1.having or employing wavelengths longer than light but shorter than radio waves; lying outside the visible spectrum at its red end"infrared radiation" "infrared photography"
1.the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic wave frequencies below the visible range"they could sense radiation in the infrared"
2.electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves
definition of Wikipedia
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy • Infrared Rays • Infrared Spectrophotometry • Spectrophotometry, Infrared • Spectroscopy, Infrared, Fourier Transform • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared • infrared emission • infrared frequency • infrared lamp • infrared light • infrared radiation • infrared ray • infrared spectrum • infrared therapy • near infrared
Atmospheric Infrared Sounder • Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation • Cosmic infrared background • Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment • Digital infrared thermal imaging in health care • Directional Infrared Counter Measures • Far Infrared • Far infrared astronomy • Far-infrared laser • Fiber focus infrared soldering • Forward looking infrared • Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector • Gornergrat Infrared Telescope • Infrared (disambiguation) • Infrared (record label) • Infrared Data Association • Infrared Optical Telescope Array • Infrared Physics and Technology • Infrared Processing and Analysis Center • Infrared Riding Hood • Infrared Roses • Infrared Sightings • Infrared Space Observatory • Infrared Spatial Interferometer • Infrared and thermal testing • Infrared astronomy • Infrared blaster • Infrared camera • Infrared cirrus • Infrared cleaning • Infrared countermeasures • Infrared cut-off filter • Infrared detector • Infrared divergence • Infrared excess • Infrared fixed point • Infrared fluorescent protein • Infrared gas analyzer • Infrared heater • Infrared homing • Infrared lamp • Infrared mammography • Infrared multiphoton dissociation • Infrared photo • Infrared photography • Infrared point sensor • Infrared port • Infrared sauna • Infrared sensing in snakes • Infrared signature • Infrared spectroscopy • Infrared spectroscopy correlation table • Infrared telescope • Infrared telescopes • Infrared thermal microscopy • Infrared thermometer • Infrared vision • Infrared window • List of astronomical interferometers at visible and infrared wavelengths • Long-wave infrared • Luminous InfraRed Galaxies • Luminous Infrared Galaxies • Luminous infrared galaxy • Meteosat Visible and Infrared Imager • Mid-InfraRed Technologies for Health and the Environment • Mid-infrared • Mobile Infrared Transmitter • NASA Infrared Telescope Facility • Near Field Infrared Experiment • Near Infrared • Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer • Near infrared spectroscopy • Near infrared spectrum • Near-infrared • Near-infrared signature management technology • Nondispersive infrared sensor • Passive infrared sensor • Quantum well infrared photodetector • RIAS (Remote Infrared Audible Signage) • SPRITE infrared detector • Space-Based Infrared System • Space-Based Infrared Systems Wing • Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy • Television Infrared Observation Satellite • Thermal infrared spectroscopy • Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy • UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey • Ultra-Luminous InfraRed Galaxy • Ultra-Luminous infrared galaxy • Ultra-luminous InfraRed Galaxy • Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies • Ultra-luminous infrared galaxy • UltraLuminous InfraRed Galaxies • UltraLuminous InfraRed Galaxy • UltraLuminous infrared galaxy • Ultraluminous InfraRed Galaxy • Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies • Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy • Ultraluminous infrared galaxies • Ultraluminous infrared galaxy • United Kingdom Infrared Telescope • Visible and near-infrared • Wide Field Infrared Explorer • Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer
rayon (lumière) (fr)[Thème]
rythme du pouls (fr)[DomaineDescription]
actinic radiation, actinic ray[Hyper.]
Infrared (IR) light is electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 0.74 micrometres (µm) to 300 µm. This range of wavelengths corresponds to a frequency range of approximately 1 to 400 THz, and includes most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature. Infrared light is emitted or absorbed by molecules when they change their rotational-vibrational movements.
Much of the energy from the Sun arrives on Earth in the form of infrared radiation. Sunlight at zenith provides an irradiance of just over 1 kilowatt per square meter at sea level. Of this energy, 527 watts is infrared radiation, 445 watts is visible light, and 32 watts is ultraviolet radiation. The balance between absorbed and emitted infrared radiation has a critical effect on the Earth's climate.
