» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - Invasive_species

definition of Wikipedia

   Advertizing ▼

Wikipedia

Invasive species

                   
  Beavers from North America constitute an invasive species in Tierra del Fuego, where they have a substantial impact on landscape and local ecology through their dams.
  Kudzu, a Japanese vine species invasive in the southeast United States, growing in Atlanta, Georgia

Invasive species, also called invasive exotics or simply exotics, is a nomenclature term and categorization phrase used for flora and fauna, and for specific restoration-preservation processes in native habitats, with several definitions.

  • The second definition includes the first, but broadens the boundaries to include indigenous or native species, with the non-native ones, that disrupt by a dominant colonization of a particular habitat or wildlands area from loss of natural controls (i.e.: predators or herbivores). Deer are an example, considered to be overpopulating their native zones and adjacent suburban gardens, by some in the Northeastern and Pacific Coast regions of the United States.
  • The third definition identifies invasive species as a widespread nonindigenous species.[4] This one can be too broad, as not every nonindigenous or "introduced" species has an adverse effect on a nonindigenous environment. A nonadverse example is the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), though common outside its native range globally, it is rarely in harmful densities to a native habitat.[4]

Because of the variability of its definition, and because definitions are often from a socioeconomic perspective, the phrase invasive species is often criticized as an imprecise term for the scientific field of ecology.[4] This article concerns the first two definitions; for the third, see Introduced species.

  Conditions that lead to invasion

Scientists include species- and ecosystem factors among the mechanisms, that when combined establish invasiveness in a newly introduced species.

  Species-based mechanisms

While all species compete to survive, invasive species appear to have specific traits or specific combinations of traits that allow them to outcompete native species. In some cases the competition is about rates of growth and reproduction. In other cases species interact with each other more directly.

Researchers disagree about the usefulness of traits as invasiveness markers. One study found that of a list of invasive and noninvasive species, 86% of the invasive species could be identified from the traits alone.[7] Another study found invasive species tended only to have a small subset of the presumed traits, and that many such traits were found in noninvasive species, requiring other explanations.[7][8][9] Common invasive species traits include:

Typically an introduced species must survive at low population densities before it becomes invasive in a new location.[12] At low population densities, it can be difficult for the introduced species to reproduce and maintain itself in a new location, so a species might reach a location multiple times before it becomes established. Repeated patterns of human movement, such as ships sailing to and from ports or cars driving up and down highways, offer repeated opportunities for establishment (also known as a high propagule pressure).[13]

An introduced species might become invasive if it can outcompete native species for resources, such as nutrients, light, physical space, water or food. If these species evolved under great competition or predation, the new environment may host fewer able competitors, allowing the invader to proliferate quickly. Ecosystems in which all available resources are being used to their fullest capacity by native species can be modeled as zero-sum systems, where any gain for the invader is a loss for the native. However, such unilateral competitive superiority (and extinction of native species with increased populations of the invader) is not the rule.[14][15] Invasive species often coexist with native species for an extended time, and gradually the superior competitive ability of an invasive species becomes apparent as its population grows larger and denser and it adapts to its new location.

  Lantana growing in abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdei Hemed, Israel

An invasive species might be able to use resources previously unavailable to native species, such as deep water sources accessed by a long taproot, or an ability to live on previously uninhabited soil types. For example, barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis) was introduced to California on serpentine soils, which have low water-retention, low nutrient levels, a high Magnesium/Calcium ratio, and possible heavy metal toxicity. Plant populations on these soils tend to show low density, but goatgrass can form dense stands on these soils, crowding out native species that have not adapted well to serpentine soils.[16]

Ecological facilitation occurs when a species alters its environment using chemicals or manipulating abiotic factors, allowing the species to thrive, while making the environment less favorable to competitors.[citation needed] One such facilitative mechanism is allelopathy, also known as chemical competition or interference competition. In allelopathy, a plant secretes chemicals which make the surrounding soil uninhabitable, or at least inhibitory, to competing species.

