Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Hydraulic engineering

hydraulic engineering (n.)

1.the branch of civil engineering dealing with the use and control of water in motion

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

analogical dictionary

   Advertizing ▼


Hydraulic engineering

  Hydraulic Flood Retention Basin (HFRB)
  View from Church Span Bridge, Bern, Switzerland
  Riprap lining a lake shore

This article is about civil engineering. For the mechanical engineering discipline see Hydraulic machinery

Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage. One feature of these systems is the extensive use of gravity as the motive force to cause the movement of the fluids. This area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of bridges, dams, channels, canals, and levees, and to both sanitary and environmental engineering.

Hydraulic engineering is the application of fluid mechanics principles to problems dealing with the collection, storage, control, transport, regulation, measurement, and use of water.[1] Before beginning a hydraulic engineering project, one must figure out how much water is involved. The hydraulic engineer is concerned with the transport of sediment by the river, the interaction of the water with its alluvial boundary, and the occurrence of scour and deposition.[1] "The hydraulic engineer actually develops conceptual designs for the various features which interact with water such as spillways and outlet works for dams, culverts for highways, canals and related structures for irrigation projects, and cooling-water facilities for thermal power plants." [2]


  Fundamental principles

A few examples of the fundamental principles of hydraulic engineering include fluid mechanics, fluid flow, behavior of real fluids, hydrology, pipelines, open channel hydraulics, mechanics of sediment transport, physical modeling, hydraulic machines, and drainage hydraulics.

  Fluid mechanics

Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering defines hydrostatics as the study of fluids at rest.[1] Fluids at rest indicate that there exists a force, known as pressure, that acts upon its surroundings. This pressure, measured in N/m2, is not constant throughout the body of fluid. Pressure, p, in a given body of fluid, increases with an increase in depth. Where the upward force on a body acts on the base and can be found by equation:

p=\rho gy


ρ = density of water
g = specific gravity
y = depth of the body of liquid

Rearranging this equation gives you the pressure head p/ρg = y. Four basic devices for pressure measurement are a piezometer, manometer, differential manometer, Bourdon gauge, as well as an inclined manometer.[1]

As Prasuhn states:

On undisturbed submerged bodies, pressure acts along all surfaces of a body in a liquid, causing equal perpendicular forces in the body to act against the pressure of the liquid. This reaction is known as equilibrium. More advanced applications of pressure are that on plane surfaces, curved surfaces, dams, and quadrant gates, just to name a few.[1]

  Behavior of real fluids

  Real and ideal fluids

The main difference between an ideal fluid and a real fluid is that for ideal flow p1 = p2 and for real flow p1 > p2.

  Viscous flow

A viscous fluid will deform continuously under a shear force, whereas an ideal fluid doesn't deform.

  Laminar flow and turbulence

The various effects of disturbance on a viscous flow are stable, transition and unstable.

==== Bernoulli's equation ===eal fluid, Bernoulli's equation holds along streamlines.

p/ρg + u²/2g = p1/ρg + u1²/2g = p2g + u2²/2g

  Boundary layer

Assuming a flow is bounded on one side only, and that a rectilinear flow passing over a stationary flat plate which lies parallel to the flow, the flow just upstream of the plate has a uniform velocity. As the flow comes into contact with the plate, the layer of fluid actually 'adheres' to a solid surface. There is then a considerable shearing action between the layer of fluid on the plate surface and the second layer of fluid. The second layer is therefore forced to decelerate (though it is not quite brought to rest), creating a shearing action with the third layer of fluid, and so on. As the fluid passes further along the plate, the zone in which shearing action occurs tends to spread further outwards. This zone is known as the 'boundary layer'. The flow outside the boundary layer is free of shear and viscous-related forces so it is assumed to act like an ideal fluid. "The intermolecular cohesive forces in a fluid are not great enough to hold fluid together. Hence a fluid will flow under the action of the slightest street and flow will continue as long as the stress is present.[3] The flow inside the layer can be either viscous or turbulent, depending on Reynolds number.[1]


Common topics of design for hydraulic engineers include hydraulic structures such as dams, levees, water distribution networks, water collection networks, sewage collection networks, storm water management, sediment transport, and various other topics related to transportation engineering and geotechnical engineering. Equations developed from the principles of fluid dynamics and fluid mechanics are widely utilized by other engineering disciplines such as mechanical, aeronautical and even traffic engineers.

Related branches include hydrology and rheology while related applications include hydraulic modeling, flood mapping, catchment flood management plans, shoreline management plans, estuarine strategies, coastal protection, and flood alleviation.


