Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Human

human (adj.)

1.having human form or attributes as opposed to those of animals or divine beings"human beings" "the human body" "human kindness" "human frailty"

2.characteristic of humanity"human nature"

3.relating to a person"the experiment was conducted on 6 monkeys and 2 human subjects"

human (n.)

1.a human being"there was too much for one person to do"

2.any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae characterized by superior intelligence, articulate speech, and erect carriage

Human (n.)

1.(MeSH)Members of the species Homo sapiens.

   Advertizing ▼

Merriam Webster

HumanHu"man (?), a. [L. humanus; akin to homo man: cf. F. humain. See Homage, and cf. Humane, Omber.] Belonging to man or mankind; having the qualities or attributes of a man; of or pertaining to man or to the race of man; as, a human voice; human shape; human nature; human sacrifices.

To err is human; to forgive, divine. Pope.

HumanHu"man, n. A human being. [Colloq.]

Sprung of humans that inhabit earth. Chapman.

We humans often find ourselves in strange position. Prof. Wilson.

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Human

see also - Human


analogical dictionary


être doté d'une pensée (fr)[ClasseParExt...]

humain (élargi) (fr)[ClasseParExt...]

ce qui se déplace (fr)[Classe...]

man; human being; person; individual; someone; somebody; mortal; soul; human; homo; Earthman; terrestrial; inhabitant of the earth; tellurian; earthling; earthman; worldling; human life[Classe...]


hominid; man; human being; person; individual; someone; somebody; mortal; soul; human[ClasseTaxo.]

personne au sens juridique (fr)[Classe]

character; person; personage; thingumajig; thingummybob; whatsit[Classe]

creature; critter; organism; being[ClasseHyper.]

living creature; living being; organism[ClasseHyper.]

causal agent; cause; causal agency[ClasseHyper.]


(man; human being; person; individual; someone; somebody; mortal; soul; human; homo; Earthman; terrestrial; inhabitant of the earth; tellurian; earthling; earthman; worldling; human life), (human)[Thème]

(hominid; man; human being; person; individual; someone; somebody; mortal; soul; human)[Thème]

(proposition), (inconsistent; confused; disconnected; disjointed; disordered; garbled; illogical; scattered; unconnected), (logic; logical system; system of logic), (inference; illation), (metalogical)[termes liés]







animate thing, living thing - physical entity - group, grouping, party, set - alter, change, modify - ascribe, assign, attribute, impute - ID, identity, individuality, personal identity[Hyper.]

human beings, humanity, humankind, human race, humans, man, mankind, world[membre]

be, live - organic - organic - organismal, organismic - cause, get, have, induce, make, stimulate - cause, do, make - causal - people - people - human, human being, individual, man, mobile portal, mortal, person, somebody, someone, soul, wireless portal - incarnation, personification - person, selfhood - mortality[Dérivé]

become extinct, buy the farm, cash in one's chips, choke, conk, croak, decease, depart this life, die, die out, drop dead, exit, expire, give-up the ghost, go, kick the bucket, pass, pass away, pass on, perish, pop off, snuff it[QuiPeut~]


plural, plural form[Domaine]

[ à cause que ] (fr) - [ pour cause de ] (fr) - because of, due to, for[Syntagme]

depersonalise, depersonalize, make businesslike, make professional, objectify, professionalise, professionalize - immortal[Ant.]

human (n.)





Temporal range: 0.195–0 Ma
Pleistocene – Recent
Humans from Southeast Asia
Conservation status
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Tribe: Hominini
Genus: Homo
Species: H. sapiens
Binomial name
Homo sapiens
Linnaeus, 1758

Homo sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003
Homo sapiens sapiens

Range of Homo sapiens (green)

Humans (Homo sapiens[3][4][5]), the only living members of the genus Homo, are mammals of the primate order originally from Africa, where they reached anatomical modernity about 200,000 years ago and began to exhibit full behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago.[6]

The human lineage diverged from its last common ancestor with the chimpanzee some 5 million years ago in Africa, evolving into the Australopithecines and eventually the genus Homo.[7] The first human species to move out of Africa was Homo erectus, the African variety of which, together with Homo heidelbergensis, is considered to be the immediate ancestor of modern humans.[8][9] Homo sapiens proceeded to colonize the continents, arriving in Australia around 40,000 years ago, the Americas around 15,000 years ago, and remote islands such as Hawaii, Easter Island, and Madagascar between the years 300 AD and 1200 AD. Around 10,000 years ago humans began to practice sedentary agriculture domesticating plants and animals which allowed for a drastic increase in population worldwide. With the development of fuel-driven technologies and new techniques for health improvement in the 19th and 20th centuries, human populations rose even more. With individuals widespread in every continent except Antarctica, humans are a cosmopolitan species. As of November 2011, the human population was estimated to be between 6.97 [10] and 7 billion.[11]

Humans are characterized by having a large brain relative to body size, with a particularly well developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, making them capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, problem solving and culture through social learning. This mental capability, combined with the adaptation to bipedal locomotion that frees the hands for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other living species on Earth. Humans are the only extant species known to build fires and cook their food, as well as the only known species to clothe themselves and create and use numerous other technologies and arts. The study of humans is the scientific discipline of anthropology.

Humans are uniquely adept at utilizing systems of symbolic communication such as language for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to states. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals, which together form the basis of human society. Humans are noted for their desire to understand and influence their environment, seeking to explain and manipulate phenomena through science, philosophy, mythology, and religion.


Etymology and definition

With the discovery and study of fossil ancestors of modern humans the meaning of the word "human" changed, as the previously clear boundary between human and ape blurred, now encompassing multiple species. Today in scientific usage "human" may refer to any member of the genus Homo. Furthermore within Homo sapiens, there is a distinction between anatomically modern Homo sapiens and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species. Sometimes groups such as the Neanderthals are classified as a subspecies of Homo sapiens - Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. However, in everyday usage, and in this article, the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species of the genus - anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. The open question about possible extinct subspecies will be briefly covered. Fossil humans are covered in the article "Homo", and in the articles about individual species of the genus.

The English adjective human is a Middle English loanword from Old French humain, ultimately from Latin hūmānus, the adjective form of homō "man". The word's use as a noun (with a plural: humans) dates to the 16th century.[12] The native English term man can refer to the species generally (a synonym for mankind), and could formerly refer to specific individuals of either sex. The latter use is now obsolete.[13] Generic uses of the term "man" are declining, in favor of reserving it for referring specifically to adult males. The word is from Proto-Germanic *mannaz, from a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) root *man-.

The species binomial Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae, and he himself is the lectotype specimen.[14] The generic name Homo is a learned 18th century derivation from Latin homō "man", ultimately "earthly being" (Old Latin hemō, a cognate to Old English guma "man", from PIE *dʰǵʰemon-, meaning 'earth' or 'ground').[15] The species-name sapiens means "wise" or "sapient".



Scientific study of human evolution studies the development of the genus Homo, reconstructing the evolutionary divergence of the human lineage from other hominins (shared ancestors of humans and chimpanzees), hominids (great apes) and primates. "Modern humans" are defined as belonging to the species Homo sapiens, specifically to the single extant subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens.

Evidence from molecular biology

  Family tree showing the extant hominoids: humans (genus Homo), chimpanzees and bonobos (genus Pan), gorillas (genus Gorilla), orangutans (genus Pongo), and gibbons (four genera of the family Hylobatidae: Hylobates, Hoolock, Nomascus, and Symphalangus). All except gibbons are hominids.

The closest living relatives of humans are gorillas and chimpanzees.[16] With the sequencing of both the Human and Chimpanzee genome, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%.[16][17][18] By using the technique called a molecular clock which estimates the time required for the number of divergent mutations to accumulate between two lineages, the approximate date for the split between lineages can be calculated. The gibbons (hylobatidae) and orangutans ( genus Pongo) were the first groups to split from the line leading to the humans, then gorillas (genus gorilla) followed by the chimpanzees and bonobos (genus Pan). The splitting date between human and Chimpanzee lineages is placed around 4-8 million years ago during the late Miocene epoch.[19][20][21]

Evidence from the fossil record

  Skulls of 1. Gorilla 2. Australopithecus 3. Homo erectus 4. Neanderthal (La Chapelle aux Saints) 5. Steinheim Skull (Archaic Homo sapiens) 6. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens

There is little fossil evidence for the divergence of the gorilla, chimpanzee and hominin lineages.[22][23] The earliest fossils that have been proposed as members of the hominin lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis dating from 7 million years ago, and Orrorin tugenensis dating from 5.7 million years ago and Ardipithecus kadabba dating to 5.6 million years ago. Each of these have been argued to be a bipedal ancestor of later hominins, but in each cases the claims have been contested. It is also possible that either of these species are ancestors of another branch of African apes, or that they represent a shared ancestor between hominins and other apes. The question of the relation between these early fossil species and the hominin lineage is still to be resolved. From these early species the Australopithecines arose around 4 million years ago diverged into robust (also called Paranthropus) and gracile branches, one of which (possibly A. garhi) went on to become ancestors of the genus Homo.

The earliest members of the genus Homo are Homo habilis which evolved around 2.3 million years ago. Homo habilis is the first species for which we have positive evidence of use of stone tools. The brains of these early hominins were about the same size as that of a chimpanzee, and their main adaptation was bipedalism as an adaptation to terrestrial living. During the next million years a process of encephalization began, and with the arrival of Homo erectus in the fossil record, cranial capacity had doubled. Homo erectus were the first of the hominina to leave Africa, and these species spread through Africa, Asia, and Europe between 1.3 to 1.8 million years ago. One population of H. erectus, also sometimes classified as a separate species Homo ergaster, stayed in Africa and evolved into Homo sapiens. It is believed that these species were the first to use fire and complex tools. The earliest transitional fossils between H. ergaster/erectus and '' Archaic H. sapiens are from Africa such as Homo rhodesiensis, but seemingly transitional forms are also found at Dmanisi, Georgia. These descendants of African H. erectus spread through Eurasia from ca. 500,000 years ago evolving into H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis. The earliest fossils of Anatomically modern humans are from the Middle Paleolithic, about 200,000 years ago such as the Omo remains of Ethiopia, later fossils from Skhul in Israel and Southern Europe begin around 90,000 years ago.