Examples of this in Centaurea are Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) and Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed). These Eastern European noxious weeds have spread through the western and West Coast states. Experiments show that 8-hydroxyquinoline, a chemical produced at the root of C. diffusa, has a negative effect only on plants that have not co-evolved with it. Such co-evolved native plants have also evolved defenses. C. diffusa and C. solstitialis do not appear in their native habitats to be overwhelmingly successful competitors. Success/lack of success in one habitat does not imply success in others. Conversely, examining habitats in which a species is less successful can reveal novel weapons to defeat invasiveness.[17][18]

Changes in fire regimens are another form of facilitation. Bromus tectorum, originally from Eurasia, is highly fire-adapted. It not only spreads rapidly after burning, but also increases the frequency and intensity (heat) of fires, by providing large amounts of dry detritus during the fire season in western North America. In areas where it is widespread, it has altered the local fire regimen so much that native plants cannot survive the frequent fires, allowing B. tectorum to further extend and maintain dominance in its introduced range.[19]

Facilitation also occurs when one species physically modifies a habitat in ways that are advantageous to other species. For example, zebra mussels increase habitat complexity on lake floors, providing crevices in which invertebrates live. This increase in complexity, together with the nutrition provided by the waste products of mussel filter-feeding, increases the density and diversity of benthic invertebrate communities.[20]

  Ecosystem-based mechanisms

In ecosystems, the amount of available resources and the extent to which those resources are used by organisms determines the effects of additional species on the ecosystem. In stable ecosystems, equilibrium exists in the use of available resources. These mechanisms describe a situation in which the ecosystem has suffered a disturbance which changes the fundamental nature of the ecosystem.[21]

When changes such as a forest fire occur, normal succession favors native grasses and forbs. An introduced species that can spread faster than natives can use resources that would have been available to native species, squeezing them out. Nitrogen and phosphorus are often the limiting factors in these situations.[22]

Every species occupies a niche in its native ecosystem; some species fill large and varied roles, while others are highly specialized. Some invading species fill niches that are not used by native species, and they also can create new niches.[citation needed]

Ecosystem changes can alter species' distributions. For example edge effects describe what happens when part of an ecosystem is disturbed as when land is cleared for agriculture. The boundary between remaining undisturbed habitat and the newly cleared land itself forms a distinct habitat, creating new winners and losers and possibly hosting species that would not thrive outside the boundary habitat.[citation needed]

  Ecology

  Native "invaders"

Although invasive species have typically been introduced to a habitat, some native species can, under the influence of events, such as long-term rainfall changes or human modifications to the habitat, increase in number and range and become invasive by expanding into new areas and disturbing the balance of species in the new area.

All species experience increases and decreases in numbers, in many cases accompanied by expansion or contraction of range. For example, the Monterey cypress is an endangered endemic,[23] naturally occurring only in two small stands in California. They are being exterminated as exotic invasive species less than 50 miles (80 km) from their natural habitat.[citation needed]

  Traits of invaded ecosystems

In 1958, Charles S. Elton[24] claimed that ecosystems with higher species diversity were less subject to invasive species because of fewer available niches. Other ecologists later pointed to highly diverse, but heavily invaded ecosystems and argued that ecosystems with high species diversity were more susceptible to invasion.[25]

This debate hinged on the spatial scale at which invasion studies were performed, and the issue of how diversity affects susceptibility remained unresolved as of 2011. Small-scale studies tended to show a negative relationship between diversity and invasion, while large-scale studies tended to show the reverse. The latter result may be a side-effect of invasives' ability to capitalize on increased resource availability and weaker species interactions that are more common when larger samples are considered.[26][27]

  The brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis)

Invasion was more likely in ecosystems that were similar to the one in which the potential invader evolved.[28] Island ecosystems may be more prone to invasion because their species faced few strong competitors and predators, or because their distance from colonizing species populations makes them more likely to have "open" niches.[29] An example of this phenomenon was the decimation of native bird populations on Guam by the invasive brown tree snake.[30] Conversely, invaded ecosystems may lack the natural competitors and predators that check invasives' growth in their native ecosystems, a factor that affected Guam snake populations.

