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definition - Heavy_metal_subgenres

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Heavy metal subgenres

                   

A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal (often shortened to metal) during the late 1960s and early 1970s. At times heavy metal genres may overlap or are difficult to distinguish, but they can be identified by a number of traits. They may differ in terms of: instrumentation, tempo, song structure, vocal style, lyrics, guitar playing style, drumming style, and so on.

Contents

  Alternative metal

Alternative metal is a cross-genre term used to describe heavy metal bands with a pronounced experimental edge. Bands often use typical heavy metal instruments, but include unconventional lyrics, odd time signatures and unusual technique. In many instances it is described as a fusion of metal and alternative rock. Prominent bands in this genre include Tool, Faith No More, Helmet, and System of a Down.

  Avant-garde metal

Avant-garde metal (sometimes called experimental metal) is a cross-genre term used to describe metal bands that exhibit experimentation through non-standard sounds, instruments, and song structures akin to the genre of metal they are rooted in. Prominent examples include Arcturus, Celtic Frost, and Sunn O))).

  Black metal

Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It often employs fast tempos, shrieked vocals, highly distorted guitars played with tremolo picking in sometimes droning or hypnotic patterns, and unconventional song structure. It places more emphasis on creating a specific atmosphere of dread or depression than death metal or thrash metal, something it shares with doom metal.

During the first half of the 1980s, certain thrash metal bands established a prototype for black metal. This First Wave includes bands such as Venom, Bathory, Mercyful Fate, Hellhammer and Celtic Frost.[1] A Second Wave emerged in the early 1990s, which consisted primarily of Norwegian bands such as Burzum, Mayhem, Darkthrone, Immortal, Gorgoroth, Satyricon and Emperor.

Black metal was originally used as a term for extreme metal bands with Satanic lyrics; today, the most common and founding lyrical theme is opposition to Christianity and other organized religions. As part of this, many artists write lyrics that could be seen to promote atheism, antitheism, paganism or Satanism.[2] The hostility of many secular or pagan artists is in some way linked to the Christianization of their countries. Other oft-explored themes are depression, nihilism, misanthropy,[2] death and other dark topics. However, over time, many artists have begun to focus more on topics like the seasons (particularly winter), nature, mythology, folklore, philosophy and fantasy.

  Derivatives of black metal

  Symphonic black metal

Symphonic black metal is a black metal subgenre that emerged in the mid to late 1990s.[3] The genre is known for its symphonic and orchestral elements and is centralized in Europe. The genre may include the usage of melodic instruments found in the sections of a symphony orchestra (string instruments, brass instruments, woodwinds and keys). Vocals can be "clean" or operatic in style, song structures are more defined or are inspired by symphonies. However, many of the characteristics of "traditional" black metal are retained, such as shrieked vocals, fast tempos and high-pitched electric guitars often played with tremolo picking. Some examples of symphonic black metal include Celtic Frost, Cradle of Filth, Dimmu Borgir, and Emperor.

  Viking metal

Viking metal is a subgenre of black metal characterized by its chaotic and noisy sound, slow pace, use of keyboards, dark and violent imagery, and lyrical themes of Norse mythology, Norse paganism, and the Viking Age. It was developed in the 1980s through the mid-1990s as a rejection of Satanism and the occult, and instead embracing the Vikings and paganism as the leaders of opposition to Christianity. Influenced by Nordic folk music, it is considered a category of folk metal, but it is a separate branch of that style, as there are notable differences between Viking metal and folk metal. Another characteristic of the style is that nearly all bands claim to have Viking ancestry.

Both clean vocals and death growls can be found in Viking metal and the "speed varies from mid-pace to a fast pace." Like folk metal bands, Viking metal acts "generally utilize some acoustic and other unusual instruments in addition to the traditional metal instruments."[4] Examples of Viking metal include Amon Amarth, Bathory, Burzum, Enslaved, Einherjer, and Mortiis.

  Cello metal

Cello metal is subgenre of heavy metal characterized by the use of cellos, as well as other bowed string instruments such as the violin and viola, as primary instruments, alongside or in place of more traditional rock instruments such as electric guitars, electric bass guitar, and drum set.