Anatomical adaptations

  Reconstruction of Homo habilis, the first human ancestor to use stone tools.

Human evolution is characterized by a number of morphological, developmental, physiological, and behavioral changes that have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. The most significant of these adaptations are 1. bipedalism, 2. increased brain size, 3. lengthened ontogeny (gestation and infancy), 4. decreased sexual dimorphism. The relationship between all these changes is the subject of ongoing debate.[24] Other significant morphological changes included the evolution of a power and precision grip, a change first occurring H. erectus. [25]

Bipedalism is the basic adaption of the Hominin line, and it is considered the main cause behind a suite of skeletal changes shared by all bipedal hominins. The earliest bipedal Hominin is considered to be either Sahelanthropus[26] or Orrorin, with Ardipithecus, a full bipedal, coming somewhat later. The knuckle walkers, the gorilla and chimpanzee, diverged around the same time, and either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may be our last shared ancestor with those. The early bipedals eventually evolved into the Australopithecines and later the genus Homo. There are several theories of the adaptational value of bipedalism. It is possible that bipedalism was favored because it freed up the hands for reaching and carrying food, because it saved energy during locomotion, because it enabled long distance running and hunting, or as a strategy for avoiding hyperthermia by reducing the surface exposed to direct sun.

The human species developed a much larger brain than that of other primates – typically 1,330 cc in modern humans, over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or gorilla.[27] The pattern of encephalization started with Homo habilis which at approximately 600 cc had a brain slightly larger than chimpanzees, and continued with Homo erectus (800-1100 cc), and reached a maximum in Neanderthals with an average size of (1200-1900cc), larger even than Homo sapiens. The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans. However, the differences between the structure of human brains and those of other apes may be even more significant than differences in size.[28][29][30][31] The increase in volume over time has affected different areas within the brain unequally - the temporal lobes, which contain centers for language processing have increased disproportionately, as has the prefrontal cortex which has been related to complex decision making and moderating social behavior.[27] Encephalization has been been tied to an increasing emphasis on meat in the diet,[32][33] or with the development of cooking,[34] and it has been proposed that intelligence increased as a response to an increased necessity for solving social problems as human society became more complex.

The reduced degree of sexual dimorphism is primarily visible in the a reduction of the male canine tooth relative to other ape species (except gibbons). Another important physiological change related to sexuality in humans was the evolution of hidden estrus. Humans are the only ape in which the female is fertile year round, and in which no special signals of fertility are produced by the body (such as genital swelling during estrus). Nonetheless humans retain a degree of sexual dimorphism in the distribution of body hair and subcutaneous fat, and in the overall size, males being around 25% larger than females. These changes taken together have been interpreted as a result of an increased emphasis on pair bonding as a possible solution to the requirement for increased parental investment due to the prolonged infancy of off spring.

Rise of Homo sapiens

  The path followed by humans in the course of history

By the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period (50,000 BP (Before Present)), full behavioral modernity, including language, music and other cultural universals had developed.[35][36] As modern humans spread out from Africa they encountered other hominins such as Homo neanderthalensis and the so-called Denisovans, who may have evolved from populations of Homo erectus that had left Africa already around 2 million years ago. The nature of interaction between early humans and these sister species has been a long standing source of controversy, the question being whether humans replaced these earlier species or whether they were in fact similar enough to interbreed, in which case these earlier populations may have contributed genetic material to modern humans.[37] Recent studies of the Human and Neanderthal genomes suggest gene flow between archaic Homo sapiens and Neanderthals and Denisovans.[38]

This migration out of Africa is estimated to have begun about 70,000 years BP. Modern humans subsequently spread globally, replacing earlier hominins (either through competition or hybridization). They inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 years BP, and the Americas at least 14,500 years BP.[39][40]

Transition to civilization

  The rise of agriculture, and domestication of animals, led to stable human settlements.

Until c. 10,000 years ago, humans lived as hunter-gatherers. They generally lived in small nomadic groups known as band societies. The advent of agriculture prompted the Neolithic Revolution, when access to food surplus led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of animals and the use of metal tools for the first time in history. Agriculture encouraged trade and cooperation, and led to complex society. Because of the significance of this date for human society, it is the epoch of the Holocene calendar or Human Era.

About 6,000 years ago, the first proto-states developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt's Nile Valley and the Indus Valleys. Military forces were formed for protection, and government bureaucracies for administration. States cooperated and competed for resources, in some cases waging wars. Around 2,000–3,000 years ago, some states, such as Persia, India, China, Rome, and Greece, developed through conquest into the first expansive empires. Ancient Greece was the seminal civilization that laid the foundations of Western culture, being the birthplace of Western philosophy, democracy, major scientific and mathematical advances, the Olympic Games, Western literature and historiography, as well as Western drama, including both tragedy and comedy.[41] Influential religions, such as Judaism, originating in West Asia, and Hinduism, a religious tradition that originated in South Asia, also rose to prominence at this time.

The late Middle Ages saw the rise of revolutionary ideas and technologies. In China, an advanced and urbanized society promoted innovations and sciences, such as printing and seed drilling. In India, major advancements were made in mathematics, philosophy, religion and metallurgy. The Islamic Golden Age saw major scientific advancements in Muslim empires. In Europe, the rediscovery of classical learning and inventions such as the printing press led to the Renaissance in the 14th and 15th centuries. Over the next 500 years, exploration and colonialism brought great parts of the world under European control, leading to later struggles for independence. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century and the Industrial Revolution in the 18th–19th centuries promoted major innovations in transport, such as the railway and automobile; energy development, such as coal and electricity; and government, such as representative democracy and Communism.

With the advent of the Information Age at the end of the 20th century, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalized and interconnected. As of 2010, almost 2 billion humans are able to communicate with each other via the Internet,[42] and 3.3 billion by mobile phone subscriptions.[43]

Although interconnection between humans has encouraged the growth of science, art, discussion, and technology, it has also led to culture clashes and the development and use of weapons of mass destruction. Human civilization has led to environmental destruction and pollution significantly contributing to the ongoing mass extinction of other forms of life called the holocene extinction event,[44] that may be further accelerated by global warming in the future.[45]

Habitat and population

  Humans often live in family-based social structures and create artificial shelter.

Early human settlements were dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources used for subsistence, such as populations of animal prey for hunting and arable land for growing crops and grazing livestock. But humans have a great capacity for altering their habitats by means of technology, through irrigation, urban planning, construction, transport, manufacturing goods, deforestation and desertification. Deliberate habitat alteration is often done with the goals of increasing material wealth, increasing thermal comfort, improving the amount of food available, improving aesthetics, or improving ease of access to resources or other human settlements. With the advent of large-scale trade and transport infrastructure, proximity to these resources has become unnecessary, and in many places, these factors are no longer a driving force behind the growth and decline of a population. Nonetheless, the manner in which a habitat is altered is often a major determinant in population change.

Technology has allowed humans to colonize all of the continents and adapt to virtually all climates. Within the last century, humans have explored Antarctica, the ocean depths, and outer space, although large-scale colonization of these environments is not yet feasible. With a population of over seven billion, humans are among the most numerous of the large mammals. Most humans (61%) live in Asia. The remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (14%), Europe (11%), and Oceania (0.5%).[citation needed]

Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environments, such as Antarctica and outer space, is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Life in space has been very sporadic, with no more than thirteen humans in space at any given time.[46] Between 1969 and 1972, two humans at a time spent brief intervals on the Moon. As of July 2012, no other celestial body has been visited by humans, although there has been a continuous human presence in space since the launch of the initial crew to inhabit the International Space Station on October 31, 2000.[47] However, other celestial bodies have been visited by human-made objects.

Since 1800, the human population has increased from one billion to over seven billion. In 2004, some 2.5 billion out of 6.3 billion people (39.7%) lived in urban areas, and this percentage is expected to continue to rise throughout the 21st century. In February 2008, the U.N. estimated that half the world's population will live in urban areas by the end of the year.[48] Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime,[49] especially in inner city and suburban slums.

Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. As humans are rarely preyed upon, they have been described as superpredators.[50] Currently, through land development, combustion of fossil fuels, and pollution, humans are thought to be the main contributor to global climate change.[51] If this continues at its current rate it is predicted that it will wipe out half of all species over the next century.[52][53]


  Basic anatomical features of female and male humans. These models have had body hair and male facial hair removed and head hair trimmed.
  Vitruvian Man, Leonardo da Vinci's image is often used as an implied symbol of the essential symmetry of the human body, and by extension, of the universe as a whole.

Anatomy and physiology

Human body types vary substantially. Although body size is largely determined by genes, it is also significantly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and exercise. The average height of an adult human is about 1.5 to 1.8 m (5 to 6 feet) tall, although this varies significantly from place to place and depending on ethnic origin.[54] The average mass of an adult human is 54–64 kg (120–140 lbs) for females and 76–83 kg (168–183 lbs) for males.[55] Weight can also vary greatly (e.g. obesity).

Although humans appear hairless compared to other primates, with notable hair growth occurring chiefly on the top of the head, underarms and pubic area, the average human has more hair follicles on his or her body than the average chimpanzee. The main distinction is that human hairs are shorter, finer, and less heavily pigmented than the average chimpanzee's, thus making them harder to see.[56] Humans, however have sweat glands, which other primates do, making them able to conserve energy in tropical environments.

