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definitions - Immunization

immunization (n.)

1.the act of making immune (especially by inoculation)

Immunization (n.)

1.(MeSH)Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).

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synonyms - Immunization

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-Gene Gun DNA Immunization • Immunization Programs • Immunization Schedule • Immunization not carried out • Immunization not carried out because of contraindication • Immunization not carried out because of patient's decision for other and unspecified reasons • Immunization not carried out because of patient's decision for reasons of belief and group pressure • Immunization not carried out for other reasons • Immunization not carried out for unspecified reason • Immunization, Active • Immunization, Booster • Immunization, Passive • Immunization, Secondary • Mass Immunization • Need for immunization NOS • Need for immunization against arthropod-borne viral encephalitis • Need for immunization against certain single viral diseases • Need for immunization against cholera alone • Need for immunization against cholera with typhoid-paratyphoid [cholera + TAB] • Need for immunization against combinations of infectious diseases • Need for immunization against diphtheria alone • Need for immunization against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis with poliomyelitis [DTP + polio] • Need for immunization against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis with typhoid-paratyphoid [DTP + TAB] • Need for immunization against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, combined [DTP] • Need for immunization against influenza • Need for immunization against leishmaniasis • Need for immunization against measles alone • Need for immunization against measles-mumps-rubella [MMR] • Need for immunization against mumps alone • Need for immunization against other combinations of infectious diseases • Need for immunization against other single bacterial diseases • Need for immunization against other single infectious diseases • Need for immunization against other single viral diseases • Need for immunization against other specified single infectious diseases • Need for immunization against other specified single viral diseases • Need for immunization against pertussis alone • Need for immunization against plague • Need for immunization against poliomyelitis • Need for immunization against rabies • Need for immunization against rubella alone • Need for immunization against single bacterial diseases • Need for immunization against tetanus alone • Need for immunization against tuberculosis [BCG] • Need for immunization against tularaemia • Need for immunization against typhoid-paratyphoid alone [TAB] • Need for immunization against unspecified combinations of infectious diseases • Need for immunization against unspecified infectious disease • Need for immunization against viral hepatitis • Need for immunization against yellow fever • Rash following immunization • Secondary Immunization • Sepsis following immunization • following immunization • immunization against combinations of diseases • immunization not carried out

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Wikipedia

Immunization

                   
  Dr. Schreiber of San Augustine giving a typhoid inoculation at a rural school, San Augustine County, Texas. Transfer from U.S. Office of War Information, 1944.
  A child being immunized against polio.

Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).

When this system is exposed to molecules that are foreign to the body, called non-self, it will orchestrate an immune response, and it will also develop the ability to quickly respond to a subsequent encounter because of immunological memory. This is a function of the adaptive immune system. Therefore, by exposing an animal to an immunogen in a controlled way, its body can learn to protect itself: this is called active immunization.

The most important elements of the immune system that are improved by immunization are the T cells, B cells, and the antibodies B cells produce. Memory B cell and memory T cells are responsible for a swift response to a second encounter with a foreign molecule. Passive immunization is when these elements are introduced directly into the body, instead of when the body itself has to make these elements.

Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination. Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body's immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection. The fact that mutations can cause cancer cells to produce proteins or other molecules that are unknown to the body forms the theoretical basis for therapeutic cancer vaccines. Other molecules can be used for immunization as well, for example in experimental vaccines against nicotine (NicVAX) or the hormone ghrelin in experiments to create an obesity vaccine.

Active immunization/vaccination has been named one of the "Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century".[1]

Contents

  Passive and active immunisation

Immunization can be achieved in an active or passive manner: vaccination is an active form of immunization.

  Active immunization

Active immunization entails the introduction of a foreign molecule into the body, which causes the body itself to generate immunity against the target. This immunity comes from the T cells and the B cells with their antibodies.

Active immunization can occur naturally when a person comes in contact with, for example, a microbe. If the person has not yet come into contact with the microbe and has no pre-made antibodies for defense, as in passive immunization, the person becomes immunized. The immune system will eventually create antibodies and other defenses against the microbe. The next time, the immune response against this microbe can be very efficient; this is the case in many of the childhood infections that a person only contracts once, but then is immune.

Artificial active immunization is where the microbe, or parts of it, are injected into the person before they are able to take it in naturally. If whole microbes are used, they are pre-treated, Attenuated vaccine.

The importance of immunization is so great that the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has named it one of the "Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century".[1]

  Passive immunization

Passive immunization is where pre-synthesized elements of the immune system are transferred to a person so that the body does not need to produce these elements itself. Currently, antibodies can be used for passive immunization. This method of immunization begins to work very quickly, but it is short lasting, because the antibodies are naturally broken down, and if there are no B cells to produce more antibodies, they will disappear.

Passive immunization occurs physiologically, when antibodies are transferred from mother to fetus during pregnancy, to protect the fetus before and shortly after birth.

Artificial passive immunization is normally administered by injection and is used if there has been a recent outbreak of a particular disease or as an emergency treatment for toxicity, as in for tetanus). The antibodies can be produced in animals, called "serum therapy," although there is a high chance of anaphylactic shock because of immunity against animal serum itself. Thus, humanized antibodies produced in vitro by cell culture are used instead if available.

  See also

  References

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Immunization


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