Earliest uses of hydraulic engineering were to irrigate crops and dates back to the Middle East and Africa. Controlling the movement and supply of water for growing food has been used for many thousands of years. One of the earliest hydraulic machines, the water clock was used in the early 2nd millennium BC.[4] Other early examples of using gravity to move water include the Qanat system in ancient Persia and the very similar Turpan water system in ancient China as well as irrigation canals in Peru.[5]

In ancient China, hydraulic engineering was highly developed, and engineers constructed massive canals with levees and dams to channel the flow of water for irrigation, as well as locks to allow ships to pass through. Sunshu Ao is considered the first Chinese hydraulic engineer. Another important Hydraulic Engineer in China, Ximen Bao was credited of starting the practice of large scale canal irrigation during the Warring States Period (481 BC-221 BC), even today hydraulic engineers remain a respectable position in China. Before becoming President, Hu Jintao was a hydraulic engineer and holds an engineering degree from Tsinghua University

Eupalinos of Megara, was an ancient Greek engineer who built the Tunnel of Eupalinos on Samos in the 6th century BC, an important feat of both civil and hydraulic engineering. The civil engineering aspect of this tunnel was the fact that it was dug from both ends which required the diggers to maintain an accurate path so that the two tunnels met and that the entire effort maintained a sufficient slope to allow the water to flow.

Hydraulic engineering was highly developed in Europe under the aegis of the Roman Empire where it was especially applied to the construction and maintenance of aqueducts to supply water to and remove sewage from their cities.[3] In addition to supplying the needs of their citizens they used hydraulic mining methods to prospect and extract alluvial gold deposits in a technique known as hushing, and applied the methods to other ores such as those of tin and lead.

Further advances in hydraulic engineering occurred in the Muslim world between the 8th to 16th centuries, during what is known as the Islamic Golden Age. Of particular importance was the 'water management technological complex' which was central to the Islamic Green Revolution and,[6] by extension, a precondition for the emergence of modern technology.[7] The various components of this 'toolkit' were developed in different parts of the Afro-Eurasian landmass, both within and beyond the Islamic world. However, it was in the medieval Islamic lands where the technological complex was assembled and standardized, and subsequently diffused to the rest of the Old World.[8] Under the rule of a single Islamic Caliphate, different regional hydraulic technologies were assembled into "an identifiable water management technological complex that was to have a global impact." The various components of this complex included canals, dams, the qanat system from Persia, regional water-lifting devices such as the noria, shaduf and screwpump from Egypt, and the windmill from Islamic Afghanistan.[8] Other original Islamic developments included the saqiya with a flywheel effect from Islamic Spain,[9] the reciprocating suction pump[10][11][12] and crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism from Iraq,[13][14] the geared and hydropowered water supply system from Syria,[15] and the water purification methods of Islamic chemists.[16]

  Modern times

In many respects the fundamentals of hydraulic engineering haven't changed since ancient times. Liquids are still moved for the most part by gravity through systems of canals and aqueducts, though the supply reservoirs may now be filled using pumps. The need for water has steadily increased from ancient times and the role of the hydraulic engineer is a critical one in supplying it. For example, without the efforts of people like William Mulholland the Los Angeles area would not have been able to grow as it has because it simply doesn't have enough local water to support its population. The same is true for many of our world's largest cities. In much the same way, the central valley of California could not have become such an important agricultural region without effective water management and distribution for irrigation.

Leonard Da Vinci (1452–1519) performed experiments, investigated and speculated on waves and jets, eddies and streamlining. Isaac Newton (1642–1727) by formulating the laws of motion and his law of viscosity, in addition to developing the calculus, paved the way for many great developments in fluid mechanics. Using Newton's laws of motion, numerous 18th-century mathematicians solved many frictionless (zero-viscosity) flow problems. However, most flows are dominated by viscous effects, so engineers of the 17th and 18th centuries found the inviscid flow solutions unsuitable, and by experimentation they developed empirical equations, thus establishing the science of hydraulics.[3]

Late in the 19th century, the importance of dimensionless numbers and their relationship to turbulence was recognized, and dimensional analysis was born. In 1904 Ludwig Prandtl published a key paper, proposing that the flow fields of low-viscosity fluids be divided into two zones, namely a thin, viscosity-dominated boundary layer near solid surfaces, and an effectively inviscid outer zone away from the boundaries. This concept explained many former paradoxes, and enabled subsequent engineers to analyze far more complex flows. However, we still have no complete theory for the nature of turbulence, and so modern fluid mechanics continues to be combination of experimental results and theory.[17] In a somewhat parallel way to what happened in California the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority(TVA) brought work and prosperity to the South by building dams to generate cheap electricity and control flooding in the region, making rivers navigable and generally modernizing life the region.