  Christian metal

Christian metal is a cross-genre term used to describe metal bands that introduce Christian themes into their lyrics. This sub-genre has a long tradition within metal, starting with Christian hard rock bands springing up alongside the NWOBHM phenomenon to the Christian metalcore bands today. Often the Christian themes are melded with the subjects of the genre the band is rooted in, generally providing a Christian take on the subject matter. Examples include Stryper, P.O.D., Tourniquet, Mortification, and Underoath.

  Derivatives of Christian metal

  Unblack metal

Unblack metal is a term for Christian metal artists who musically sound similar to black metal, but promote Christianity. Examples include Horde, Antestor, and Crimson Moonlight.

  Crust punk

Crust punk (often simply crust) is one of the evolutions of anarcho-punk and hardcore punk, mixed with extreme metal guitar riffs.[5] The style, which evolved in the mid-1980s in the UK, often had songs with dark, pessimistic lyrics, lingering on political and social ills. It is typically played at a fast tempo with growled and screamed vocals and anarchist lyrics. Notable crust punk bands include Amebix, Antisect and Doom.

  Death metal

Death metal is an extreme heavy metal subgenre. The genre is typically characterized by the use of heavily distorted guitars, harsh vocals that are low-pitched or growled, dark and morbid lyrics, exceptionally fast-paced rhythms and melodies, frequent blast beats on drums, and complex song structures with multiple tempo changes.

Building off of the speed and complexity of Slayer's music, death metal came to true prominence by the mid 1980s.[1] Bands like Slayer and pioneer death metal bands such as Possessed, Death, Morbid Angel, Cannibal Corpse, and Deicide are considered prime influences in the genre.[6] In the late 1980s and early 1990s, death metal gained more media attention as popular record labels like Earache Records and Roadrunner Records began to sign death metal bands at a rapid rate.[7] Since then, death metal has diversified, spawning a rich variety of subgenres.[8]

  Derivatives of death metal

  Death 'n' roll

"Death 'n' roll" is a term used to describe the sound of death metal bands which incorporate rock and roll inspiration elements to its overall sound. The term is a portmanteau of death metal and rock 'n' roll. The achieved effect is that of death metal's trademark combination of growled vocals and highly distorted detuned guitar riffing with elements reminiscent of 1970s hard rock and heavy metal.[9][10] Notable examples include Entombed, Six Feet Under, Gorefest, and Deuteronomium.

  Melodic death metal

Melodic death metal, also referred to as melodeath, is a musical style, a subgenre of death metal which combines the melody of the new wave of British heavy metal (NWOBHM) with the intensity of death metal. The term Gothenburg metal is sometimes used as a reference to the scene around the city in Sweden, where the style became popular. Some prominent melodic death metal bands include At the Gates, Amon Amarth, Dark Tranquility, and In Flames.

  Technical death metal

Technical death metal, often abbreviated to tech death, is characterised by fast, technically complex guitar and drum work, often including sweeping guitar solos. Vocals often adopt the guttural sound of death metal. Some of the first tech death bands include Death, Pestilence, Atheist, Nocturnus, Cynic, Origin and Cephalic Carnage. The music is often dark in nature, although many bands have claim to classical influence.

  Doom metal

Doom metal is an extreme form of heavy metal that appeared during the first half of the 1980s.[11] Generally, doom metal features very slow tempos, low-tuned guitars and a much "denser" or "heavier" sound than other metal genres. Both the music and the lyrics intend to evoke a sense of despair, dread, and impending doom.[11]

It is strongly influenced by the early work of Black Sabbath, particularly songs such as "Black Sabbath" and "Into the Void", which are considered embryonic or prototypical doom metal songs. However, the style was defined as a genre in the early-mid 1980s by bands such as Pentagram, Saint Vitus and Candlemass. Doom metal is generally regarded as the basis of the gothic metal, stoner metal, sludge metal and drone metal genres.

