlanger,[5] J. F. Solnon, Nicolas Le Roux,[6] and J. Boucher[7] found evidence to support the idea that Henry was not homosexual (though still perhaps bisexual), as he had many famous mistresses. They found that there were no men named with whom he could have had sex, and that he was well-known at the time for his taste in beautiful women. They concluded that his supposed homosexuality was based on his dislike of war and hunting being interpreted as effeminate, an image cultivated by political opponents (both Protestants and Catholics) to turn the opinion of the French people against him. Most recently, Gary Ferguson has offered a detailed assessment of Henry III and his court, in the context of a discussion of the question of homosexuality in the French Renaissance. [8]

  Elizabeth

In 1570, discussions commenced to arrange for Henry to court Elizabeth I of England. Elizabeth, almost 37, was in need of a husband in order to produce an heir. However, nothing came of these discussions. Elizabeth is viewed by historians as having intended only to arouse the concern of Spain, rather than to have seriously contemplated marriage. The chance of marriage was further blighted by their differing religious views—Henry was at least formally a Catholic while Elizabeth was a Protestant—and his opinion of Elizabeth. Henry tactlessly referred to Elizabeth as a putain publique (a "public whore") and made stinging remarks about their difference in age. Upon hearing (inaccurately) that she limped because of a varicose vein, he called her an "old creature with a sore leg". [1]

  Wars of Religion

  The Siege of La Rochelle by the Duke of Anjou in 1573 ("History of Henry III" tapestry, completed in 1623).

Prior to ascending the throne, he was a leader of the royal army in the French Wars of Religion against the Huguenots, and took part in the victories over them at Battle of Jarnac and Battle of Moncontour. While still Duke, he was involved in the plot for the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (but did not participate), in which thousands of Huguenots were killed; his reign as King, like the ones of his elder brothers Francis II and Charles IX, would see France in constant turmoil over religion.

Henry continued to take an active role in the French Wars of Religion, and in 1572–1573 led the Siege of La Rochelle, a massive military assault on the Huguenot-held city of La Rochelle by Catholic troops during the fourth phase of the French Wars of Religion. At the end of May 1573, Henry learned that he had been elected King of Poland, a country with a large Protestant minority, and political considerations forced him to negotiate an end to the assault. An agreement was reached on 24 June 1573 and Catholic troops ended the siege on 6 July 1573.

  Polish reign (1573–1574)

  Henry III in Polish hat, portrait 1580s[9]

In 1573, following the death of the Polish ruler Sigismund II Augustus, Jean de Monluc was sent as the French envoy in Poland to negotiate the election of Henry of Valois, future Henry III of France, on the Polish throne, in exchange for military support against Russia, diplomatic assistance in dealing with the Ottoman Empire, and financial help.[10]

On 16 May 1573 Polish nobles elected Henry, as the first elected monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, the Lithuanian nobles boycotted this election, and it was left to the Lithuanian ducal council to confirm his election.[11] Thus the Commonwealth elected Henry, rather than Habsburg candidates, partly in order to be more agreeable to the Ottoman Empire (a traditional ally of France through the Franco-Ottoman alliance), and thereby strengthening a Polish-Ottoman alliance which was also in effect.[12]

A Polish delegation went to La Rochelle to meet with Henry who was leading the Siege of La Rochelle (1572–1573). Henry left the siege following their visit.[13] In Paris, on 10 September, the Polish delegation asked Henry to take an oath, at Notre Dame Cathedral, to "respect traditional Polish liberties and the law on religious freedom that had been passed during the interregnum".[14] As conditions for his royal election, he was compelled to sign the pacta conventa and the Henrician Articles, pledging religious tolerance in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[15] Henry chafed at the restrictions on monarchic power under the Polish-Lithuanian political system of "Golden Liberty".[15] The Polish-Lithuanian parliament had been urged by Anna Jagiellon, the sister of the recently deceased king Sigismund II Augustus, to elect him based on the understanding that Henry would wed Anna afterward.[16]

  Henry on the Polish throne, in front of the Polish Diet in 1574.
  Henry in Polish costume, 1574.