The modern hydraulic engineer uses the same kinds of computer-aided design (CAD) tools as many of the other engineering disciplines while also making use of technologies like computational fluid dynamics to perform the calculations to accurately predict flow characteristics, GPS mapping to assist in locating the best paths for installing a system and laser-based surveying tools to aid in the actual construction of a system.

  See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f Prasuhn, Alan L. Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston: New York, 1987.
  2. ^ Cassidy, John J., Chaudhry, M. Hanif, and Roberson, John A. "Hydraulic Engineering", John Wiley & Sons, 1998
  3. ^ a b c E. John Finnemore, Joseph Franzini "Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications",McGraw-Hill,2002
  4. ^ Gascoigne, Bamber. “History of Clocks”. History World. From 2001, ongoing. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=2322&HistoryID=ac08&gtrack=pthc
  5. ^ "Qanats" Water History. From 2001, ongoing. http://www.waterhistory.org/histories/qanats/
  6. ^ Edmund Burke (June 2009), "Islam at the Center: Technological Complexes and the Roots of Modernity", Journal of World History (University of Hawaii Press) 20 (2): 165–186 [174], DOI:10.1353/jwh.0.0045 
  7. ^ Edmund Burke (June 2009), "Islam at the Center: Technological Complexes and the Roots of Modernity", Journal of World History (University of Hawaii Press) 20 (2): 165–186 [168], DOI:10.1353/jwh.0.0045 
  8. ^ a b Edmund Burke (June 2009), "Islam at the Center: Technological Complexes and the Roots of Modernity", Journal of World History (University of Hawaii Press) 20 (2): 165–186 [168 & 173], DOI:10.1353/jwh.0.0045 
  9. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Flywheel Effect for a Saqiya.
  10. ^ Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64–9. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
  11. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. "The Origin of the Suction Pump: Al-Jazari 1206 A.D.". http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%202.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-16. 
  12. ^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times, Routledge, pp. 143 & 150-2
  13. ^ Sally Ganchy, Sarah Gancher (2009), Islam and Science, Medicine, and Technology, The Rosen Publishing Group, p. 41, ISBN 1-4358-5066-1 
  14. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, The Crank-Connecting Rod System in a Continuously Rotating Machine
  15. ^ Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 181, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-78149-0
  16. ^ Levey, M. (1973), ‘ Early Arabic Pharmacology’, E. J. Brill; Leiden
  17. ^ Fluid Mechanics

  External links



All translations of Hydraulic engineering

sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution


A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code


With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.

Please, email us to describe your idea.


The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.


Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.


Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).


The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.


Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

4909 online visitors

computed in 0.046s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
please precise:



Company informations

My account



   Advertising ▼

Open-Channel Hydraulics by Chow (1959, Hardcover) (32.5 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Elements of Hydraulic Engineering by D.S. Ellis HB 1953 MH (12.95 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Principles and Practice of Hydraulic Engineering John Dwyer 1852 Scarce (125.0 GBP)

Commercial use of this term

Hydraulic Engineering and the Environment (6.46 USD)

Commercial use of this term


Commercial use of this term


Commercial use of this term

Hydrology : Fundamental Basis of Hydraulic Engineering by Daniel W. Mead 1919 (27.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term


Commercial use of this term

HYDRAULICS by Charles W. Harris 1936 Hardcover Engineering (9.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1943 HC Elements of Mechanics Parts 1 2 by ICS Staff Fluid Pneumatics Hydraulic (59.25 USD)

Commercial use of this term

New Clay Smith 160-3103K Hydraulic Roller Camshaft/Lifter, 284/286 BBC Chevy 454 (814.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Engineering, Hydraulics, Air, Welding, Drafting Book Lot (Price Reduced) (9.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems 4E by Hwang (Intl Edition) (37.93 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Sprinkler Hydraulics by Harold S. Wass, Jr. Signed HC/DJ (1983) (88.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Vintage Engineering Mechanical Shop Books Dudley hydraulics Die Press Brake (124.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Hydraulic Engineering, Chaudhry, M. Hanif, Cassidy, John J., Roberson, John A., (55.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

LMH PATCH Badge PFS PACIFIC FLUID SYSTEMS Hydraulics pre HAWE Engineering used (4.46 USD)

Commercial use of this term


Commercial use of this term

1966 Selecting Hydraulic Reaction Turbines PB Engineering Monograph No. 20 Good (30.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term