Infrared light is used in industrial, scientific, and medical applications. Night-vision devices using infrared illumination allow people or animals to be observed without the observer being detected. In astronomy, imaging at infrared wavelengths allows observation of objects obscured by interstellar dust. Infrared imaging cameras are used to detect heat loss in insulated systems, observe changing blood flow in the skin, and overheating of electrical apparatus.
|Name||Wavelength||Frequency (Hz)||Photon Energy (eV)|
|Gamma ray||less than 0.01 nm||more than 10 EHZ||100 keV - 300+ GeV|
|X-Ray||0.01 nm to 10 nm||30 EHz - 30 PHZ||120 eV to 120 keV|
|Ultraviolet||10 nm - 390 nm||30 PHZ - 790 THz||3 eV to 124 eV|
|Visible||390 - 750 nm||790 THz - 405 THz||1.7 eV - 3.3 eV|
|Infrared||750 nm - 1 mm||405 THz - 300 GHz||1.24 meV - 1.7 eV|
|Microwave||1 mm - 1 meter||300 GHz - 300 MHz||1.24 µeV - 1.24 meV|
|Radio||1 mm - 100,000 km||300 GHz - 3 Hz||12.4 feV - 1.24 meV|
Infrared imaging is used extensively for military and civilian purposes. Military applications include target acquisition, surveillance, night vision, homing and tracking. Non-military uses include thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, remote temperature sensing, short-ranged wireless communication, spectroscopy, and weather forecasting. Infrared astronomy uses sensor-equipped telescopes to penetrate dusty regions of space, such as molecular clouds; detect objects such as planets, and to view highly red-shifted objects from the early days of the universe.
Humans at normal body temperature radiate chiefly at wavelengths around 12 μm (micrometers), as shown by Wien's displacement law.
At the atomic level, infrared energy elicits vibrational modes in a molecule through a change in the dipole moment, making it a useful frequency range for study of these energy states for molecules of the proper symmetry. Infrared spectroscopy examines absorption and transmission of photons in the infrared energy range, based on their frequency and intensity.
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Objects generally emit infrared radiation across a spectrum of wavelengths, but sometimes only a limited region of the spectrum is of interest because sensors usually collect radiation only within a specific bandwidth. Therefore, the infrared band is often subdivided into smaller sections.
A commonly used sub-division scheme is:
|Division Name||Abbreviation||Wavelength||Photon Energy||Characteristics|
|Near-infrared||NIR, IR-A DIN||0.75-1.4 µm||0.9-1.7 eV||Defined by the water absorption, and commonly used in fiber optic telecommunication because of low attenuation losses in the SiO2 glass (silica) medium. Image intensifiers are sensitive to this area of the spectrum. Examples include night vision devices such as night vision goggles.|
|Short-wavelength infrared||SWIR, IR-B DIN||1.4-3 µm||0.4-0.9 eV||Water absorption increases significantly at 1,450 nm. The 1,530 to 1,560 nm range is the dominant spectral region for long-distance telecommunications.|
|Mid-wavelength infrared||MWIR, IR-C DIN. Also called intermediate infrared (IIR)||3-8 µm||150-400 meV||In guided missile technology the 3-5 µm portion of this band is the atmospheric window in which the homing heads of passive IR 'heat seeking' missiles are designed to work, homing on to the Infrared signature of the target aircraft, typically the jet engine exhaust plume|
|Long-wavelength infrared||LWIR, IR-C DIN||8–15 µm||80-150 meV||This is the "thermal imaging" region, in which sensors can obtain a completely passive picture of the outside world based on thermal emissions only and requiring no external light or thermal source such as the sun, moon or infrared illuminator. Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) systems use this area of the spectrum. This region is also called the "thermal infrared."|
|Far infrared||FIR||15 - 1,000 µm||1.2-80 meV||(see also far-infrared laser).|
NIR and SWIR is sometimes called "reflected infrared" while MWIR and LWIR is sometimes referred to as "thermal infrared." Due to the nature of the blackbody radiation curves, typical 'hot' objects, such as exhaust pipes, often appear brighter in the MW compared to the same object viewed in the LW.
|Near Infrared||NIR||0.78–3 µm|
|Mid Infrared||MIR||3–50 µm|
|Far Infrared||FIR||50–1000 µm|
Astronomers typically divide the infrared spectrum as follows:
|Near Infrared||NIR||(0.7–1) to 5 µm|
|Mid Infrared||MIR||5 to (25–40) µm|
|Far Infrared||FIR||(25–40) to (200–350) µm.|
These divisions are not precise and can vary depending on the publication. The three regions are used for observation of different temperature ranges, and hence different environments in space.
A third scheme divides up the band based on the response of various detectors:
These divisions are justified by the different human response to this radiation: near infrared is the region closest in wavelength to the radiation detectable by the human eye, mid and far infrared are progressively further from the visible spectrum. Other definitions follow different physical mechanisms (emission peaks, vs. bands, water absorption) and the newest follow technical reasons (The common silicon detectors are sensitive to about 1,050 nm, while InGaAs' sensitivity starts around 950 nm and ends between 1,700 and 2,600 nm, depending on the specific configuration). Unfortunately, international standards for these specifications are not currently available.