It was at a ceremony before the Paris parlement on 13 September that the Polish delegation handed over the "certificate of election to the throne of Poland-Lithuania".[14] Henry also gave up any claims to succession and he "recognized the principle of free election" under the Henrician Articles and the pacta conventa.[14]

It was not until January 1574 that Henry was to reach the borders of Poland. On 21 February, Henry's coronation was held.[17] It was in mid June 1574 that Henry would take leave of Poland and head back to France, upon hearing of his brother, Charles IX's death.[17] Henry's absence 'provoked a constitutional crisis' which Parliament attempted to resolve by notifiying Henry that his throne would be lost if he did not return from France by 12 May 1575.[17] His failure to return caused Parliament to declare his throne vacant.[17]

The short reign of Henry at Wawel Castle in Poland was marked by a clash of cultures between the Polish and the French. The young king and his followers were astonished by several Polish practices and disappointed by the rural poverty and harsh climate of the country.[15] The Polish, on the other hand, wondered if all Frenchmen were as concerned with their appearance as their new King appeared to be.[15]

In many aspects, Polish culture had a positive influence on France. At Wawel, the French were introduced to new methods of septic facilities, in which litter (excrement) was taken outside the castle walls.[18] On returning to France, Henry ordered the construction of such facilities at the Louvre and other palaces.[18] Other inventions introduced to the French by the Polish included a bath with regulated hot and cold water and the fork.[19][20]

In 1578 Henry created the Order of the Holy Spirit to commemorate his becoming first King of Poland and later King of France on the Feast of Pentecost and gave it precedence over the earlier Order of St. Michael, which had lost much of its original prestige through its having been awarded too frequently and too readily. The Order would retain its prestige as the premier order of France until the end of the French monarchy.

  French reign (1575–1589)

  Coin of Henry III, 1577

Henry was crowned king of France on 13 February 1575, at Reims Cathedral. Although he was expected to produce an heir after he married Louise of Lorraine (14 February 1575), they were unable to conceive a child.

French Monarchy-
Capetian Dynasty, House of Valois
(Valois-Angoulême branch)
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg

Francis I
Children
   Francis, Dauphin of Viennois
   Henry II
   Magdalene, Queen of Scots
   Charles of Valois
   Margaret, Duchess of Savoy
Henry II
Children
   Francis II
   Elizabeth, Queen of Spain
   Claude, Duchess of Lorraine
   Louis, Duke of Orléans
   Charles IX
   Henry III
   Margaret, Queen of Navarre
   Francis, Duke of Anjou
   Joan of Valois
   Victoria of Valois
Francis II
Charles IX
Henry III

In 1576, Henry signed the Edict of Beaulieu, granting many concessions to the Huguenots. His action resulted in the Catholic activist, Henry I, Duke of Guise, forming the Catholic League. After much posturing and negotiations, Henry was forced to rescind most of the concessions that had been made to the Protestants in the edict.

In 1584, the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, Francis, Duke of Anjou, died. Under Salic Law, the next heir to the throne was Protestant Henry III of Navarre, a descendant of St. Louis IX. Under pressure from the Duke of Guise, Henry III issued an edict suppressing Protestantism and annulling Henry III of Navarre's right to the throne.

Henry began a great friendship with the Feuillant reformer Jean de la Barrière and built a monastery for him and his followers to commemorate their friendship in 1587.

On 12 May 1588, when Henry I, Duke of Guise, entered Paris, Henry III fled the city.

On 23 December 1588, at the Château de Blois, the Duke of Guise arrived in the council chamber where his brother Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, waited. The Duke was told that the King wished to see him in the private room adjoining the royal bedroom. There guardsmen murdered the Duke, then the Cardinal. To make sure that no contender for the French throne was free to act against him, the King had the Duke's son imprisoned.

Henry I, Duke of Guise, had been very popular in France, and the citizenry turned against King Henry for the murders. The Parlement instituted criminal charges against the King, and he joined forces with his heir, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, setting up the Parliament of Tours.

  Overseas relations

Under Henry, France named the first Consul of France in Morocco, in the person of Guillaume Bérard. The request came from the Moroccan prince Abd al-Malik who had been saved by Bérard during an epidemic in Constantinople, and wished to retain Bérard in his service.[21]

  Assassination

  Jacques Clément assassinating Henry III
  Henry III on his deathbed designating Henri de Navarre as his successor in 1589.

On 1 August 1589, Henry III lodged with his army at Saint-Cloud, Hauts-de-Seine, prepared to attack Paris, when a young fanatical Dominican friar, Jacques Clément, carrying false papers, was granted access to deliver important documents to the King. The monk gave the King a bundle of papers and stated that he had a secret message to deliver. The King signaled for his attendants to step back for privacy, and Clément whispered in his ear while plunging a knife into his abdomen. Clément was killed on the spot by the guards.