Invaded ecosystems may have experienced disturbance, typically human-induced.[10] Such a disturbance may give invasive species a chance to establish themselves with less competition from natives less able to adapt to a disturbed ecosystem.[12]

  Vectors

Non-native species have many vectors, including biogenic vectors, but most invasions are associated with human activity. Natural range extensions are common in many species, but the rate and magnitude of human-mediated extensions in these species tend to be much larger than natural extensions, and humans typically carry specimens greater distances than natural forces.[31]

An early human vector occurred when prehistoric humans introduced the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) to Polynesia.[32]

  Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

Vectors include plants or seeds imported for horticulture. The pet trade moves animals across borders, where they can escape and become invasive. Organisms stow away on transport vehicles. For example, ballast water taken up at sea and released in port is a major vector for marine invasions. Freshwater zebra mussels, native to the Black, Caspian and Azov seas, probably reached the Great Lakes via ballast water from a transoceanic vessel.[33]

The arrival of invasive propagules to a new site is a function of the site's invasibility.[34]

Species have also been introduced intentionally. For example, to feel more "at home", American colonists formed "Acclimation Societies" that repeatedly imported birds that were native to Europe to North America and other distant lands. In 2008, U.S. postal workers in Pennsylvania noticed noises coming from inside a box from Taiwan; the box contained more than two dozen live beetles. Agricultural Research Service entomologists identified them as rhinoceros beetle, hercules beetle, and king stag beetle.[35] Because these species were not native to the U.S., they could have threatened native ecosystems. To prevent exotic species from becoming a problem in the U.S., special handling and permits are required when living materials are shipped from foreign countries. USDA programs such as Smuggling Interdiction and Trade Compliance (SITC) attempt to prevent exotic species outbreaks in America.

Economics plays a major role in exotic species introduction. High demand for the valuable Chinese mitten crab is one explanation for the possible intentional release of the species in foreign waters.[citation needed]

  Impacts of wildfire

Invasive species often exploit disturbances to an ecosystem (wildfires, roads, foot trails) to colonize an area. Large wildfires are capable of sterilizing soils, while adding a variety of nutrients.[22] In the resulting free-for-all, formerly entrenched species lose their advantage, leaving more room for invasives. In such circumstances plants that can regenerate from their roots have an advantage. Non-natives with this ability can benefit from a low intensity fire burns that removes surface vegetation, leaving natives that rely on seeds for propagation to find their niches occupied when their seeds finally sprout.[19]

  Impact of wildfire suppression on spreading

Wildfires often occur in remote areas, needing fire suppression crews to travel through pristine forest to reach the site. The crews can bring invasive seeds with them. If any of these stowaway seeds become established, a thriving colony of invasives can erupt in as few as six weeks, after which controlling the outbreak can need years of continued attention to prevent further spread. Also, disturbing the soil surface, such as cutting firebreaks, destroys native cover, exposes soil, and can accelerate invasions. In suburban and wildland-urban interface areas, the vegetation clearance and brush removal ordinances of municipalities for defensible space can result in excessive removal of native shrubs and perennials that exposes the soil to more light and less competition for invasive plant species.[citation needed]

Fire suppression vehicles are often major culprits in such outbreaks, as the vehicles are often driven on back roads often overgrown with invasive plant species. The undercarriage of the vehicle becomes a prime vessel of transport. In response, on large fires, washing stations "decontaminate" vehicles before engaging in suppression activities.[citation needed] Large wild fires attract firefighters from remote locales, further increasing the potential for seed transport.[citation needed]

  Impact

  Ecological

Land clearing and human habitation put significant pressure on local species. Disturbed habitats are prone to invasions that can have adverse effects on local ecosystems, changing ecosystem functions. A species of wetland plant known as ʻaeʻae in Hawaii (the indigenous Bacopa monnieri) is regarded as a pest species in artificially manipulated water bird refuges because it quickly covers shallow mudflats established for endangered Hawaiian stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni), making these undesirable feeding areas for the birds.

Multiple successive introductions of different non-native species can have interactive effects; the introduction of a second non-native species can enable the first invasive species to flourish. Examples of this are the introductions of the amethyst gem clam (Gemma gemma) and the European green crab (Carcinus maenas). The gem clam was introduced into California's Bodega Harbor from the East Coast of the United States a century ago. It had been found in small quantities in the harbor but had never displaced the native clam species (Nutricola spp.). In the mid 1990s, the introduction of the European green crab, found to prey preferentially on the native clams, resulted in a decline of the native clams and an increase of the introduced clam populations.[36]

In the Waterberg region of South Africa, cattle grazing over the past six centuries has allowed invasive scrub and small trees to displace much of the original grassland, resulting in a massive reduction in forage for native bovids and other grazers. Since the 1970s, large scale efforts have been underway to reduce invasive species; partial success has led to re-establishment of many species that had dwindled or left the region. Examples of these species are giraffe, blue wildebeest, impala, kudu and white rhino.