The boundary between visible and infrared light is not precisely defined. The human eye is markedly less sensitive to light above 700 nm wavelength, so longer wavelengths make insignificant contributions to scenes illuminated by common light sources. But particularly intense light (e.g., from IR lasers, or from bright daylight with the visible light removed by colored gels) can be detected up to approximately 780 nm, and will be perceived as red light, although sources of up to 1050 nm can be seen as a dull red glow in intense sources. The onset of infrared is defined (according to different standards) at various values typically between 700 nm and 800 nm.
In optical communications, the part of the infrared spectrum that is used is divided into seven bands based on availability of light sources transmitting/absorbing materials (fibers) and detectors:
|O band||Original||1260–1360 nm|
|E band||Extended||1360–1460 nm|
|S band||Short wavelength||1460–1530 nm|
|C band||Conventional||1530–1565 nm|
|L band||Long wavelength||1565–1625 nm|
|U band||Ultralong wavelength||1625–1675 nm|
The C-band is the dominant band for long-distance telecommunication networks. The S and L bands are based on less well established technology, and are not as widely deployed.
Infrared radiation is popularly known as "heat radiation", but light and electromagnetic waves of any frequency will heat surfaces that absorb them. Infrared light from the Sun only accounts for 49% of the heating of the Earth, with the rest being caused by visible light that is absorbed then re-radiated at longer wavelengths. Visible light or ultraviolet-emitting lasers can char paper and incandescently hot objects emit visible radiation. Objects at room temperature will emit radiation mostly concentrated in the 8 to 25 µm band, but this is not distinct from the emission of visible light by incandescent objects and ultraviolet by even hotter objects (see black body and Wien's displacement law).
The concept of emissivity is important in understanding the infrared emissions of objects. This is a property of a surface which describes how its thermal emissions deviate from the ideal of a black body. To further explain, two objects at the same physical temperature will not "appear" the same temperature in an infrared image if they have differing emissivities.
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Infrared is used in night vision equipment when there is insufficient visible light to see. Night vision devices operate through a process involving the conversion of ambient light photons into electrons which are then amplified by a chemical and electrical process and then converted back into visible light. Infrared light sources can be used to augment the available ambient light for conversion by night vision devices, increasing in-the-dark visibility without actually using a visible light source.
The use of infrared light and night vision devices should not be confused with thermal imaging which creates images based on differences in surface temperature by detecting infrared radiation (heat) that emanates from objects and their surrounding environment.
Infrared radiation can be used to remotely determine the temperature of objects (if the emissivity is known). This is termed thermography, or in the case of very hot objects in the NIR or visible it is termed pyrometry. Thermography (thermal imaging) is mainly used in military and industrial applications but the technology is reaching the public market in the form of infrared cameras on cars due to the massively reduced production costs.
Thermographic cameras detect radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 900–14,000 nanometers or 0.9–14 μm) and produce images of that radiation. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects based on their temperatures, according to the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to "see" one's environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature, therefore thermography allows one to see variations in temperature (hence the name).
A hyperspectral image, a basis for chemical imaging, is a "picture" containing continuous spectrum through a wide spectral range. Hyperspectral imaging is gaining importance in the applied spectroscopy particularly in the fields of NIR, SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR spectral regions. Typical applications include biological, mineralogical, defence, and industrial measurements.
Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Camera can be applied similarly to a Thermographic camera, with the fundamental difference that each pixel contains a full LWIR spectrum. Consequently, chemical identification of the object can be performed without a need for an external light source such as the Sun or the Moon. Such cameras are typically applied for geological measurements, outdoor surveillance and UAV applications.
In infrared photography, infrared filters are used to capture the near-infrared spectrum. Digital cameras often use infrared blockers. Cheaper digital cameras and camera phones have less effective filters and can "see" intense near-infrared, appearing as a bright purple-white color. This is especially pronounced when taking pictures of subjects near IR-bright areas (such as near a lamp), where the resulting infrared interference can wash out the image. There is also a technique called 'T-ray' imaging, which is imaging using far-infrared or terahertz radiation. Lack of bright sources makes terahertz photography technically more challenging than most other infrared imaging techniques. Recently T-ray imaging has been of considerable interest due to a number of new developments such as terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.