  Derivatives of doom metal

  Funeral doom

Funeral doom is a style of doom metal that crosses death/doom with funeral dirge music. Played at a very slow tempo, an emphasis is placed on evoking a sense of emptiness and despair. Typically, electric guitars are heavily distorted and dark ambient aspects such as keyboards or synthesizers are often used to create a "dreamlike" atmosphere. Funeral doom was pioneered by Funeral (Norway), Thergothon (Finland), Skepticism (Finland) and Corrupted (Japan).[12]

  Death/doom

Death/doom, sometimes written as death-doom or deathdoom, is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It combines the slow tempos and pessimistic or depressive mood of doom metal with the deep growling vocals and double kick drumming of death metal.[13] The genre emerged in the mid 1980s and gained a certain amount of popularity during the 1990s, but had become less common by the turn of the 21st century.[13] In turn, death/doom gave rise to the closely related genre of funeral doom as well as to the more melodic and romantic gothic metal. The death/doom genre originated in the mid-1980s when the early progenitors like Dream Death began to mix traditional doom metal with the sounds of thrash and the nascent death metal scene.[14] Early records by such bands as Paradise Lost, My Dying Bride and Anathema combined the sounds of mid-1980s Celtic Frost and Candlemass with the use of female vocals,[15] keyboards and, in the case of My Dying Bride, violins.

  Drone metal

Drone metal, also known as drone doom, began as a derivative of doom metal and it is largely defined by drones; notes or chords that are sustained and repeated throughout a piece of music. Typically, the electric guitar is performed with large amounts of reverb and feedback,[16] while vocals, if present, are usually growled or screamed. Songs are often very long and lack beat or rhythm in the traditional sense. Drone doom is generally influenced by drone music,[16] noise music[16] and minimalist music.[16] The style emerged in the early 1990s and was pioneered by Earth,[17] Boris[16] and Sunn O))).[16]

  Sludge metal

Sludge metal began as a derivative of doom metal, incorporating hardcore punk and elements of southern rock. Many sludge bands compose slow and heavy songs that contain brief hardcore passages.[18][19] However, some bands emphasize fast tempos throughout their music.[20] The string instruments are heavily distorted and are often played with large amounts of feedback to produce an abrasive, sludgy sound. Drumming is often performed in typical doom metal fashion, but drummers may employ hardcore d-beat or double-kick drumming during faster passages. Vocals are usually shouted or screamed, and lyrics are generally pessimistic in nature. Suffering, drug abuse, politics and anger towards society are common lyrical themes. New Orleans with its metal scene is often considered as its birthplace.[11] The style was pioneered in the early 1990s by bands such as Eyehategod,[18] Crowbar,[19] Buzzov*en[20] and Acid Bath.[21]

  Extreme metal

Extreme metal is a cross-genre term used to describe heavy metal that is considerably heavier, faster, more aggressive and more abrasive. For example; vocalists may often use death growls or high-pitched shrieks and more obscene lyrics, drummers may often use blast beats, and the band's appearance may be intended to shock. Bands of this grouping are typically of the black metal, death metal, doom metal and thrash metal genres. The term is also used when a band is musically "extreme" enough but does not conform easily to any of the extreme metal genres; bands of this calibre include Cradle of Filth, Celtic Frost and Strapping Young Lad.

  Folk metal

Folk metal developed in Europe during the 1990s. As the name suggests, the genre is a fusion of heavy metal with folk music. This includes the widespread use of folk instruments and, to a lesser extent, traditional singing styles. Examples of the genre include Skyclad, Finntroll, Heidevolk, Korpiklaani, Ensiferum, Turisas, and Moonsorrow.

  Derivatives of folk metal

  Celtic metal

Celtic metal is a subgenre of folk metal that developed in the 1990s in Ireland. As the name suggests, the genre is a fusion of heavy metal music and Celtic music. The early pioneers of the genre were the three Irish bands Cruachan, Primordial and Waylander. The genre has since expanded beyond Irish shores and is known to be performed today by bands from numerous other countries.

  Medieval metal

Medieval metal or medieval rock is a subgenre of folk metal that blends hard rock or heavy metal music with medieval folk music. Medieval metal is mostly restricted to Germany where it is known as "Mittelalter-Metal" or "Mittelalter-Rock."[22][23] The genre emerged from the middle of the 1990s with contributions from Subway to Sally, In Extremo and Schandmaul. The style is characterised by the prominent use of a wide variety of traditional folk and medieval instruments.