Invasive species can change the functions of ecosystems. For example, invasive plants can alter the fire regimen (cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum), nutrient cycling (smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora), and hydrology (Tamarix) in native ecosystems.[37] Invasive species that are closely related to rare native species have the potential to hybridize with the native species. Harmful effects of hybridization have led to a decline and even extinction of native species.[38][39] For example, hybridization with introduced cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, threatens the existence of California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) in San Francisco Bay.[40]

  Economic

  Benefits

Non-native species can have benefits. Asian oysters, for example, better filter water pollutants than native oysters. They also grow faster and withstand disease better than natives. Biologists are currently considering releasing this mollusk in the Chesapeake Bay to help restore oyster stocks and remove pollution. A recent study by the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health found the Asian oyster could significantly benefit the bay's deteriorating water quality.[41]

  Costs

Economic costs from invasive species can be separated into direct costs through production loss in agriculture and forestry, and management costs. Estimated damage and control cost of invasive species in the U.S. alone amount to more than $138 billion annually.[42] Economic losses can also occur through loss of recreational and tourism revenues.[43] When economic costs of invasions are calculated as production loss and management costs, they are low because they do not consider environmental damage; if monetary values were assigned to the extinction of species, loss in biodiversity, and loss of ecosystem services, costs from impacts of invasive species would drastically increase.[42] The following examples from different sectors of the economy demonstrate the impact of biological invasions.

  Economic opportunities

Some invasions offer potential commercial benefits. For instance, silver carp and common carp can be harvested for human food and exported to markets already familiar with the product, or processed into pet foods, or mink feed. Vegetative invasives such as water hyacinth can be turned into fuel by methane digesters[citation needed].

  Agriculture

Weeds reduce yield, though they may provide essential nutrients. Some deep-rooted weeds can "mine" nutrients (see dynamic accumulator) from the subsoil and deposit them on the topsoil, while others provide habitat for beneficial insects and/or provide foods for pest species. Many weed species are accidental introductions that accompany seeds and imported plant material. Many introduced weeds in pastures compete with native forage plants, threaten young cattle (e.g., leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula) or are unpalatable because of thorns and spines (e.g., yellow starthistle). Forage loss from invasive weeds on pastures amounts to nearly US$1 billion in the U.S. alone.[42] A decline in pollinator services and loss of fruit production has been caused by honey bees infected by the invasive varroa mite. Introduced rats (Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus) have become serious pests on farms, destroying stored grains.[42]

  Forestry

The unintentional introduction of forest pest species and plant pathogens can change forest ecology and damage the timber industry. The Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) was first introduced into the U.S. in 1996, and was expected to infect and damage millions of acres of hardwood trees. As of 2005 thirty million dollars had been spent in attempts to eradicate this pest and protect millions of trees in the affected regions.[42]

The woolly adelgid inflicted damage on old-growth spruce fir forests and damages the Christmas tree industry.[44] The chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) and Dutch elm disease (Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) are two plant pathogens with serious impacts on forest health.[citation needed]

  Tourism and recreation

Invasive species can impact outdoor recreation, such as fishing, hunting, hiking, wildlife viewing, and water-based activities. They can damage a wide array of environmental services that are important to recreation, including, but not limited to, water quality and quantity, plant and animal diversity, and species abundance.[45] Eiswerth states, "very little research has been performed to estimate the corresponding economic losses at spatial scales such as regions, states, and watersheds." Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in parts of the US, fill lakes with plants complicating fishing and boating.[46]

  Health

Encroachment of humans into previously remote ecosystems has exposed exotic diseases such as AIDS virus[42] to the wider population. Introduced birds (e.g. pigeons), rodents and insects (e.g. mosquito, flea, louse and tsetse fly pests) can serve as vectors and reservoirs of human afflictions. The introduced Chinese mitten crabs are carriers of Asian lung fluke.[47] Throughout recorded history, epidemics of human diseases, such as malaria, yellow fever, typhus, and bubonic plague, spread via these vectors.[24] A recent example of an introduced disease is the spread of the West Nile virus, which killed humans, birds, mammals, and reptiles.[48] Waterborne disease agents, such as cholera bacteria (Vibrio cholerae), and causative agents of harmful algal blooms are often transported via ballast water.[49] Invasive species and accompanying control efforts can have long term public health implications. For instance, pesticides applied to treat a particular pest species could pollute soil and surface water.[42]