The hue of human skin and hair is determined by the presence of pigments called melanins. Human skin hues can range from dark brown to pale pink, or even nearly white or colorless, such as in cases of Albinism. Human hair ranges from white to brown to red to most commonly black.[57] This depends on the amount of melanin (an effective sun blocking pigment) in the skin and hair, with hair melanin concentrations in hair fading with increased age, leading to grey or even white hair. Most researchers believe that skin darkening was an adaptation that evolved as a protection against ultraviolet solar radiation, which also helps balancing folate, which is destroyed by ultraviolet radiation, and vitamin D, which requires sunlight to form.[58] The skin pigmentation of contemporary humans is clinally distributed across the planet, and in general correlates with the level of ultraviolet radiation. Human skin also has a capacity to darken (sun tanning) in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation.[59][60] Humans tend to be physically weaker than other similarly sized primates, with young, conditioned male humans having been shown to be unable to match the strength of female orangutans, which are at least three times stronger.[61]

The construction of the human pelvis differs from other primates, as do the toes. As a result, humans are slower for short distances than most other animals, but are among the best long-distance runners in the animal kingdom.[62] Humans' thinner body hair and more productive sweat glands also help avoid heat exhaustion while running for long distances. A trade-off for these advantages of the modern human pelvis is that childbirth is more difficult and dangerous, especially given that the larger head size of human babies compared to other primates. This means that human babies must turn around as they pass through the birth canal which other primates do not do, and it makes humans the only species in which females require help from their conspecifics to reduce the risks of birthing.

The dental formula of Humans is: Upper:, lower: Humans have proportionately shorter palates and much smaller teeth than other primates. They are the only primates to have short, relatively flush canine teeth. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young individuals. Humans are gradually losing their wisdom teeth, with some individuals having them congenitally absent.[63]


  A graphical representation of the ideal human karyotype, including both the male and female variant of the sex chromosome (number 23).

Like all mammals humans are a diploid eukaryotic species. Each somatic cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes, each set received from one parent, gametes have only one set of chromosomes which is a mixture of the two parental sets. Among the 23 chromosomes there are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system, so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY.

One human genome was sequenced in full in 2003, and currently efforts are being made to achieve a sample of the genetic diversity of the species (see International HapMap Project). By present estimates, humans have approximately 22,000 genes.[64] The variation in human DNA is minute compared to that of other species, possibly suggesting a population bottleneck during the Late Pleistocene (ca. 100,000 years ago), in which the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs.[65][66] Nucleotide diversity is based on single mutations called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The nucleotide diversity between humans is about 0.1%, which is 1 difference per 1,000 base pairs.[67][68][69] A difference of 1 in 1,000 nucleotides between two humans chosen at random amounts to approximately 3 million nucleotide differences since the human genome has about 3 billion nucleotides. Most of these SNPs are neutral but some (about 3 to 5%) are functional and influence phenotypic differences between humans through alleles.

By comparing the parts of the genome that are not under natural selection and which therefore accumulate mutations at a fairly steady rate, it is possible to reconstruct a genetic tree incorporating the entire human species since the last shared ancestor. Each time a certain mutation (Single nucleotide polymorphism) appears in an individual and is passed on to his or her descendants a haplogroup is formed including all of the descendants of the individual who will also carry that mutation. By comparing mitochondrial DNA which is inherited only from the mother, geneticists have concluded that the last female common ancestor whose genetic marker is found in all modern humans, the so-called mitochondrial Eve, must have lived around 200,000 years ago.

The forces of natural selection have continued to operate on human populations, with evidence that certain regions of the genome display directional selection in the past 15,000 years.[70]

Life cycle

  A 10 mm human embryo at 5 weeks
Boy and girl before puberty
Adult man and woman in the reproductive age
Elderly man and woman (after menopause)

As with other mammals, human reproduction takes place as internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. During this process, the erect penis of the male is inserted into the female's vagina until the male ejaculates semen, which contains sperm. The sperm travels through the vagina and cervix into the uterus or Fallopian tubes for fertilization of the ovum. Upon fertilization and implantation, gestation then occurs within the female's uterus.

The zygote divides inside the female's uterus to become an embryo, which over a period of thirty-eight weeks (9 months) of gestation becomes a fetus. After this span of time, the fully grown fetus is birthed from the woman's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person entitled to the full protection of the law, though some jurisdictions extend various levels of personhood earlier to human fetuses while they remain in the uterus.

Compared with other species, human childbirth is dangerous. Painful labors lasting twenty-four hours or more are not uncommon and sometimes lead to the death of the mother, the child or both.[71] This is because of both the relatively large fetal head circumference and the mother's relatively narrow pelvis.[72][73] The chances of a successful labor increased significantly during the 20th century in wealthier countries with the advent of new medical technologies. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates approximately 100 times greater than in developed countries.[74]

In developed countries, infants are typically 3–4 kg (6–9 pounds) in weight and 50–60 cm (20–24 inches) in height at birth.[75] However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions.[76] Helpless at birth, humans continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at 12 to 15 years of age. Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 18, whereas male development continues until around age 21. The human life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age. The lengths of these stages, however, have varied across cultures and time periods. Compared to other primates, humans experience an unusually rapid growth spurt during adolescence, where the body grows 25% in size. Chimpanzees, for example, grow only 14%, with no pronounced spurt.[77] The presence of the growth spurt is probably necessary to keep children physically small until they are psychologically mature. Humans are one of the few species in which females undergo menopause. It has been proposed that menopause increases a woman's overall reproductive success by allowing her to invest more time and resources in her existing offspring and/or their children (the grandmother hypothesis), rather than by continuing to bear children into old age.[78][79]

There are significant differences in life expectancy around the world. The developed world is generally aging, with the median age around 40 years. In the developing world the median age is between 15 and 20 years. Life expectancy at birth in Hong Kong is 84.8 years for a female and 78.9 for a male, while in Swaziland, primarily because of AIDS, it is 31.3 years for both sexes.[80] While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older.[81] The number of centenarians (humans of age 100 years or older) in the world was estimated by the United Nations at 210,000 in 2002.[82] At least one person, Jeanne Calment, is known to have reached the age of 122 years;[83] higher ages have been claimed but they are not well substantiated. Worldwide, there are 81 men aged 60 or older for every 100 women of that age group, and among the oldest, there are 53 men for every 100 women.


  Humans preparing a meal in Bali, Indonesia.

Humans are omnivorous, capable of consuming a wide variety of plant and animal material.[84][85] Varying with available food sources in regions of habitation, and also varying with cultural and religious norms, human groups have adopted a range of diets, from purely vegetarian to primarily carnivorous. In some cases, dietary restrictions in humans can lead to deficiency diseases; however, stable human groups have adapted to many dietary patterns through both genetic specialization and cultural conventions to use nutritionally balanced food sources.[86] The human diet is prominently reflected in human culture, and has led to the development of food science.

Until the development of agriculture approximately 10,000 years ago, Homo sapiens employed a hunter-gatherer method as their sole means of food collection. This involved combining stationary food sources (such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms, insect larvae and aquatic mollusks) with wild game, which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed.[87] It has been proposed that humans have used fire to prepare and cook food since the time of Homo erectus).[88] Around ten thousand years ago, humans developed agriculture,[89] which substantially altered their diet. This change in diet may also have altered human biology; with the spread of dairy farming providing a new and rich source of food, leading to the evolution of the ability to digest lactose in some adults.[90][91] Agriculture led to increased populations, the development of cities, and because of increased population density, the wider spread of infectious diseases. The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, has varied widely by time, location, and culture.

In general, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on stored body fat. Survival without water is usually limited to three or four days. About 36 million humans die every year from causes directly or indirectly related to hunger.[92] Childhood malnutrition is also common and contributes to the global burden of disease.[93] However global food distribution is not even, and obesity among some human populations has increased rapidly, leading to health complications and increased mortality in some developed, and a few developing countries. Worldwide over one billion people are obese,[94] while in the United States 35% of people are obese, leading to this being described as an "obesity epidemic".[95] Obesity is caused by consuming more calories than are expended, so excessive weight gain is usually caused by a combination of an energy-dense high fat diet and insufficient exercise.[94]


Humans are generally diurnal. The average sleep requirement is between seven and nine hours per day for an adult and nine to ten hours per day for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Having less sleep than this is common among humans, even though sleep deprivation can have negative health effects. A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort.[96]

Biological variation

  People in warm climates are often relatively slender, lanky, and dark skinned such as these Maasai men from Kenya.
  People in cold climates tend to be relatively short, stocky and fair skinned such as these Inuit women from Canada.

Most current genetic and archaeological evidence supports a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa[97] with first migrations placed at 60,000 years ago. Current genetic studies have demonstrated that humans on the African continent are the most genetically diverse.[98] However, compared to the other great apes, human gene sequences are remarkably homogeneous.[99]

Nonetheless, there is important biological variation in the human species — with traits such as skin color, eye color, hair color and texture, height and built, and cranial features varying clinally across the globe. Those aspects of genetic variation that gives clue to human evolutionary history, or which are relevant for medical research have received particular attention. For example the genes that cause adult humans to be able to digest lactose are present in high frequencies in population that have long histories of cattle domestication, suggesting natural selection having favored that gene in populations that depend on cow milk. Some hereditary diseases such as Sickle cell anemia are frequent in populations from areas in which Malaria has been endemic throughout history — it is believed that the same gene that causes increased resistance to Malaria among those who are unaffected carriers of the gene. Similarly populations that have inhabited specific climates such as arctic or tropical regions or high altitudes, tend to have developed specific phenotypes that are beneficial for conserving energy in those environments — short stature and stocky built in cold regions, tall and lanky in hot regions, and with high lung capacities in high altitudes. Similarly variation in skincolor varies clinally with darker colors around the equator where the added protection from the sun is thought to gives an evolutionary advantage, and lighter skin tones closer to the poles where there is less sunlight and the lighter colored skin improves Vitamin D synthesis.