  Pagan metal

Pagan metal is an umbrella term for heavy metal music which fuses extreme metal with "the pre-Christian traditions of a specific culture or region through thematic concept, rustic melodies, unusual instruments or archaic languages",[24][25] usually referring to folk metal or black metal. The Norwegian band In the Woods... was one of the first bands commonly viewed as pagan metal.[26][27] Metal Hammer author Marc Halupczok wrote that Primordial’s song “To Enter Pagan” from the band’s demo “Dark Romanticism” contributed to defining the genre.[28] Pagan metal bands are often associated with Viking metal and folk metal. Bands such as Moonsorrow and Kampfar have been identified as fitting within all three of those genres.[29][30]

  Funk metal

Funk metal is essentially a fusion of heavy metal and funk. It started off in the late eighties as a subgenre of alternative metal, and was heavily influenced by alternative rock bands such as Red Hot Chili Peppers and Fishbone. Funk metal was also one of the key influences of the nu metal genre. Notable funk metal bands include Living Colour, Infectious Grooves, Mordred and Rage Against the Machine.

  Glam metal

Glam metal (also known as hair metal)[31] is a term used to describe the visual style of certain heavy metal bands that arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States, particularly on the Los Angeles Sunset Strip music scene. It was popular throughout the 1980s and briefly in the early 1990s, combining the flamboyant look of glam rock and playing a commercial hard rock/heavy metal musical style. "Hair bands" was the term popularized by MTV in the 1990s and derives from the tendency among glam metal acts to style their long hair in a teased-up fashion. Many of the bands donned make-up to achieve an androgynous look, similar to that of some 1970s glam rock acts. Mötley Crüe, Poison and Twisted Sister are examples of bands who adopted the glam metal look in their stage attire and their music video imagery.

  Gothic metal

Gothic metal is characterised as a combination of the dark melancholy of gothic rock with the aggression and sonic power of highly amplified heavy metal music. The genre originated during the mid 1990s in Europe as an outgrowth of doom-death, a fusion genre of doom metal and death metal. Examples of gothic metal bands include Paradise Lost, Lacuna Coil, Type O Negative, Moonspell, My Dying Bride, Elis, Sirenia, Stravaganzza, Theatre of Tragedy and Tristania.

  Grindcore

Grindcore is a fusion of crust punk and thrash metal or death metal. It is characterised by growling vocals, blast beats, and incredibly short songs with lyrics that are often focused on gore and violence, though sometimes the lyrics can be political. Grindcore, in contrast to death metal, is often very chaotic, and lacks the standard use of time signatures. The style was pioneered by the British band Napalm Death in the eighties. Other notable grindcore bands include Carcass, Brutal Truth, Anal Cunt and Pig Destroyer.

  Derivatives of grindcore

  Deathgrind

Deathgrind, sometimes written as death-grind or death/grind, is a musical genre that fuses death metal and grindcore. Deathgrind has been descirbed as "grindcore and brutal death metal colliding head on."[32] Danny Lilker described deathgrind as "combining the technicality of death metal with the intensity of grindcore."[33] Death/grind emphasizes overall musical brutality with a specific focus on speed-soaked fury and retains grindcore's traditional abruptness.[34]

  Goregrind

Goregrind, is a musical sub-genre of grindcore and death metal.[35] Despite the early impact of albums such as Repulsion's Horrified and Impetigo's Ultimo Mondo Cannibale,[36] the origins of the genre really lie with the British band Carcass,[37] who began their career in the late 1980s. In their Reek of Putrefaction-era, Carcass used pitch shifters, medical imagery and several visceral associations when it originally conceived the band, a deviation from the frequently political or left-wing lyrics commonly used in the hardcore punk and grindcore scenes. Similar to goregrind is pornogrind, which trades the gory lyrics for sexually explicit ones.

  Groove metal

Groove metal, also known as neo-thrash, post-thrash, or power groove, consists of slow or mid-tempo and down tuned thrash riffs, bluesy guitar solos, greatly emphasized drum work and harsh vocals. Examples of groove metal include Lamb of God, Pantera, Machine Head, Fear Factory, and Sepultura.