  Biodiversity

Biotic invasion is considered one of the five top drivers for global biodiversity loss and is increasing because of tourism and globalization.[citation needed] This may be particularly true in inadequately regulated fresh water systems, though quarantines and ballast water rules have improved the situation.[50]

Invasive species may drive local native species to extinction via competitive exclusion, niche displacement, or hybridisation with related native species. Therefore, besides their economic ramifications, alien invasions may result in extensive changes in the structure, composition and global distribution of the biota of sites of introduction, leading ultimately to the homogenisation of the world’s fauna and flora and the loss of biodiversity.[51] Nevertheless, it is difficult to unequivocally attribute extinctions to a species invasion, and the few scientific studies that have done so have been with animal taxa. Concern over the impacts of invasive species on biodiversity must therefore consider the actual evidence (either ecological or economic), in relation to the potential risk.[citation needed]

  Genetic pollution

Native species can be threatened with extinction[52] through the process of genetic pollution. Genetic pollution is unintentional hybridization and introgression, which leads to homogenization or replacement of local genotypes as a result of either a numerical or fitness advantage of the introduced species.[53] Genetic pollution can operate either through introduction or through habitat modification, bringing previously isolated species into contact. Hybrids resulting from rare species that interbreed with abundant species can swamp the rarer species' gene pool. This is not always apparent from morphological observations alone. Some degree of gene flow is normal, and preserves constellations of genes and genotypes.[54][55] An example of this is the interbreeding of migrating coyotes with the red wolf, in areas of eastern North Carolina where the red wolf was reintroduced.[citation needed]


  Biogeographic evaluation

Stage Characteristic
0 Propagules residing in a donor region
I Traveling
II Introduced
III Localized and numerically rare
IVa Widespread but rare
IVb Localized but dominant
V Widespread and dominant

In an attempt to avoid the ambiguous, subjective, and pejorative vocabulary that so often accompanies discussion of invasive species even in scientific papers, Colautti and MacIsaac proposed a new nomenclature system based on biogeography rather than on taxa.[56]

By discarding taxonomy, human health, and economic factors, this model focused only on ecological factors. The model evaluated individual populations rather than entire species. It classified each population based on its success in that environment. This model applied equally to indigenous and to introduced species, and did not automatically categorize successful introductions as harmful.

  See also

  References

This article incorporates CC-BY-3.0 text from the reference[51]