Today it is possible to determine, by genetic analysis, the geographic ancestry of a person and the degree of ancestry from each region. Such analyses can pinpoint the migrational history of a persons ancestors with a high degree of accuracy. Often, due to practices of group endogamy, allele frequencies cluster locally around kin groups and lineages, or by national, cultural or linguistic boundaries, giving a detailed degree of correlation between genetic clusters and population groups when considering many alleles simultaneously.


  A Libyan, a Nubian, a Syrian, and an Egyptian, drawing by an unknown artist after a mural of the tomb of Seti I.

There is considerable biological variation in between human populations across the globe, resulting in fairly variable phenotypes. Traditionally human phenotypical variation has been described as breaking down into large continental races, characterized by easily definable traits. Humans were then classified into one of four or five phenotypical groups often based on skin color, hair texture, and facial anatomy, and which were matched to a continent with which each group were associated. Often racial classification of humans was described in terms of essential characteristics, and came to serve as a way of naturalizing social and cultural stereotypes about racial groups, in turn justifying or motivating different forms of racism. As the study of human biological variation advanced it became clear that most variation is clinally distributed and blends gradually from one area to the next, with no clear boundaries between continents, additionally different traits have different clinal distributions. This realization made many anthropologists and biologists abandon the idea of major human races, instead describing biological variation in terms of populations and clinally distributed traits.

Today there is no scientific consensus on the biological relevance of race. While biological characteristics of an individual can give many clues about the geographical origin of their ancestors, anthropologists generally reject the notion of human "race" as a basically biological concept seeing it instead as a set of social constructions that map onto, but partly obscures, biological variation. Most anthropologists also maintain that the term "race" tacitly assumes that races are clearly bounded groups with essential characteristics, often ordered hierarchically and used to justify social inequality.[100][101][102] An opposing view has it that it is possible to talk about "races" without making essentialist or hierarchical assumptions, and some biologists and many forensic scientists use the word race to describe biological variation associated with continental ancestry. It is generally agreed upon that certain genetic traits, including some common illnesses, correlate with genetic ancestry from specific regions, and genetic ancestry as determined by racial identification is becoming an increasingly common tool for risk assessment in medicine.[103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110]

The use of the term "race" to mean something like "subspecies" among humans is obsolete; Homo sapiens has no existing subspecies. In its modern scientific connotation, the term is not applicable to a species as genetically homogeneous as the human one, as stated in the declaration on race (UNESCO 1950, re-ratified 1978[111]).[112] Genetic studies have substantiated the absence of clear biological borders; thus the term "race" is rarely used in scientific terminology, either in biological anthropology and in human genetics.[113] What in the past had been defined as "races"—whites, blacks, or Asians—are now defined as "ethnic groups" or "populations", in correlation with the field (sociology, anthropology, genetics) in which they are considered.[114][115]


The human brain, the focal point of the central nervous system in humans, controls the peripheral nervous system. In addition to controlling "lower", involuntary, or primarily autonomic activities such as respiration and digestion, it is also the locus of "higher" order functioning such as thought, reasoning, and abstraction.[116] These cognitive processes constitute the mind, and, along with their behavioral consequences, are studied in the field of psychology.

Generally regarded as more capable of these higher order activities, the human brain is believed to be more "intelligent" in general than that of any other known species. While some non-human species are capable of creating structures and using simple tools—mostly through instinct and mimicry—human technology is vastly more complex, and is constantly evolving and improving through time.

Consciousness and thought

Humans are one of only several species to have sufficient self-awareness to recognize themselves in a mirror.[117] Already at 18 months, most human children are aware that the mirror image is not another person..[118]

The human brain perceives the external world through the senses, and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought. These are said to possess qualities such as self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above.

The physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system, are studied in the field of neurology, the more behavioral in the field of psychology, and a sometimes loosely defined area between in the field of psychiatry, which treats mental illness and behavioral disorders. Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience.

The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes' underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well researched areas as well. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology. Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development.

Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the processing of the things in experience.[119] Phenomenal consciousness is the state of being conscious, such as when they say "I am conscious." Access consciousness is being conscious of something in relation to abstract concepts, such as when one says "I am conscious of these words." Various forms of access consciousness include awareness, self-awareness, conscience, stream of consciousness, Husserl's phenomenology, and intentionality. The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some, is closely related to the concept of qualia. Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition, ethology, evolutionary psychology, and comparative psychology as well. Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment.

Motivation and emotion

Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of humans. Motivation is based on emotion—specifically, on the search for satisfaction (positive emotional experiences), and the avoidance of conflict. Positive and negative is defined by the individual brain state, which may be influenced by social norms: a person may be driven to self-injury or violence because his brain is conditioned to create a positive response to these actions. Motivation is important because it is involved in the performance of all learned responses. Within psychology, conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics, motivation is often seen to be based on incentives; these may be financial, moral, or coercive. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences.

Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people might define it as the best condition that a human can have—a condition of mental and physical health. Others define it as freedom from want and distress; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society.

Emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked. Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant, such as love, admiration, or joy, contrast with those perceived as unpleasant, like hate, envy, or sorrow. There is often a distinction made between refined emotions that are socially learned and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate. Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state. In some cultural medical theories emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist. The Stoics believed excessive emotion was harmful, while some Sufi teachers felt certain extreme emotions could yield a conceptual perfection, what is often translated as ecstasy.

In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered a complex neural trait innate in a variety of domesticated and non-domesticated mammals. These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mechanisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed. However, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime.

Sexuality and love

Human sexuality, besides ensuring biological reproduction, has important social functions: it creates physical intimacy, bonds, and hierarchies among individuals; and in a hedonistic sense to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. Sexual desire, or libido, is experienced as a bodily urge, often accompanied by strong emotions such as love, ecstasy, and jealousy. The significance of sexuality in the human species is reflected in a number of physical features, among them hidden ovulation, the evolution of external scrotum and penis suggesting sperm competition, the absence of an os penis, permanent secondary sexual characteristics, the forming of pair bonds based on sexual attraction as a common social structure and sexual ability in females outside of ovulation–human females do not have a distinct or visible estrus. These adaptations indicate that the importance of sexuality in humans is on a par with that found in the Bonobo, and that the complex human sexual behavior has a long evolutionary history.[120]

Human choices in acting on sexuality are commonly influenced by cultural norms, which vary widely. Restrictions are often determined by religious beliefs or social customs. The pioneering researcher Sigmund Freud believed that humans are born polymorphously perverse, which means that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. According to Freud, humans then pass through five stages of psychosexual development (and can fixate on any stage because of various traumas during the process). For Alfred Kinsey, another influential sex researcher, people can fall anywhere along a continuous scale of sexual orientation (with only small minorities fully heterosexual or homosexual). Recent studies of neurology and genetics suggest people may be born predisposed to various sexual tendencies.[121][122]


Human society statistics
World population 7 billion
Population density[citation needed] 12.7 per km² (4.9 mi²) by total area
43.6 per km² (16.8 mi²) by land area
Largest agglomerations[citation needed] Beijing, Bogotá, Buenos Aires, Cairo, Delhi, Dhaka, Guangzhou, Istanbul, Jakarta, Karachi, Kinshasa, Kolkata, Lagos, Lima, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, Moscow, Mumbai, New York City, Osaka, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Seoul, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tehran, Tianjin, Tokyo, Wuhan
Most widely spoken languages[123] Mandarin Chinese, English, Spanish, Arabic, Hindi, Bengali, Portuguese, Russian, Japanese, German, Javanese, Punjabi, Telugu, Vietnamese, French, Marathi, Turkish, Korean, Tamil, Italian, Urdu, Indonesian
Most popular religions[124] Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Judaism, Baha'i
GDP (nominal)[citation needed] $36,356,240 million USD
($5,797 USD per capita)
GDP (PPP)[citation needed] $51,656,251 million IND
($8,236 per capita)

Humans are highly social beings and tend to live in large complex social groups. More than any other creature, humans are adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization, and as such have created complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups. Human groups range from families to nations. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals, which together form the basis of human society.

Culture is defined here as patterns of complex symbolic behavior, i.e. all behavior that is not innate but which has to be learned through social interaction with others; such as the use of distinctive material and symbolic systems, including language, ritual, social organization, traditions, beliefs and technology.


All human societies organize, recognize and classify types of social relationships based on relations between parents and children (consanguinity), and relations through marriage (affinity). These kinds of relations are generally called kinship relations. In most societies kinship places mutual responsibilities and expectations of solidarity on the individuals that are so related, and those who recognize each other as kinsmen come to form networks through which other social institutions can be regulated. Among the many functions of kinship is the ability to form descent groups, groups of people sharing a common line of descent, which can function as political units such as clans. Another function is the way in which kinship unites families through marriage, forming kinship alliances between groups of wife-takers and wife-givers. Such alliances also often have important political and economical ramifications, and may result in the formation of political organization above the community level. Kinship relations often includes regulations for whom an individual should or shouldn't marry. All societies have rules of incest taboo, according to which marriage between certain kinds of kin relations are prohibited - such rules vary widely between cultures. Some societies also have rules of preferential marriage with certain kin relations, frequently with either cross or parallel cousins. Rules and norms for marriage and social behavior among kinsfolk is often reflected in the systems of kinship terminology in the various languages of the world. In many societies kinship relations can also be formed through forms of co-habitation, adoption, fostering, or companionship, which also tends to create relations of enduring solidarity.


Humans often form ethnic groups, such groups tend to be larger than kinship networks and be organized around a common identity defined variously in terms of shared ancestry and history, shared cultural norms and language, or shared biological phenotype. Ethnic groupings often correspond to some level of political organization such as the band, tribe, citystate or nation. Although ethnic groups appear and disappear through history, members of ethnic groups often conceptualize ethnic groups as having histories going back into the deep past, such ideologies give ethnicity a powerful role in defining social identity and in constructing solidarity between members of an ethno-political unit. This unifying property of ethnicity has been closely tied to the rise of the nation state as the predominant form of political organization in the 19th and 20th century.[125][126][127][128][129][130]

Gender roles

The sexual division of humans into male and female has been marked culturally by a corresponding division of roles, norms, practices, dress, behavior, rights, duties, privileges, status, and power. Cultural differences by gender have often been believed to have arisen naturally out of a division of reproductive labor; the biological fact that women give birth led to their further cultural responsibility for nurturing and caring for children. Gender roles have varied historically, and challenges to predominant gender norms have recurred in many societies.