  Grunge

Grunge, sometimes referred to as the Seattle sound, is a subgenre of alternative rock that emerged as a fusion of punk, alternative, and metal[38][39][40][41] during the mid-1980s in the American state of Washington, particularly in the Seattle area. Inspired by hardcore punk, heavy metal, and indie rock, grunge is generally characterized by heavily distorted electric guitars, contrasting song dynamics, and apathetic or angst-filled lyrics. The grunge aesthetic is stripped-down compared to other forms of rock music, and many grunge musicians were noted for their unkempt appearances and rejection of theatrics. The early grunge movement coalesced around Seattle independent record label Sub Pop in the late 1980s. Grunge became commercially successful in the first half of the 1990s, due mainly to the release of Nirvana's Nevermind and Pearl Jam's Ten. The success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of hard rock music at the time.[42] However, many grunge bands were uncomfortable with this popularity. Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late 1990s, their influence continues to affect modern rock music. Some other important grunge bands are Alice in Chains, Melvins, and Soundgarden.

  Industrial metal

Industrial metal combines elements of industrial music and heavy metal. It is usually centered around repetitive metal guitar riffs, sampling, synthesizer or sequencer lines, and distorted vocals.[43] Prominent industrial metal groups include Ministry, Nine Inch Nails, Marilyn Manson,[44]Godflesh .[45]

  Metalcore

Metalcore combines various elements of extreme metal and hardcore punk. The term took on its current meaning in 1985, describing bands such as Earth Crisis, Deadguy and Integrity. Generally, metalcore guitarists use harmonized guitar riffs and solos, drummers use hardcore d-beats and double bass drums, and vocalists use a sing-along style. A distinguishing characteristic is the "breakdown", whereby the song is slowed to half-time and the guitarists play open strings to achieve the lowest-pitched sound. Metalcore generally differs from thrash metal in that it avoids the "chugging" guitar sound and focuses more on melody than aggression. Prominent metalcore bands include Killswitch Engage, Underoath, All That Remains, Trivium, As I Lay Dying, Bullet for My Valentine and The Devil Wears Prada. In the early 1990s, a third wave of metalcore groups appeared, who placed significantly greater emphasis on melody. These bands tend to fuse melodic death metal, hardcore punk and sometimes emo.[46] Melodic metalcore bands include Atreyu,[46][47][48] Avenged Sevenfold,[48] Bullet for My Valentine,[49] Darkest Hour,[47] Eighteen Visions,[47] Killswitch Engage[46][50] and Poison the Well.[47] These groups took major influence, cues, and writing styles from Swedish melodic death metal bands, particularly At the Gates,[47] Arch Enemy, In Flames and Soilwork.[51] Melodic metalcore frequently makes use of clean vocals.[50][52][53]

  Derivatives of metalcore

  Deathcore

Deathcore combines elements of death metal with elements of metalcore or hardcore punk, or both.[54][55] It is defined by an "excessive" use of death metal riffs, blast beats and use of hardcore punk breakdowns.[56][57] Some leading bands are Suicide Silence, Carnifex, All Shall Perish and Whitechapel.

  Mathcore

Mathcore, also known as math metal, is a rhythmically complex and dissonant style of metalcore. It has its roots in bands such as Converge,[58] Botch,[59][60] and The Dillinger Escape Plan.[61] The term mathcore is suggested by analogy with math rock. Both math rock and mathcore make use of unusual time signatures. Prominent mathcore groups have been associated with grindcore.[62][63][64][65][66]

  Nintendocore

Nintendocore, also called Nintendo rock, video rock, and nerdcore, is fusion of metalcore, metal, hardcore punk, and post-hardcore[67][68][69][70][3] with video game music, chiptunes, and 8-bit music.[71][68][3] Some representatives of the style include Horse the Band,[67][69][3] The Advantage[72][71] and Minibosses.[71][73]

  Neo-classical metal

Neo-classical metal, also known as shred metal, is a subgenre that is heavily influenced by classical music in its style of composition. It uses a very technical style of guitar soloing called shred guitar, in which guitarists use cross-picking, sweep picking, and economy picking to play rapid scales and arpeggios. As well, it uses elements borrowed from classical music; including instruments, scales and melodies. Yngwie J. Malmsteen, Tony MacAlpine and Vinnie Moore are prominent performers in this genre.