Infrared tracking, also known as infrared homing, refers to a passive missile guidance system which uses the emission from a target of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared part of the spectrum to track it. Missiles which use infrared seeking are often referred to as "heat-seekers", since infrared (IR) is just below the visible spectrum of light in frequency and is radiated strongly by hot bodies. Many objects such as people, vehicle engines, and aircraft generate and retain heat, and as such, are especially visible in the infrared wavelengths of light compared to objects in the background.
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Infrared radiation can be used as a deliberate heating source. For example it is used in infrared saunas to heat the occupants, and also to remove ice from the wings of aircraft (de-icing). Far infrared is also gaining popularity as a safe heat therapy method of natural health care and physiotherapy. Infrared can be used in cooking and heating food as it predominantly heats the opaque, absorbent objects, rather than the air around them.
Infrared heating is also becoming more popular in industrial manufacturing processes, e.g. curing of coatings, forming of plastics, annealing, plastic welding, print drying. In these applications, infrared heaters replace convection ovens and contact heating.
Infrared heaters] produce heat that is a product of invisible light and they consist of three parts: infrared light bulbs, a heat exchanger and a fan that blows air onto the exchanger to disperse the heat.
Efficiency is achieved by matching the wavelength of the infrared heater to the absorption characteristics of the material.
IR data transmission is also employed in short-range communication among computer peripherals and personal digital assistants. These devices usually conform to standards published by IrDA, the Infrared Data Association. Remote controls and IrDA devices use infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to emit infrared radiation which is focused by a plastic lens into a narrow beam. The beam is modulated, i.e. switched on and off, to encode the data. The receiver uses a silicon photodiode to convert the infrared radiation to an electric current. It responds only to the rapidly pulsing signal created by the transmitter, and filters out slowly changing infrared radiation from ambient light. Infrared communications are useful for indoor use in areas of high population density. IR does not penetrate walls and so does not interfere with other devices in adjoining rooms. Infrared is the most common way for remote controls to command appliances. Infrared remote control protocols like RC-5, SIRC, are used to communicate with infrared.
Free space optical communication using infrared lasers can be a relatively inexpensive way to install a communications link in an urban area operating at up to 4 gigabit/s, compared to the cost of burying fiber optic cable.
Infrared lasers are used to provide the light for optical fiber communications systems. Infrared light with a wavelength around 1,330 nm (least dispersion) or 1,550 nm (best transmission) are the best choices for standard silica fibers.
IR data transmission of encoded audio versions of printed signs is being researched as an aid for visually impaired people through the RIAS (Remote Infrared Audible Signage) project.
Infrared vibrational spectroscopy (see also near infrared spectroscopy) is a technique which can be used to identify molecules by analysis of their constituent bonds. Each chemical bond in a molecule vibrates at a frequency which is characteristic of that bond. A group of atoms in a molecule (e.g. CH2) may have multiple modes of oscillation caused by the stretching and bending motions of the group as a whole. If an oscillation leads to a change in dipole in the molecule, then it will absorb a photon which has the same frequency. The vibrational frequencies of most molecules correspond to the frequencies of infrared light. Typically, the technique is used to study organic compounds using light radiation from 4000–400 cm−1, the mid-infrared. A spectrum of all the frequencies of absorption in a sample is recorded. This can be used to gain information about the sample composition in terms of chemical groups present and also its purity (for example a wet sample will show a broad O-H absorption around 3200 cm−1).
Weather satellites equipped with scanning radiometers produce thermal or infrared images which can then enable a trained analyst to determine cloud heights and types, to calculate land and surface water temperatures, and to locate ocean surface features. The scanning is typically in the range 10.3-12.5 µm (IR4 and IR5 channels).
High, cold ice clouds such as Cirrus or Cumulonimbus show up bright white, lower warmer clouds such as Stratus or Stratocumulus show up as grey with intermediate clouds shaded accordingly. Hot land surfaces will show up as dark grey or black. One disadvantage of infrared imagery is that low cloud such as stratus or fog can be a similar temperature to the surrounding land or sea surface and does not show up. However, using the difference in brightness of the IR4 channel (10.3-11.5 µm) and the near-infrared channel (1.58-1.64 µm), low cloud can be distinguished, producing a fog satellite picture. The main advantage of infrared is that images can be produced at night, allowing a continuous sequence of weather to be studied.
These infrared pictures can depict ocean eddies or vortices and map currents such as the Gulf Stream which are valuable to the shipping industry. Fishermen and farmers are interested in knowing land and water temperatures to protect their crops against frost or increase their catch from the sea. Even El Niño phenomena can be spotted. Using color-digitized techniques, the gray shaded thermal images can be converted to color for easier identification of desired information.