At first the King's wound did not appear fatal, but he enjoined all the officers around him, in the event that he did not survive, to be loyal to Henry of Navarre as their new king. The following morning—the day that he was to have launched his assault to retake Paris—Henry III died.

Chaos swept the attacking army, most of it quickly melting away; the proposed attack on Paris was postponed. Inside the city, joy at the news of Henry III's death was near delirium; some hailed the assassination as an act of God.[22]

  Burial

Henry III was interred at the Saint Denis Basilica. Childless, he was the last of the Valois kings. Henry III of Navarre succeeded him as Henry IV, the first of the Bourbon kings. During the French Revolution he was disinterred from his tomb, his body being desecrated and thrown into a common grave.

Royal styles of
King Henry III
Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France
France moderne.svg
Reference style His Most Christian Majesty
Spoken style Your Most Christian Majesty
Alternative style Monsieur Le Roi

  References in popular culture

  • Alexandre Dumas, père's play, Henry III and His Court (1829)
  • Alexandre Dumas, père's novels: La Reine Margot (1845), La Dame de Monsoreau (1846) and Les quarante-cinq (1847).
  • The Stanley Weyman novel, A Gentleman of France (1893) involves the events of Henry's reconciliation with the Huguenots and struggle against the Catholic League, leading to his assassination.
  • Last Days of Henry III, King of France at the Internet Movie Database
  • The American silent film Intolerance (1916) depicts Henry as effeminate but not explicitly homosexual. He is portrayed by British-born American actor Maxfield Stanley.
  • The French movies La Reine Margot (1954) and La Reine Margot (1994), both based on Alexandre Dumas, père's novel of the same title, are fictional depictions of the lives of Henry III's family, his sister Margot, and her Protestant husband Henry around the time of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. In the 1994 film Henry is played by the actor Pascal Greggory. In Dumas' novel, Henri was not portrayed as homosexual, whereas, in the 1954 film, he was shown as an effeminate, comical queen. In the 1994 film, he was portrayed as a more sinister character, bisexual and showing sexual interest in his sister. His brother dies by being accidentally poisoned by his mother, who had intended to kill Henry of Navarre instead.
  • As the Duke of Anjou, the future Henry III plays a significant role in the French film The Princess of Montpensier, based on the novel of the same title by Madame de La Fayette.
  • The film Elizabeth, released in 1998, depicts a fictional courtship between Elizabeth I of England and Henry III whilst he was still Duke of Anjou. In reality, the two never met and the Queen of England was actually courted nearly ten years later by his younger brother François, Duke of Anjou when Elizabeth was 46. The film borrows some of the aspects of Henry III's life and features Anjou as a comical foolish transvestite. The role is portrayed by French actor Vincent Cassel.
  • In the film Dangerous Beauty, he has a short affair with the main character, Venetian courtesan Veronica Franco. He appears masculine, although he declared to Veronica that the "rumors" about him were true. He is played by British actor Jake Weber.
  • In an episode of Animaniacs entitled "The Three Muska-Warners", an Elmer Fudd-like Henri III is protected by Yakko, Wakko and Dot. In this version, Henri is portrayed by Jeff Bennett as nervous and jumpy, and for no apparent reason speaks with an English accent.
  • Chabrier's opéra-comique Le roi malgré lui (1887) deals with the unhappy Polish episode, with Henri as the reluctant King of Poland. In Kraków, he conspires with Polish nobles to depose himself. His friend Nangis changes places with him, but in the end, the plot fails and the curtain falls on Henri being crowned.