Notes
  1. ^ Exotic Pest Plant Council. 'Exotic Pest Plants of Greatest Ecological Concern in California' accessed 4/10/2010.
  2. ^ (September 21, 2006). National Invasive Species Information Center - What is an Invasive Species?. United States Department of Agriculture: National Agriculture Library. Retrieved on September 1, 2007.
  3. ^ USA (1999). Executive Order 13112 of February 3, 1999: Invasive Species. Federal Register 64(25), 6183-6186.
  4. ^ a b c d Colautti, Robert I.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.; MacIsaac, Hugh J. (2004). "A neutral terminology to define 'invasive' species" (PDF). Diversity and Distributions 10 (2): 135–141. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00061.x. http://planet.botany.uwc.ac.za/nisl/Invasives/Assignment1/ColauttiandMacIsaac.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-11 
  5. ^ "Communication From The Commission To The Council, The European Parliament, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions Towards An EU Strategy On InvasFpollive Species" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/invasivealien/docs/1_EN_resume_impact_assesment_part1_v3.pdf. Retrieved 2011-05-17. 
  6. ^ Exotic Pest Plant Council. p. 1. accessed 4/10/2010.
  7. ^ a b Kolar, C.S.; D.M. Lodge (2001). "Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders". Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16 (4): 199–204. DOI:10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02101-2. PMID 11245943. 
  8. ^ Thebaud, C.; A.C. Finzi, L. Affre, M. Debussche, J. Escarre (1996). "Assessing why two introduced Conyza differ in their ability to invade Mediterranean old fields". Ecology (Ecology, Vol. 77, No. 3) 77 (3): 791–804. DOI:10.2307/2265502. JSTOR 2265502. 
  9. ^ Reichard, S.H.; C. W. Hamilton (1997). "Predicting invasions of woody plants introduced into North America". Conservation Biology 11 (1): 193–203. DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.95473.x. 
  10. ^ a b Williams, J.D.; G. K. Meffe (1998). "Nonindigenous Species". Status and Trends of the Nation's Biological Resources. Reston, Virginia: United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey 1. 
  11. ^ Ewell, J.J.; D.J. O’Dowd, J. Bergelson, C.C. Daehler, C.M. D’Antonio, L.D. Gomez, D.R. Gordon, R.J. Hobbs, A. Holt, K.R. Hopper, C.E. Hughes, M. LaHart, R.R.B. Leakey, W.G. Wong, L.L. Loope, D.H. Lorence, S.M. Louda, A.E. Lugo, P.B. McEvoy, D.M. Richardson, and P.M. Vitousek (1999). "Deliberate introductions of species: Research needs - Benefits can be reaped, but risks are high". BioScience (BioScience, Vol. 49, No. 8) 49 (8): 619–630. DOI:10.2307/1313438. JSTOR 1313438. 
  12. ^ a b Tilman, D. (2004). "Niche tradeoffs, neutrality, and community structure: A stochastic theory of resource competition, invasion, and community assembly". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101 (30): 10854–10861. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0403458101. PMC 503710. PMID 15243158. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=503710. 
  13. ^ Verling, E.; G.M. Ruiz, L.D. Smith, B. Galil, A.W. Miller, and K.R. Murphy (2005). "Supply-side invasion ecology: characterizing propagule pressure in coastal ecosystems". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Ser. B: Biological Science 272 (1569): 1249–1256. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2005.3090. PMC 1564104. PMID 16024389. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1564104. 
  14. ^ Stohlgren, T.J.; D. Binkley, G.W. Chong, M.A. Kalkhan, L.D. Schell, K.A. Bull, Y. Otsuki, G. Newman, M. Bashkin, and Y. Son (1999). "Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity". Ecological Monographs 69: 25–46. DOI:10.1890/0012-9615(1999)069[0025:EPSIHS]2.0.CO;2. 
  15. ^ Sax, D.F.; S. D. Gaines and J. H. Brown (2002). "Species Invasions Exceed Extinctions on Islands Worldwide: A Comparative Study of Plants and Birds". American Naturalist 160 (6): 766–783. DOI:10.1086/343877. PMID 18707464. 
  16. ^ Huenneke, L.; S. Hamburg, R. Koide, H. Mooney, and P. Vitousek (1990). "Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in California (USA) serpentine grassland". Ecology (Ecology, Vol. 71, No. 2) 71 (2): 478–491. DOI:10.2307/1940302. JSTOR 1940302. 
  17. ^ Hierro, J.L.; R.M. Callaway (2003). "Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion". Plant and Soil 256 (1): 29–39. DOI:10.1023/A:1026208327014. 
  18. ^ Vivanco, J.M.; H.P. Bais, F.R. Stermitz, G.C. Thelen, R.M. Callaway (2004). "Biogeographical variation in community response to root allelochemistry: Novel weapons and exotic invasion". Ecology Letters 7 (4): 285–292. DOI:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00576.x. 