  Nu metal

Nu metal is a fusion genre that blends heavy metal elements with other styles, including grunge and hip hop. The style is mostly syncopated and based on riffs,[74] and is influenced by groove metal rhythm.[75] Some nu metal bands use seven-string guitars, which are sometimes down-tuned to increase heaviness, resulting in bass guitarists using five and six-string instruments.[76] Turntables, sequencers and samplers are sometimes included.[76] Nu metal vocal styles range between melodic singing, rapping, screaming and death growling. In 1994, Korn became the first band to be labeled as "nu metal".[77] Slipknot, Linkin Park, Deftones, and Korn are prominent bands in this genre.

  Post-metal

This heavy metal movement takes influences from post-rock. While it is in many ways similar to post-rock, post-metal tends to include lower-tuned guitars, distorted guitar(s), heavy atmospherics, gradual evolution of song structure, and a minimal emphasis on vocals. Post-metal stresses emotion, contrasting the ambiance of post-rock with the weight and bombast of metal. Vocals are deemphasized or non-existent, and lyrics tend to be equally abstract: often thematic or philosophical in nature. It is a largely American phenomenon, but also includes some Japanese bands. Bands like Neurosis, Isis, Cult of Luna and Pelican write lengthy songs (typically five or six per album) that can range from light and guitar-driven to heavy, drum and bass-driven.

  Power metal

Power metal is more upbeat than most metal genres, taking heavy influence from heavy metal and speed metal. Power metal often emphasizes clean, melodic, high-pitched vocals, fast pacing that is mostly driven by double bass drumming and melodic lead guitar. The rhythm guitar is defined by straight power chord progressions. Sometimes, screamed vocals or gang vocals are used, but usually only as backing vocals. Power metal leans toward the positive, happy side of life, seeking to empower the listener and inspire joy and courage. Power metal lyrics usually involve fantasy or science fiction themes. Examples of power metal bands include Stratovarius, Sonata Arctica, Helloween, Dragonforce, Kamelot, Firewind, Sabaton and Blind Guardian.

  Progressive metal

Progressive metal is a fusion between progressive rock and heavy metal. It is one of heavy metal's more complex genres, due to its use of unusual and dynamic time signatures, long compositions, complex compositional structures, and skilled instrumental playing, where instrumental solos are detailed and extended. However, the latest age of progressive metal has favoured rougher lyrics and lower-pitched riff sequences with high amounts of strumming. Vocals, if present, are melodic (though there are a few that utilise unclean vocals), and lyrics are often philosophical, spiritual, or political. Many bands of the genre were influenced by the progressive rock band Rush, who would often incorporate elements of heavy metal into their music. Examples of the genre include Queensrÿche, Dream Theater, Opeth and Tool.

  Derivatives of progressive metal

  Djent

Djent, also known as djent metal,[78] is a music genre that emerged as a spin-off from progressive metal.[79][80] The word "djent" is an onomatopoeia for a heavily palm-muted, distorted guitar chord. Typically, the word is used to refer to music that makes use of this sound, to the sound itself, or to the scene that revolves around it.[81] Djent as a style has been described as featuring heavily palm-muted, distorted guitar chords alongside virtuoso soloing,[79] and is characterized by rhythmic complexity and palm-muted riffing.[82] Pioneering bands in the style are Periphery, TesseracT, and Textures.

  Rap metal

Rap metal is a cross-genre term used to describe bands that institute the vocal and lyrical form of hip hop. Examples of rap metal include Limp Bizkit, Stuck Mojo and Rage Against The Machine. The thrash metal band Anthrax also helped pioneer the genre. Often mislabeled as nu metal, which has similar elements in the music, rap metal usually does not include turntables or sampling into its sound, although keyboards are often used.[citation needed]

  Speed metal

Speed metal originated in the late 1970s and early 1980s and was the direct musical progenitor of thrash metal.[83] When speed metal first emerged as a genre, it increased the tempos that had been used by early heavy metal bands, while retaining their melodic approaches. Examples of speed metal include Venom, Motorhead, Annihilator and Accept.

  Stoner rock

Stoner rock or stoner metal is typically slow-to-mid tempo, low-tuned, and bass-heavy.[84] It combines elements of psychedelic rock, blues-rock and doom metal, often with melodic vocals and 'retro' production.[85] The genre emerged during the early 1990s and was pioneered foremost by the Californian bands Kyuss[86] and Sleep.[87] Other prominent stoner metal bands include Acid King, Electric Wizard and Sons of Otis.