Society, government, and politics

  The United Nations complex in New York City, which houses one of the largest political organizations in the world

Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interaction between humans. A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. Recognition of the state's claim to independence by other states, enabling it to enter into international agreements, is often important to the establishment of its statehood. The "state" can also be defined in terms of domestic conditions, specifically, as conceptualized by Max Weber, "a state is a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the 'legitimate' use of physical force within a given territory."[131]

Government can be defined as the political means of creating and enforcing laws; typically via a bureaucratic hierarchy. Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups; this process often involves conflict as well as compromise. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. Many different political systems exist, as do many different ways of understanding them, and many definitions overlap. Examples of governments include monarchy, Communist state, military dictatorship, theocracy, and liberal democracy, the last of which is considered dominant today. All of these issues have a direct relationship with economics.

Trade and economics

  Buyers and sellers bargaining in a market

Trade is the voluntary exchange of goods and services, and is a form of economics. A mechanism that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Because of specialization and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of manufacturing or service, trading their labor for products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have an absolute or comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production.

Economics is a social science which studies the production, distribution, trade, and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on measurable variables, and is broadly divided into two main branches: microeconomics, which deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, and macroeconomics, which considers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities. Aspects receiving particular attention in economics are resource allocation, production, distribution, trade, and competition. Economic logic is increasingly applied to any problem that involves choice under scarcity or determining economic value.


War is a state of widespread conflict between states or other large groups of humans, which is characterized by the use of lethal violence between combatants and/or upon civilians. (Humans also engage in lesser conflicts, such as brawls, riots, revolts, and melees. A revolution may or may not involve warfare.) It is estimated that during the 20th century between 167 and 188 million humans died as a result of war.[132] A common perception of war is a series of military campaigns between at least two opposing sides involving a dispute over sovereignty, territory, resources, religion, or other issues. A war between internal elements of a state is a civil war.

There have been a wide variety of rapidly advancing tactics throughout the history of war, ranging from conventional war to asymmetric warfare to total war and unconventional warfare. Techniques include hand to hand combat, the use of ranged weapons, Naval warfare, and, more recently, air support. Military intelligence has often played a key role in determining victory and defeat. Propaganda, which often includes information, slanted opinion and disinformation, plays a key role in maintaining unity within a warring group, and/or sowing discord among opponents. In modern warfare, soldiers and combat vehicles are used to control the land, warships the sea, and aircraft the sky. These fields have also overlapped in the forms of marines, paratroopers, naval aircraft carriers, and surface-to-air missiles, among others. Satellites in low Earth orbit have made outer space a factor in warfare as well as it is used for detailed intelligence gathering, however no known aggressive actions have been taken from space.

Material culture and technology

  An archaic Acheulean stone tool

Stone tools were used by proto-humans at least 2.5 million years ago.[133] The controlled use of fire began around 1.5 million years ago. Since then, humans have made major advances, developing complex technology to create tools to aid their lives and allowing for other advancements in culture. Major leaps in technology include the discovery of agriculture – what is known as the Neolithic Revolution, and the invention of automated machines in the Industrial Revolution.

Archaeology attempts to tell the story of past or lost cultures in part by close examination of the artifacts they produced. Early humans left stone tools, pottery, and jewelry that are particular to various regions and times.

Body culture

Throughout their history humans have altered their appearance by wearing clothing [134][135] and adornments, by trimming or shaving hair or by means of body modifications.

Body modification is the deliberate altering of the human body for any non-medical reason, such as aesthetics, sexual enhancement, a rite of passage, religious reasons, to display group membership or affiliation, to create body art, shock value, or self expression.[136] In its most broad definition it includes plastic surgery, socially acceptable decoration (e.g., common ear piercing in many societies), and religious rites of passage (e.g., circumcision in a number of cultures).[136]


The human capacity to exchange information and ideas through speech (and recently, writing) is unparalleled in other species. Unlike the closed sign systems of other primates in which sounds are unique and mutually exclusive, human language is open — an infinite number of meanings can be produced by combining a limited number of sounds and words. Human language also has the capacity of displacement, using words to represent things and happenings that are not presently or locally occurring, but reside in the shared imagination of interlocutors.[63] Basic displacement may occur in other species, but is uniquely elaborated in humans, allowing symbols and language to refer to abstract or even purely imaginary states, and underpinning the complex symbolic culture of the species. The faculty of speech is a defining feature of humanity, possibly predating phylogenetic separation of the modern population. Language is central to the communication between humans, and to the sense of identity that unites nations, cultures and ethnic groups. The invention of writing systems at least five thousand years ago allowed the preservation of language on material objects, and was a major technological advancement. The science of linguistics describes the structure of language and the relationship between languages. There are approximately six thousand different languages currently in use, including sign languages, and many thousands more that are extinct.[137]

Religion and spirituality

  Religion and spirituality are important aspects of human cultures, as is seen in The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo.
  Nsibidi script from Nigeria. A means of communication among the initiates of the Ekpe secret society.[138]

Religion is generally defined as a belief system concerning the supernatural, sacred or divine, and practices, values, institutions and rituals associated with such belief. Some religions also have a moral code. The evolution and the history of the first religions have recently become areas of active scientific investigation.[139][140][141] However, in the course of its development, religion has taken on many forms that vary by culture and individual perspective. Some of the chief questions and issues religions are concerned with include life after death (commonly involving belief in an afterlife), the origin of life, the nature of the universe (religious cosmology) and its ultimate fate (eschatology), and what is moral or immoral. A common source for answers to these questions are beliefs in transcendent divine beings such as deities or a singular God, although not all religions are theistic. Spirituality, belief or involvement in matters of the soul or spirit, is one of the many different approaches humans take in trying to answer fundamental questions about humankind's place in the universe, the meaning of life, and the ideal way to live one's life. Though these topics have also been addressed by philosophy, and to some extent by science, spirituality is unique in that it focuses on mystical or supernatural concepts such as karma and God.

Although the exact level of religiosity can be hard to measure,[142] a majority of humans professes some variety of religious or spiritual belief, although some are irreligious. Other humans have no religious beliefs or are atheists, scientific skeptics, agnostics or simply non-religious. Humanism is a philosophy which seeks to include all of humanity and all issues common to humans; it is usually non-religious. Additionally, although most religions and spiritual beliefs are clearly distinct from science on both a philosophical and methodological level, the two are not generally considered mutually exclusive; a majority of humans hold a mix of both scientific and religious views. The distinction between philosophy and religion, on the other hand, is at times less clear, and the two are linked in such fields as the philosophy of religion and theology.

Philosophy and self-reflection

  Statue of Confucius on Chongming Island in Shanghai

Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. It is the discipline searching for a general understanding of reality, reasoning and values. Major fields of philosophy include logic, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, and axiology (which includes ethics and aesthetics). Philosophy covers a very wide range of approaches, and is used to refer to a worldview, to a perspective on an issue, or to the positions argued for by a particular philosopher or school of philosophy.

Science and mathematics

Scientific approach and mathematics have been unique to humans.

Mathematics is connected to language, and it is argued that this special genetic trait of humans, linked to language and abstract thought is responsible for the mathematical ability.

Closely related is humans' ability to model the world and use science. Although scientific revolution is relatively recent, humans have attempted to explain their environment since the ancient times.

Art, music, and literature

  Allegory of Music (ca. 1594), a painting of a woman writing sheet music by Lorenzo Lippi

Art is one of the most unusual aspects of human behavior and a cultural universal, and humans have been producing artistic works at least since the days of Cro Magnon. As a form of cultural expression by humans, art may be defined by the pursuit of diversity and the usage of narratives of liberation and exploration (i.e. art history, art criticism, and art theory) to mediate its boundaries. This distinction may be applied to objects or performances, current or historical, and its prestige extends to those who made, found, exhibit, or own them. In the modern use of the word, art is commonly understood to be the process or result of making material works that, from concept to creation, adhere to the "creative impulse" of human beings. Art is distinguished from other works by being in large part unprompted by necessity, by biological drive, or by any undisciplined pursuit of recreation.

Music is a natural intuitive phenomenon based on the three distinct and interrelated organization structures of rhythm, harmony, and melody. Listening to music is perhaps the most common and universal form of entertainment for humans, while learning and understanding it are popular disciplines. There are a wide variety of music genres and ethnic musics. Literature, the body of written—and possibly oral—works, especially creative ones, includes prose, poetry and drama, both fiction and non-fiction. Literature includes such genres as epic, legend, myth, ballad, and folklore.