  19. ^ a b Brooks, M.L.; C. M. D’Antonio, D. M. Richardson, J. B. Grace, J. E. Keeley, J. M. DiTomaso, R. J. Hobbs, M. Pellant, and D. Pyke (2004). "Effects of invasive alien plants on fire". BioScience 54 (54): 677–688. DOI:10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0677:EOIAPO]2.0.CO;2. 
  20. ^ Silver Botts, P.; B. A. Patterson and D. Schlosser (1996). "Zebra mussel effects on benthic invertebrates: Physical or biotic?". Journal of the North American Benthological Society (15): 179–184. 
  21. ^ Byers, J.E. (2002). "Impact of non-indigenous species on natives enhanced by anthropogenic alteration of selection regimes". Oikos 97 (3): 449–458. DOI:10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.970316.x. 
  22. ^ a b Davis, M.A.; J.P. Grime, K. Thompson (2000). "Fluctuating resources in plant communities: A general theory of invisibility". Journal of Ecology 88 (3): 528–534. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2745.2000.00473.x. 
  23. ^ Smith, J. P., Jr.; K. Berg (1988). Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. Sacramento, California: California Native Plant Society. ISBN 0-943460-14-X. 
  24. ^ a b Elton, C.S. (2000) [1958]. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Foreword by Daniel Simberloff. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 196. ISBN 0-226-20638-6. 
  25. ^ Stohlgren, T.J.,; D. Binkley, G.W. Chong, M.A. Kalkhan, L.D. Schell, K.A. Bull, Y. Otsuki, G. Newman, M. Bashkin, and Y. Son (1999). "Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity". Ecological Monographs 69: 25–46. DOI:10.1890/0012-9615(1999)069[0025:EPSIHS]2.0.CO;2. 
  26. ^ Byers, J.E.; E.G. Noonburg (2003). "Scale dependent effects of biotic resistance to biological invasion". Ecology 84 (6): 1428–1433. DOI:10.1890/02-3131. 
  27. ^ Levine, J. M. (2000). "Species diversity and biological invasions: Relating local process to community pattern". Science 288 (5467): 852–854. DOI:10.1126/science.288.5467.852. PMID 10797006. 
  28. ^ Williams, J.D.; G. K. Meffe (1998). "Nonindigenous Species". Status and Trends of the Nation's Biological Resources. Reston, Virginia: United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey 1. 
  29. ^ Stachowicz, J.J.; D. Tilman (2005). "Species invasions and the relationships between species diversity, community saturation, and ecosystem functioning". In D.F. Sax, J.J. Stachowicz, and S.D. Gaines. Species Invasions: Insights into Ecology, Evolution, and Biogeography. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-811-7. 
  30. ^ Fritts, T.H.; D. Leasman-Tanner (2001). The Brown Treesnake on Guam: How the arrival of one invasive species damaged the ecology, commerce, electrical systems, and human health on Guam: A comprehensive information source. http://www.fort.usgs.gov/resources/education/bts/bts_home.asp. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  31. ^ Cassey, P; T.M. Blackburn, R.P. Duncan and S.L. Chown (2005). "Concerning Invasive Species: Reply to Brown and Sax". Austral Ecology 30 (4): 475. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2005.01505.x. 
  32. ^ Matisoo-Smith, E.; R.M. Roberts, G.J. Irwin, J.S. Allen, D. Penny, and D.M. Lambert (1998). "Patterns of prehistoric human mobility in Polynesia indicated by mtDNA from the Pacific rat". Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences USA 95 (25): 15145–15150. DOI:10.1073/pnas.95.25.15145. PMC 24590. PMID 9844030. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=24590. 
  33. ^ Aquatic invasive species. A Guide to Least-Wanted Aquatic Organisms of the Pacific Northwest. 2001. University of Washington. [1]
  34. ^ Leung, B.; N.E. Mandrak (2007). "The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure". Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274 (1625): 2733–2739. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2007.0841. PMC 2275890. PMID 17711834. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2275890. 
  35. ^ "Our Invaluable Invertebrate Collections". Ars.usda.gov. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jan10/insects0110.htm. Retrieved 2011-05-17. 
  36. ^ Grosholz, E.D. (2005). "Recent biological invasion may hasten invasional meltdown by accelerating historical introductions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (4): 1088–1091. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0308547102. PMC 545825. PMID 15657121. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=545825. 
  37. ^ Mack, R.; D. Simberloff, W.M. Lonsdale, H. Evans, M. Clout, and F.A. Bazzazf (2000). "Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control". Ecological Applications 10 (3): 689–710. DOI:10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0689:BICEGC]2.0.CO;2. 
  38. ^ Hawkes, C.V.; I.F. Wren, D.J. Herman, and M.K. Firestone (2005). "Plant invasion alters nitrogen cycling by modifying the soil nitrifying community". Ecology Letters 8 (9): 976–985. DOI:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00802.x. 