In the field of climatology, atmospheric infrared radiation is monitored to detect trends in the energy exchange between the earth and the atmosphere. These trends provide information on long term changes in the Earth's climate. It is one of the primary parameters studied in research into global warming together with solar radiation.
A pyrgeometer is utilized in this field of research to perform continuous outdoor measurements. This is a broadband infrared radiometer with sensitivity for infrared radiation between approximately 4.5 µm and 50 µm.
Astronomers observe objects in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum using optical components, including mirrors, lenses and solid state digital detectors. For this reason it is classified as part of optical astronomy. To form an image, the components of an infrared telescope need to be carefully shielded from heat sources, and the detectors are chilled using liquid helium.
The sensitivity of Earth-based infrared telescopes is significantly limited by water vapor in the atmosphere, which absorbs a portion of the infrared radiation arriving from space outside of selected atmospheric windows[disambiguation needed ]. This limitation can be partially alleviated by placing the telescope observatory at a high altitude, or by carrying the telescope aloft with a balloon or an aircraft. Space telescopes do not suffer from this handicap, and so outer space is considered the ideal location for infrared astronomy.
The infrared portion of the spectrum has several useful benefits for astronomers. Cold, dark molecular clouds of gas and dust in our galaxy will glow with radiated heat as they are irradiated by imbedded stars. Infrared can also be used to detect protostars before they begin to emit visible light. Stars emit a smaller portion of their energy in the infrared spectrum, so nearby cool objects such as planets can be more readily detected. (In the visible light spectrum, the glare from the star will drown out the reflected light from a planet.)
Infrared light is also useful for observing the cores of active galaxies which are often cloaked in gas and dust. Distant galaxies with a high redshift will have the peak portion of their spectrum shifted toward longer wavelengths, so they are more readily observed in the infrared.
Infrared reflectograms, as called by art historians, are taken of paintings to reveal underlying layers, in particular the underdrawing or outline drawn by the artist as a guide. This often uses carbon black which shows up well in reflectograms, so long as it has not also been used in the ground underlying the whole painting. Art historians are looking to see if the visible layers of paint differ from the under-drawing or layers in between - such alterations are called pentimenti when made by the original artist. This is very useful information in deciding whether a painting is the prime version by the original artist or a copy, and whether it has been altered by over-enthusiastic restoration work. Generally the more pentimenti, the more likely a painting is to be the prime version. It also gives useful insights into working practices.
Among many other changes in the Arnolfini Portrait of 1434 (left), the man's face was originally higher by about the height of his eye; the woman's was higher, and her eyes looked more to the front. Each of his feet was underdrawn in one position, painted in another, and then overpainted in a third. These alterations are seen in infra-red reflectograms.
Similar uses of infrared are made by historians on various types of objects, especially very old written documents such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Roman works in the Villa of the Papyri, and the Silk Road texts found in the Dunhuang Caves. Carbon black used in ink can show up extremely well.
Other organisms that have thermoreceptive organs are pythons (family Pythonidae), some boas (family Boidae), the Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus), a variety of jewel beetles (Melanophila acuminata), darkly pigmented butterflies (Pachliopta aristolochiae and Troides rhadamantus plateni), and possibly blood-sucking bugs (Triatoma infestans).
Near infrared light, or photobiomodulation, is used for treatment of chemotherapy induced oral ulceration as well as wound healing. There is some work relating to anti herpes virus treatment. Research projects include work on central nervous system healing effects via cytochrome c oxidase upregulation and other possible mechanisms.
Strong infrared radiation in certain industry high-heat settings may be hazard to the eyes, resulting in damage or blindness to the user. Since the radiation is invisible, special IR-proof goggles must be worn in such places.
The Earth's surface and the clouds absorb visible and invisible radiation from the sun and re-emit much of the energy as infrared back to the atmosphere. Certain substances in the atmosphere, chiefly cloud droplets and water vapor, but also carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, and chlorofluorocarbons, absorb this infrared, and re-radiate it in all directions including back to Earth. Thus the greenhouse effect keeps the atmosphere and surface much warmer than if the infrared absorbers were absent from the atmosphere.
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The discovery of infrared radiation is ascribed to William Herschel, the astronomer, in the early 19th century. Herschel published his results in 1800 before the Royal Society of London. Herschel used a prism to refract light from the sun and detected the infrared, beyond the red part of the spectrum, through an increase in the temperature recorded on a thermometer. He was surprised at the result and called them "Calorific Rays". The term 'Infrared' did not appear until late in the 19th century.
Other important dates include:
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