See also


  1. ^ a b Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100795. 
  2. ^ Global Mammal Assessment Team (2008). Homo sapiens. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 March 2010.
  3. ^ Goodman M, Tagle D, Fitch D, Bailey W, Czelusniak J, Koop B, Benson P, Slightom J (1990). "Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids". J Mol Evol 30 (3): 260–266. DOI:10.1007/BF02099995. PMID 2109087. 
  4. ^ "Hominidae Classification". Animal Diversity Web @ UMich. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/classification/Hominidae.html. Retrieved 2006-09-25. 
  5. ^ hŏmo săpĭens, săpĭo. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  6. ^ McHenry, H.M (2009). "Human Evolution". In Michael Ruse & Joseph Travis. Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03175-3. 
  7. ^ Tattersall, Ian & Jeffrey Schwartz. 2009. Evolution of the Genus Homo. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Vol. 37: 67-92. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.earth.031208.100202
  8. ^ Antón, Susan C. & Carl C. Swisher, III. 2004. Early Dispersals of homo from Africa. Annual Review of Anthropology. Vol. 33: 271-296. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.144024
  9. ^ Trinkaus, Erik. 2005. Early Modern Humans. Annual Review of Anthropology. Vol. 34: 207-30 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.030905.154913
  10. ^ "World Population Clock". Census.gov. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. http://www.census.gov/population/popclockworld.html. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  11. ^ Roberts, Sam (31 October 2011). "U.N. Reports 7 Billion Humans, but Others Don’t Count on It". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/01/world/united-nations-reports-7-billion-humans-but-others-dont-count-on-it.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2011-11-07. 
  12. ^ OED, s.v. "human".
  13. ^ The OED considers obsolete the sense "a designation applied equally to particular individuals of either sex", citing a 1597 source as the most recent (The Lord had but one paire of men in Paradise.) while it continues to endorse the sense "as a general or indefinite designation" as current in English.
  14. ^ Spamer, E. E. (1999). "Know Thyself: Responsible Science and the Lectotype of Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 149: 109–114.  edit
  15. ^ Porkorny (1959) s.v. "g'hðem" pp. 414–416; "Homo." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. 23 Sep. 2008. "Homo". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Homo. 
  16. ^ a b Wood, Bernard; Richmond, Brian G. (2000). "Human evolution: taxonomy and paleobiology". Journal of Anatomy 197 (1): 19–60. DOI:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19710019.x. PMC 1468107. PMID 10999270. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1468107. 
  17. ^ Ajit, Varki and David L. Nelson. 2007. Genomic Comparisons of Humans and Chimpanzees. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2007. 36:191–209: "Sequence differences from the human genome were confirmed to be ∼1% in areas that can be precisely aligned, representing ∼35 million single base-pair differences. Some 45 million nucleotides of insertions and deletions unique to each lineage were also discovered, making the actual difference between the two genomes ∼4%."
  18. ^ Ken Sayers, Mary Ann Raghanti, and C. Owen Lovejoy. 2012 (forthcoming, october) Human Evolution and the Chimpanzee Referential Doctrine. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 41
  19. ^ Ruvolo, M. 1997. Genetic Diversity in Hominoid Primates. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 26, (1997), pp. 515-540
  20. ^ Ruvolo, Maryellen (1997). "Molecular phylogeny of the hominoids: inferences from multiple independent DNA sequence data sets". Molecular Biology and Evolution 14 (3): 248–265. PMID 9066793. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/14/3/248. 
  21. ^ Dawkins R (2004) The Ancestor's Tale. ^ "Query: Hominidae/Hylobatidae". Time Tree. 2009. Retrieved December 2010.
  22. ^ Begun, David R. 2010. Miocene Hominids and the Origins of the African Apes and Humans. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 39: 67 -84
  23. ^ Begun, David R., Mariam C. Nargolwalla, Laszlo Kordos. 2012. European Miocene Hominids and the Origin of the African Ape and Human Clade. Evolutionary Anthropology. 21:1 10-23. DOI 10.1002/evan.20329
  24. ^ Boyd, Robert; Silk, Joan B. (2003). How Humans Evolved. New York, New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-97854-0. 
  25. ^ Brues, Alice M.; Snow, Clyde C. (1965). "Physical Anthropology". Biennial Review of Anthropology 4: 1–39. http://books.google.com/books?id=9WemAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA1. 
  26. ^ Brunet, M.; Guy, F.; Pilbeam, D.; Mackaye, H.; Likius, A.; Ahounta, D.; Beauvilain, A.; Blondel, C.; Bocherens, H.; Boisserie, J.; De Bonis, L.; Coppens, Y.; Dejax, J.; Denys, C.; Duringer, P.; Eisenmann, V.; Fanone, G.; Fronty, P.; Geraads, D.; Lehmann, T.; Lihoreau, F.; Louchart, A.; Mahamat, A.; Merceron, G.; Mouchelin, G.; Otero, O.; Pelaez Campomanes, P.; Ponce De Leon, M.; Rage, J.; Sapanet, M.; Schuster, M.; Sudre, J.; Tassy, P.; Valentin, X.; Vignaud, P.; Viriot, L.; Zazzo, A.; Zollikofer, C. (2002). "A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa". Nature 418 (6894): 145–151. DOI:10.1038/nature00879. PMID 12110880. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v418/n6894/full/nature00879.html. 
  27. ^ a b P. Thomas Schoenemann (2006). "Evolution of the Size and Functional Areas of the Human Brain". Annu. Rev. Anthropol 35: 379–406. 
  28. ^ Park, Min S.; Nguyen, Andrew D.; Aryan, Henry E.; U, Hoi Sang; Levy, Michael L.; Semendeferi, Katerina (2007). "Evolution of the human brain: changing brain size and the fossil record". Neurosurgery 60 (3): 555–562. DOI:10.1227/01.NEU.0000249284.54137.32. PMID 17327801. 
  29. ^ Bruner, Emiliano (2007). "Cranial shape and size variation in human evolution: structural and functional perspectives" (PDF). Child's Nervous System 23 (12): 1357–1365. DOI:10.1007/s00381-007-0434-2. PMID 17680251. http://www.emilianobruner.it/pdf/Bruner2007_CNS.pdf. 
  30. ^ Potts, Richard. 2012. Evolution and Environmental Change in Early Human Prehistory. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 41:151–67
  31. ^ Leonard, William R. , J. Josh Snodgrass, and Marcia L. Robertson. 2007. Effects of Brain Evolution on Human Nutrition and Metabolism. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 27:311–27
  32. ^ "06.14.99 - Meat-eating was essential for human evolution, says UC Berkeley anthropologist specializing in diet". Berkeley.edu. 1999-06-14. http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/99legacy/6-14-1999a.html. Retrieved 2012-01-31. 
  33. ^ "Meat in the human diet: an anthropological perspective. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. 2007-09-01. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Meat+in+the+human+diet:+an+anthropological+perspective-a0169311689. Retrieved 2012-01-31. 
  34. ^ Organ, Chris (22 August 2011). "Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo". PNAS. http://www.pnas.org/content/108/35/14555.full?sid=95c4876b-9870-4259-888f-24a6179be4fc. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  35. ^ Alemseged, Z.; Coppens, Y.; Geraads, D. (2002). "Hominid cranium from Homo: Description and taxonomy of Homo-323-1976-896". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 117 (2): 103–112. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.10032. PMID 11815945. 
  36. ^ Stoneking, Mark; Soodyall, Himla (1996). "Human evolution and the mitochondrial genome". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 6 (6): 731–736. DOI:10.1016/S0959-437X(96)80028-1. 
  37. ^ Wood, Bernard A. (2009). "Where does the genus Homo begin, and how would we know?". In Grine, Frederick E.; Fleagle, John G.; Leakey, Richard E. (eds). The First Humans: Origin and Early Evolution of the Genus Homo. London, UK: Springer. pp. 17–27. ISBN 978-1-4020-9979-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=ITp_RnsPfzQC&pg=PA17. 
  38. ^ Mitchell, Alanna (January 30, 2012). "DNA Turning Human Story Into a Tell-All". NYTimes. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/science/gains-in-dna-are-speeding-research-into-human-origins.html. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  39. ^ Wolman, David (April 3, 2008). Fossil Feces Is Earliest Evidence of N. America Humans. news.nationalgeographic.com. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080403-first-americans.html. 
  40. ^ Wood B (1996). "Human evolution". BioEssays 18: 945–954. DOI:10.1002/bies.950181204. 
  41. ^ Thornton, Bruce (2002). Greek Ways: How the Greeks Created Western Civilization. San Francisco, CA, USA: Encounter Books. p. 198. ISBN 1-893554-57-0. http://books.google.fr/books?id=fa6swJv64xkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Greek+Ways:+How+the+Greeks+Created+Western+Civilization&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5O1xT__KCImGhQfgztC4AQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Greek%20Ways%3A%20How%20the%20Greeks%20Created%20Western%20Civilization&f=false. 
  42. ^ "Internet Usage Statistics - The Internet Big Picture". internetworldstats.com/. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  43. ^ "Reuters homepage". Reuters. http://investing.reuters.co.uk/news/articleinvesting.aspx?type=media&storyID=nL29172095. Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  44. ^ Pimm S, Raven P, Peterson A, Sekercioglu CH, Ehrlich PR (2006). "Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (29): 10941–6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0604181103. PMC 1544153. PMID 16829570. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1544153. 
    *Barnosky AD, Koch PL, Feranec RS, Wing SL, Shabel AB (2004). "Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents". Science 306 (5693): 70–5. DOI:10.1126/science.1101476. PMID 15459379. 
  45. ^ Lewis OT (2006). "Climate change, species-area curves and the extinction crisis" (PDF). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 361 (1465): 163–71. DOI:10.1098/rstb.2005.1712. PMC 1831839. PMID 16553315. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/content/711761513317h856/fulltext.pdf. 
  46. ^ Nancy Atkinson (2009-03-26). "Soyuz Rockets to Space; 13 Humans Now in Orbit". Universetoday.com. http://www.universetoday.com/27924/soyuz-rockets-to-space-13-humans-now-in-orbit/. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  47. ^ Kraft, Rachel (December 11, 2010). "JSC celebrates ten years of continuous human presence aboard the International Space Station". JSC Features. Johnson Space Center. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/jscfeatures/articles/000000945.html. 
  48. ^ Whitehouse, David (May 19, 2005). "Half of humanity set to go urban". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4561183.stm. 
  49. ^ Urban, Suburban, and Rural Victimization, 1993–98 U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics,. Accessed 29 Oct 2006
  50. ^ Scientific American (1998). Evolution and General Intelligence: Three hypotheses on the evolution of general intelligence.
  51. ^ "Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis". grida.no/. http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/007.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-30. 
  52. ^ American Association for the Advancement of Science. Foreword. AAAS Atlas of Population & Environment.
  53. ^ Wilson, E.O. (2002). in The Future of Life.
  54. ^ de Beer H (2004). "Observations on the history of Dutch physical stature from the late-Middle Ages to the present". Econ Hum Biol 2 (1): 45–55. DOI:10.1016/j.ehb.2003.11.001. PMID 15463992. 
  55. ^ "Human weight". Articleworld.org. http://www.articleworld.org/index.php/Human_weight. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  56. ^ Why Humans and Their Fur Parted Way by Nicholas Wade, New York Times, August 19, 2003.
  57. ^ Rogers, Alan R., Iltis, David & Wooding, Stephen (2004). "Genetic variation at the MC1R locus and the time since loss of human body hair". Current Anthropology 45 (1): 105–108. DOI:10.1086/381006. 
  58. ^ Jablonski, N.G. & Chaplin, G. (2000). The evolution of human skin coloration (pdf), 'Journal of Human Evolution 39: 57–106.
  59. ^ Harding RM, Healy E, Ray AJ et al. (April 2000). "Evidence for variable selective pressures at MC1R". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66 (4): 1351–61. DOI:10.1086/302863. PMC 1288200. PMID 10733465. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1288200. 
  60. ^ Robin, Ashley (1991). Biological Perspectives on Human Pigmentation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  61. ^ Schwartz, Jeffrey (1987). The Red Ape: Orangutans and Human Origins. Cambridge, MA: Westview Press. p. 286. ISBN 0-8133-4064-0. 
  62. ^ Parker-Pope, Tara (October 27, 2009). "The Human Body Is Built for Distance". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/27/health/27well.html. 
  63. ^ a b Collins, Desmond (1976). The Human Revolution: From Ape to Artist. p. 208. 
  64. ^ Pertea, Mihaela; Salzberg, Steven L. (2010). "Between a chicken and a grape: estimating the number of human genes". Genome Biology 11 (5): 206. DOI:10.1186/gb-2010-11-5-206. PMC 2898077. PMID 20441615. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898077. 
  65. ^ Harpending HC, Batzer MA, Gurven M, Jorde LB, Rogers AR, Sherry ST. (1998). "Genetic traces of ancient demography" (PDF). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95 (4): 1961–7. DOI:10.1073/pnas.95.4.1961. PMC 19224. PMID 9465125. http://www.pnas.org/content/95/4/1961.full.pdf. 
  66. ^ Jorde LB, Rogers AR, Bamshad M, Watkins WS, Krakowiak P, Sung S, Kere J, Harpending HC. (1997). "Microsatellite diversity and the demographic history of modern humans" (PDF). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94 (7): 3100–3. DOI:10.1073/pnas.94.7.3100. PMC 20328. PMID 9096352. http://www.pnas.org/content/94/7/3100.full.pdf. 
  67. ^ Jorde, Lynn B.; Wooding, Stephen P. (2004). "Genetic variation, classification and race". Nature Genetics 36 (11 Suppl): S28–S33. DOI:10.1038/ng1435. PMID 15508000. http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/full/ng1435.html. 
  68. ^ Tishkoff SA, Kidd KK (November 2004). "Implications of biogeography of human populations for 'race' and medicine". Nat. Genet. 36 (11 Suppl): S21–7. DOI:10.1038/ng1438. PMID 15507999. http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/full/ng1438.html. 
  69. ^ http://shrn.stanford.edu/workshops/revisitingrace/Bamshadetal2004.pdf