  Literature

  See also

  Ancestors

  Notes

  1. ^ a b Frieda, Leonie, Catherine de Medici, pp.179–180
  2. ^ "Henri III était homosexuel". Tatoufaux.com. http://www.tatoufaux.com/spip.php?article375. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  3. ^ Henri III-->
  4. ^ Crompton, Louis (2003). "Henry III and the Mignons". Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 328–330. ISBN 0-674-01197-X. 
  5. ^ Erlanger, Philippe (1935). Henri III. Paris: Gallimard. 
  6. ^ Le Roux, Nicolas (2006). Un régicide au nom de Dieu, l'assassinat d'Henri III. Paris: Gallimard. ISBN 2-07-073529-X. 
  7. ^ Boucher, Jacqueline (1986). La cour de Henri III. Rennes: Ouest-France. ISBN 2-7373-0019-3. 
  8. ^ Ferguson, Gary (2008). Queer (Re)Readings in the French Renaissance: Homosexuality, Gender, Culture. Aldershot/Burlington: Ashgate. pp. x+375. ISBN 978-0-7546-6377-5. http://books.google.fr/books?id=KY7SDpSFTSYC&pg=PA49&dq=queer+rereadings&hl=fr&ei=VVoHTtv4FMGW8QOKs9GgAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=queer%20rereadings&f=false. 
  9. ^ (Polish) Stanisław Grzybowski (1985). Henryk Walezy. Warsaw. ISBN 83-04-00118-7. 
  10. ^ Theodore Beza and the quest for peace in France, 1572–1598 by Scott M. Manetsch, p.80
  11. ^ Stone, Daniel (2001). The Polish-Lithuanian state, 1386–1795 [A History of East Central Europe, Volume IV.]. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 118. ISBN 0-295-98093-1. 
  12. ^ Warfare, state and society on the Black Sea steppe, 1500–1700 by Brian L. Davies p.25-26 [1]
  13. ^ Governing passions: peace and reform in the French kingdom, 1576–1585 Mark Greengrass p.17
  14. ^ a b c Stone, Daniel (2001). The Polish-Lithuanian state, 1386–1795 [A History of East Central Europe, Volume IV.]. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-295-98093-1. 
  15. ^ a b c d (Polish) Paweł Jasienica (1982). Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów (The Commonwealth of the Both Nations). Warsaw. ISBN 83-06-00788-3. http://books.google.pl/books?id=ltseAAAAMAAJ&q=Rzeczpospolita+Obojga+Narod%C3%B3w+Jasienica&dq=Rzeczpospolita+Obojga+Narod%C3%B3w+Jasienica&lr=&pgis=1. Retrieved 5 January 2009. 
  16. ^ (Polish) Zbigniew Satała (1990). Poczet polskich królowych, księżnych i metres. Warsaw. ISBN 83-7007-257-7. http://books.google.pl/books?id=HBI1AAAAIAAJ&q=anna+jagiellonka&dq=anna+jagiellonka&lr=&hl=en&pgis=1. 
  17. ^ a b c d Stone, Daniel (2001). The Polish-Lithuanian state, 1386–1795 [A History of East Central Europe, Volume IV.]. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 0-295-98093-1. 
  18. ^ a b (Polish) Krzysztof Prendecki (30 October 2006). "Kuracja wiedzą". placet.pl. http://placet.pl/?mod=Artykuly&id=85. Retrieved 5 January 2009. 
  19. ^ In 1535 the Cistercian abbot of Mogiła sent a luxurious table knife and a fork as a gift to Erasmus of Rotterdam, which was an allusion to his work De civilitate. In one chapter, in which he treat about the behavior at the table and use of a knife and spoon, there is no mention of a fork, obviously unknown to him.(Polish) Matylda Selwa (1 December 2002). "Łyżka łyżce nierówna". www.sztuka.pl. http://www.sztuka.pl/index.php?id=111&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=257&tx_ttnews%5Bcat%5D=98&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=713&cHash=93d752b2e2. Retrieved 5 January 2009. 
  20. ^ Henri III (1551–1589) [...] he is widely credited for having introduced the fork into France. (English) Willy, Lawrence R. Schehr (2007). The third sex. University of Illinois Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-252-03216-0. 
  21. ^ Cervantes in Algiers: a captive's tale by María Antonia Garcés, p.277 note 39
  22. ^ Durant, Will, The Age of Reason Begins, vol. VII, (Simon and Schuster, 1961), p. 361.

  References

  External links

Henry III of France
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 19 September 1551 Died: 2 August 1589
Regnal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Sigismund II
King of Poland
Grand Duke of Lithuania

16 May 1573 – 12 May 1575
Vacant
Title next held by
Anna and Stephen
Preceded by
Charles IX
King of France
30 May 1574 – 2 August 1589
Succeeded by
Henry IV
French royalty
Preceded by
Charles
Duke of Angoulême
1551 – 30 May 1574
Succeeded by
Diane
Preceded by
Charles III
Duke of Orléans
1560 – 30 May 1574
Merged into the crown
Vacant
Title last held by
Louise
Duke of Anjou
1566 – 30 May 1574
Succeeded by
Francis
   
               

 

All translations of HENRY III OF FRANCE


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