  Symphonic metal

Symphonic metal varies in form. It most commonly refers to heavy metal bands that use orchestral elements in their music. These elements include full orchestras, opera themes, vocals or keyboard playing akin to that of opera or symphony music, and a softer and more upbeat nature than other metal genres. Prominent examples include Therion, Nightwish, Within Temptation, and Epica.

  Thrash metal

Thrash metal is often regarded as the first form of extreme metal. It is generally characterised by its fast tempos, complexity and aggression. Thrash metal guitar playing is most notable for the "chugging" sound it creates through low-pitched palm muted riffs, and high-pitched shred guitar solos. Drummers often use double-kick and double-bass drumming. Vocals are most often shouted or sung in an aggressive manner.

Thrash metal evolved from speed metal, NWOBHM and early hardcore punk at the beginning of the 1980s. Bands such as Metallica, Slayer, Megadeth and Anthrax spearheaded thrash metal and are referred to as the genre's "Big Four", while on the European side Sodom, Kreator and Destruction form the so-called "Teutonic Thrash Triangle".

  Derivatives of thrash metal

  Crossover thrash

Crossover thrash, often abbreviated to "crossover,"[88] and sometimes called also "punk metal," is a form of thrash metal that contains more hardcore punk elements than standard thrash. The genre lies on a continuum between heavy metal and punk rock. The genre is often confused with thrashcore, which is essentially a faster hardcore punk rather than a more punk-oriented form of metal.[89][34] Corrosion of Conformity, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles, Suicidal Tendencies, and Discharge are major bands in the genre.

  Teutonic thrash metal

Teutonic thrash metal, or just Teutonic metal, is a regional form of thrash metal that originated in Germany during the 1980's and was heavily influenced by the New Wave of British Heavy Metal. Teutonic thrash is often considered to be "less thrashy" than regular thrash metal, and the style is known to incorporate raspy vocals, palm muted guitar riffs, and frantic double bass drumming. Notable Teutonic bands include Kreator, Destruction, Sodom, Holy Moses, Iron Angel, and Living Death.

  Traditional heavy metal

Traditional heavy metal, also known as classic metal[90] or often simply heavy metal, is a recent umbrella term describing bands and artists who play a metal music style similar to the style heard before the genre evolved and splintered into many different styles and subgenres.[91] It is characterized by mid-to-fast-tempo riffs, by thumping basslines, crunchy riffs, extended lead guitar solos, and clean, often high-pitched vocals and anthemic choruses. It is not generally categorized as a subgenre of metal, but the main genre of it. Examples include Deep Purple, Black Sabbath, Blue Öyster Cult, Alice Cooper, Judas Priest, and Iron Maiden.

  See also

  References

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  2. ^ a b Michael Dome (director) (2007). Murder Music: Black Metal (motion picture). Rockworld TV. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Symphonic black metal entry at allmusic". allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/explore/style/d11957. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  4. ^ Bowar, Chad. "Folk Metal Artists". About.com. http://heavymetal.about.com/od/heavymetalartists/u/heavymetalartistsandstyles.htm#s6. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  5. ^ Von Havoc, Felix (1984-01-01). "Rise of Crust". Profane Existence. http://www.havocrex.com/press/article/3/83. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  6. ^ Morbid Angel page @ Allmusic "Formed in 1984 in Florida, Morbid Angel (along with Death) would also help spearhead an eventual death metal movement in their home state"
  7. ^ Is Metal Still Alive? WATT Magazine, Written by: Robert Heeg, Published: April 1993
  8. ^
    • Silver Dragon Records "During the 1990s death metal diversified influencing many subgenres"
    • Deathmetal.org "The golden years of death metal were from 1988 to 1994, during which time the classics of the genre and all of its variations formed"
  9. ^ Cosmo Lee. "Stylus magazine review". www.stylusmagazine.com. http://www.stylusmagazine.com/reviews/phazm/antebellum-death-n-roll.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-18. "“Death ’n’ roll” arose with Entombed’s 1993 album Wolverine Blues ... Wolverine Blues was like ’70s hard rock tuned down and run through massive distortion and death growls." 
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