  70. ^ Wade, Nicholas (March 7, 2007). "Still Evolving, Human Genes Tell New Story". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/07/science/07evolve.html. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  71. ^ According to the July 2, 2007 Newsweek magazine, a woman dies in childbirth every minute, most often due to uncontrolled bleeding and infection, with the world's poorest women most vulnerable. The lifetime risk is 1 in 16 in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to 1 in 2,800 in developed countries.
  72. ^ LaVelle, M. (1995). "Natural selection and developmental sexual variation in the human pelvis". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 98 (1): 59–72. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.1330980106. PMID 8579191. 
  73. ^ Correia, H.; Balseiro, S.; De Areia, M. (2005). "Sexual dimorphism in the human pelvis: testing a new hypothesis". Homo 56 (2): 153–160. DOI:10.1016/j.jchb.2005.05.003. PMID 16130838. 
  74. ^ Rush, David (2000). "Nutrition and maternal mortality in the developing world". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 (1 Suppl): 212S–240S. PMID 10871588. http://www.ajcn.org/content/72/1/212S.full. 
  75. ^ "Low Birthweight". Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070513150431/http://www.childinfo.org/areas/birthweight/. Retrieved 2007-05-30. 
  76. ^ Khor, G. (2003). "Update on the prevalence of malnutrition among children in Asia". Nepal Medical College Journal 5 (2): 113–122. PMID 15024783. 
  77. ^ Leakey, Richard; Lewin, Roger (1993). Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes Us Human. New York, New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 978-0-385-46792-6. 
  78. ^ Diamond, Jared (1997). Why is Sex Fun? The Evolution of Human Sexuality. New York, New York: Basic Books. pp. 167–170. ISBN 0-465-03127-7. 
  79. ^ Peccei, Jocelyn Scott (2001). "Menopause: adaptation or epiphenomenon?" (PDF). Evolutionary Anthropology 10 (2): 47–57. DOI:10.1002/evan.1013. http://www.biology.ed.ac.uk/public/conferences/evolbiol2006/papers/Peccei.pdf. 
  80. ^ "Human Development Report 2006," United Nations Development Programme, pp. 363–366, November 9, 2006
  81. ^ The World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 2, 2005.
  82. ^ U.N. Statistics on Population Ageing, United Nations press release, February 28, 2002. Retrieved April 2, 2005.
  83. ^ Maier, Heiner (2010). Supercentenarians. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. p. 288. ISBN 978-3-642-11519-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=0Fjkhcn3oeIC&pg=PA288. 
  84. ^ Haenel H (1989). "Phylogenesis and nutrition". Nahrung 33 (9): 867–87. PMID 2697806. 
  85. ^ Cordain, Loren (2007). "Implications of Plio-pleistocene diets for modern humans". In Peter S. Ungar. Evolution of the human diet: the known, the unknown and the unknowable. pp. 264–5. ""Since the evolutionary split between hominins and pongids approximately 7 million years ago, the available evidence shows that all species of hominins ate an omnivorous diet composed of minimally processed, wild-plant, and animal foods." 
  86. ^ American Dietetic, Association; Dietitians Of, Canada (2003). "Vegetarian Diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (6): 748–765. DOI:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049. online copy available
  87. ^ Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A et al. (February 2005). "Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81 (2): 341–54. PMID 15699220. 
  88. ^ Ulijaszek SJ (November 2002). "Human eating behaviour in an evolutionary ecological context". Proc Nutr Soc 61 (4): 517–26. DOI:10.1079/PNS2002180. PMID 12691181. 
  89. ^ Earliest agriculture in the Americas Earliest cultivation of barley Earliest cultivation of figs – URLs retrieved February 19, 2007
  90. ^ Krebs JR (September 2009). "The gourmet ape: evolution and human food preferences". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 90 (3): 707S–711S. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27462B. PMID 19656837. 
  91. ^ Holden C, Mace R (October 1997). "Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adults". Hum. Biol. 69 (5): 605–28. PMID 9299882. 
  92. ^ United Nations Information Service. “Independent Expert On Effects Of Structural Adjustment, Special Rapporteur On Right To Food Present Reports: Commission Continues General Debate On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights”. United Nations, March 29, 2004, p. 6. “Around 36 million people died from hunger directly or indirectly every year.”.
  93. ^ Murray C, Lopez A (1997). "Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study". Lancet 349 (9063): 1436–42. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07495-8. PMID 9164317. 
  94. ^ a b Haslam DW, James WP (October 2005). "Obesity". Lancet 366 (9492): 1197–209. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67483-1. PMID 16198769. 
  95. ^ Catenacci VA, Hill JO, Wyatt HR (September 2009). "The obesity epidemic". Clin. Chest Med. 30 (3): 415–44, vii. DOI:10.1016/j.ccm.2009.05.001. PMID 19700042. 
  96. ^ Grandner, Michael A.; Patel, Nirav P.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Perlis, Michael L.; Pack, Allan I. (2010). "Problems associated with short sleep: bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological studies". Sleep Medicine Reviews 14 (4): 239–47. DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2009.08.001. PMC 2888649. PMID 19896872. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2888649. 
  97. ^ Liu, Hua; Prugnolle, Franck; Manina, Andrea; Balloux, François (2006). "A geographically explicit genetic model of worldwide human-settlement history". The American Journal of Human Genetics 79 (2): 230–237. DOI:10.1086/505436. PMC 1559480. PMID 16826514. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1559480. 
  98. ^ Jorde, L.; Watkins, W; Bamshad, M; Dixon, M; Ricker, C.; Seielstad, M.; Batzer, M. (2000). "The distribution of human genetic diversity: a comparison of mitochondrial, autosomal, and Y-chromosome data". American Journal of Human Genetics 66 (3): 979–988. DOI:10.1086/302825. PMC 1288178. PMID 10712212. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1288178. 
  99. ^ Race, Ethnicity, and Genetics Working Group (2005). "The use of racial, ethnic, and ancestral categories in human genetics research". American Journal of Human Genetics 77 (4): 519–532. DOI:10.1086/491747. PMC 1275602. PMID 16175499. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1275602. 
  100. ^ Marks, J (1995). Human biodiversity: genes, race, and history. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. ISBN 0-585-39559-4. 
  101. ^ AAA (1998-05-17). "American Anthropological Association Statement on "Race"". Aaanet.org. http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/racepp.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  102. ^ Smedley, Audrey (2007-March-14-17). The History of the Idea of Race... and Why It Matters. presented at the conference “Race, Human Variation and Disease: Consensus and Frontiers” sponsored by the American Anthropological Association (AAA). http://www.understandingrace.org/resources/pdf/disease/smedley.pdf. 
  103. ^ Bamshad, Michael; Wooding, Stephen; Salisbury, Benjamin A.; Stephens, J. Clairborne (2004). "Deconstructing the relationship between genetics and race". Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (8): 598–609. DOI:10.1038/nrg1401. PMID 15266342. 
  104. ^ Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Kidd, Kenneth K. (2004). "Implications of biogeography of human populations for 'race' and medicine". Nature Genetics 36 (11 Suppl): S21–27. DOI:10.1038/ng1438. PMID 15507999. 
  105. ^ Jorde, Lynn B.; Wooding, Stephen P. (2004). "Genetic variation, classification and 'race'". Nature Genetics 36 (11 Suppl): S28–33. DOI:10.1038/ng1435. PMID 15508000. 
  106. ^ Ian Whitmarsh and David S. Jones, 2010, What's the Use of Race? Modern Governance and the Biology of Difference, MIT press. Page 188. "Far from waning in the age of molecular genetics, race has been resurgent in biomedical discourse, especially in relation to a torrent of new interest in human biological variation and its quantification."
  107. ^ Templeton, Alan R. (1998). "Human races: a genetic and evolutionary perspective" (PDF). American Anthropologist 100 (3): 632–650. DOI:10.1525/aa.1998.100.3.632. http://www.realfuture.org/GIST/Readings/Templeton(1998).pdf. 
  108. ^ Collins FS (November 2004). "What we do and don't know about 'race', 'ethnicity', genetics and health at the dawn of the genome era". Nature Genetics 36 (11 Suppl): S13–5. DOI:10.1038/ng1436. PMID 15507997. 
  109. ^ Wallace, Robert (2003). "A Racialized Medical Genomics: Shiny, Bright and Wrong". Race: The Power of an Illusion. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-01-13.htm. 
  110. ^ Garcia, Richard (2003). "The misuse of race in medical diagnosis". Race: The Power of an Illusion. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-01-y.htm.  Reprinted from: Garcia RS (May 2003). "The misuse of race in medical diagnosis". The Chronicle of Higher Education 49 (35): B15. PMID 15287125. 
  111. ^ "Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice", UNESCO, 1978. (PDF:)
  112. ^ "The Race question; UNESCO and its programme; Vol.:3; 1950 - Publication 791" (PDF). http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001282/128291eo.pdf. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  113. ^ Vogel, Friedrich; Motulsky, Arno G. (1997). Human Genetics: Problems and Approaches (3rd ed.). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. pp. 610–611. ISBN 978-3-540-60290-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=Rbq0j5ZjhGgC&pg=PA610. 
  114. ^ "American Anthropological Association Response to OMB Directive 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting". American Anthropological Association. Sept 1997. http://www.aaanet.org/gvt/ombdraft.htm. Retrieved 2012-02-12. 
  115. ^ Keita, SOY; Kittles, RA; Royal, CDM; Bonney, GM; Furbert-Harris, P; Dunston, GM; Rotimi, CM (2004). "Conceptualizing human variation". Nature Genetics 36 (S17–S20). DOI:10.1038/ng1455. PMID 15507998. http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/full/ng1455.html. 
  116. ^ 3-D Brain Anatomy, The Secret Life of the Brain, Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved April 3, 2005.
  117. ^ Leary, Mark R.; Tangney, June Price (2005). Handbook of Self and Identity. New York, New York: Guilford Press. pp. 576–577. ISBN 978-1-59385-237-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=vafgWfgxUK8C&pg=PA577. 
  118. ^ Dr. Jack Palmer. "Consciousness and the Symbolic Universe". http://www.ulm.edu/~palmer/ConsciousnessandtheSymbolicUniverse.htm. Retrieved March 17, 2006. 
  119. ^ Ned Block: On a Confusion about a Function of Consciousness in: The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1995.
  120. ^ Haviland, Wiliam A.; Prins, Harald E.L.; McBride, Bunny; Walrath, Dana (2010). Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge. Belmont, California: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-495-81082-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=yP6TrXRpPdMC&pg=PA82. 
  121. ^ Buss, David M. (2003). The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. Revised Edition. New York, New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00802-5. 
  122. ^ Thornhill, Randy; Palmer, Craig T. (2000). A Natural History of Rape. Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-70083-2. 
  123. ^ "Statistical Summaries". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/ethno_docs/distribution.asp?by=size. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  124. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  125. ^ J. Hutchinson & A.D. Smith (eds.), Oxford readers: Ethnicity (Oxford 1996), "Introduction"
  126. ^ Smith, Anthony D. (1999) Myths and Memories of the Nation. Oxford University Press. pp.4-7
  127. ^ Banton, Michael. (2007) Weber on Ethnic Communities: A critique. Nations and Nationalism 13 (1), 2007, 19–35.
  128. ^ Delanty,Gerard & Krishan Kumar (2006) The SAGE Handbook of Nations and Nationalism. SAGE. ISBN 1412901014 p. 171
  129. ^ Ronald Cohen 1978 "Ethnicity: Problem and Focus in Anthropology" in Annual Review of Anthropology 7: 383 Palo Alto: Stanford University Press
  130. ^ Thomas Hylland Eriksen (1993) Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Pluto Press
  131. ^ Max Weber's definition of the modern state 1918, by Max Weber, 1918. Retrieved March 17, 2006.
  132. ^ Ferguson, Niall. "The Next War of the World." Foreign Affairs, Sep/Oct 2006
  133. ^ Clark, J.D.; de Heinzelin, J.; Schick, K.D.; et al. (1994). "African Homo erectus: old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia". Science 264 (5167): 1907–1910. DOI:10.1126/science.8009220. PMID 8009220. 
  134. ^ Balter M (2009). "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man". Science 325 (5946): 1329. DOI:10.1126/science.325_1329a. PMID 19745126. 
  135. ^ Kvavadze E, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Boaretto E,Jakeli N, Matskevich Z, Meshveliani T. (2009).30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers. Science, 325(5946):1359. doi:10.1126/science.1175404 PMID 19745144 Supporting Online Material
  136. ^ a b Margo DeMello (2007). Encyclopedia of Body Adornment. ABC-CLIO. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-0-313-33695-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=s0122BsqrZwC&pg=PR17. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  137. ^ Comrie, Bernard; Polinsky, Maria; Matthews, Stephen (1996). The Atlas of Languages: The Origin and Development of Languages Throughout the World. New York, New York: Facts on File. pp. 13–15. ISBN 978-0-8160-3388-1. 
  138. ^ Diringer, David, "The alphabet: a key to the history of mankind", Volume 1, p 107, Funk & Wagnalls, 1968.
  139. ^ "Evolutionary Religious Studies: A New Field of Scientific Inquiry". http://evolution.binghamton.edu/religion/. 
  140. ^ Boyer, Pascal (2008). "Being human: Religion: bound to believe?". Nature 455 (7216): 1038–1039. DOI:10.1038/4551038a. PMID 18948934. 
  141. ^ Emmons, Robert A.; Paloutzian, Raymond F. (2003). "The psychology of religion". Annual Review of Psychology 54 (1): 377–402. DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145024. PMID 12171998. 
  142. ^ Hall, Daniel E.; Meador, Keith G.; Koenig, Harold G. (2008). "Measuring religiousness in health research: review and critique". Journal of Religion and Health 47 (2): 134–163. DOI:10.1007/s10943-008-9165-2. PMID 19105008. 

Further reading

  • Freeman, Scott; Jon C. Herron, Evolutionary Analysis (4th ed.) Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. ISBN 0-13-227584-8 pages 757–761.

External links



All translations of Human

sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution


A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code


With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.

Please, email us to describe your idea.


The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.


Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.


Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).


The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.


Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

4900 online visitors

computed in 0.140s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
please precise:



Company informations

My account



   Advertising ▼


Commercial use of this term

17”23" 24" 26" 3/4 Full head clip in Synthetic hair extensions human made hair (5.49 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Elegant 3/4 Full Head One piece Clip in Hair Extensions Real as Human 5 clips on (8.19 USD)

Commercial use of this term

New 15"18"20"22"24"26"Clip in Remy Real human hair extensions Straight any color (25.38 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Full Head Clip in 100% Remy Human Hair Extensions (52.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

15"18"20"22"24"26"28" 7PCS Clip In Remy Human Hair Extensions 70g 80g 100g 120g (22.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

17/24" 125g/140g Full head clip in hair extensions Real natural as human (7.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

100% Virgin Brazilian Body Wave Human Hair Weave / Extension Unprocessed Bundle (42.49 USD)

Commercial use of this term

NEW 100% Virgin Brazilian Remy Body Wave Unprocessed Human Hair Weave/Extension (52.5 USD)

Commercial use of this term


Commercial use of this term

Clip In Remy Real Human Hair Extensions 7PCS full head 24 COLORS Choose Length (20.5 USD)

Commercial use of this term

100% Brazilian Virgin Remy Human Hair Lace Top Closure**From USA Fast Shipping** (48.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Curly Wavy Clip in Remy Human Hair Extensions Full Head NEW 100% Real Body Wave (29.43 USD)

Commercial use of this term

100% Brazilian Virgin Remy Unprocessed Human Hair 3 bundles (189.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

100% Brazilian Virgin Hair,Human hair extensions,Black, 3 Bundles16,18,20" (120.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Any Color 15"18"20" 22" Real Remy Clip In Human Hair Extensions Full Head Hot (49.4 CAD)

Commercial use of this term

18" Clip In 100% Remy Human Hair Extensions Dark Brown 2# (5.5 GBP)

Commercial use of this term

100% Remy Brazilian Body Wave Curly Human Hair Weave Extension weft Bundle 100g (30.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

full head clip in real indian human hair extensions 100g one piece 5 clips (39.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term