  39. ^ Rhymer, J. M.; Simberloff, D. (1996). "Extinction by hybridization and introgression". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27 (27): 83–109. DOI:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83. 
  40. ^ Ayres, D.; et al. (2004). "Spread of exotic cordgrasses and hybrids (Spartina sp.) in the tidal marshes of San Francisco Bay, California". USA Biological Invasions 6 (2): 221–231. DOI:10.1023/B:BINV.0000022140.07404.b7. 
  41. ^ Tom Pelton, Baltimore Sun, May 26, 2006.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g Pimentel, D.; R. Zuniga and D., Morrison (2005). "Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States". Ecological Economics 52 (3): 273–288. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.10.002. 
  43. ^ Simberloff, D. (2001). "Biological invasions - How are they affecting us, and what can we do about them?". Western North American Naturalist 61: 308–315. 
  44. ^ (March 3, 2005). Balsam woolly aphid Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg). ForestPests.org. Retrieved on September 1, 2007.
  45. ^ Eiswerth, M.E.; Darden, Tim D.; Johnson, Wayne S.; Agapoff, Jeanmarie; Harris, Thomas R. (2005). "Input-output modeling, outdoor recreation, and the economic impacts of weeds". Weed Science 53: 130–137. DOI:10.1614/WS-04-022R. 
  46. ^ Eurasian Watermilfoil in the Great Lakes Region. GreatLakes.net. Retrieved on September 1, 2007.
  47. ^ Aquatic invasive species. A Guide to Least-Wanted Aquatic Organisms of the Pacific Northwest. 2001. University of Washington
  48. ^ Lanciotti, R.S.; Roehrig, JT; Deubel, V; Smith, J; Parker, M; Steele, K; Crise, B; Volpe, KE et al. (1999). "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States". Science 286 (5448): 2333–2337. DOI:10.1126/science.286.5448.2333. PMID 10600742. 
  49. ^ Hallegraeff, G.M. (1998). "Transport of toxic dinoflagellates via ships' ballast water: Bioeconomic risk assessment and efficacy of possible ballast water management strategies". Marine Ecology Progress Series 168: 297–309. DOI:10.3354/meps168297. 
  50. ^ Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). "Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis" (PDF). World Resources Institute. http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.354.aspx.pdf. 
  51. ^ a b Odendaal L. J., Haupt T. M. & Griffiths C. L. (2008). "The alien invasive land snail Theba pisana in the West Coast National Park: Is there cause for concern?". Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science 50(1): 93-98. abstract, doi:10.4102/koedoe.v50i1.153.
  52. ^ Mooney, HA; Cleland, EE (2001). "The evolutionary impact of invasive species". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (date=) 98 (10): 5446–51. DOI:10.1073/pnas.091093398. PMC 33232. PMID 11344292. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=33232. 
  53. ^ "Glossary: definitions from the following publication: Aubry, C., R. Shoal and V. Erickson. 2005. Grass cultivars: their origins, development, and use on national forests and grasslands in the Pacific Northwest. USDA Forest Service. 44 pages, plus appendices.; Native Seed Network (NSN), Institute for Applied Ecology, 563 SW Jefferson Ave, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA". Nativeseednetwork.org. http://www.nativeseednetwork.org/article_view?id=13. Retrieved 2011-05-17. 
  54. ^ EXTINCTION BY HYBRIDIZATION AND INTROGRESSION; by Judith M. Rhymer, Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA; and Daniel Simberloff, Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA; Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, November 1996, Vol. 27, Pages 83-109 doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83, [2]
  55. ^ Genetic Pollution from Farm Forestry using eucalypt species and hybrids; A report for the RIRDC/L&WA/FWPRDC; Joint Venture Agroforestry Program; by Brad M. Potts, Robert C. Barbour, Andrew B. Hingston; September 2001; RIRDC Publication No 01/114; RIRDC Project No CPF - 3A; ISBN 0-642-58336-6; ISSN 1440-6845; Australian Government, Rural Industrial Research and Development Corporation
  56. ^ Colautti, Robert I.; Hugh J. MacIsaac (2004). "A neutral terminology to define 'invasive' species" (PDF). Diversity and Distributions 10 (2): 135–141. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00061.x. http://planet.botany.uwc.ac.za/nisl/Invasives/Assignment1/ColauttiandMacIsaac.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
Further reading
  • Baskin, Yvonne (2003). A Plague of Rats and Rubbervines: The Growing Threat Of Species Invasions. Island Press. p. 377. ISBN 978-1-55963-051-1. 
  • Burdick, Alan (2006) [2005]. Out of Eden: An Odyssey of Ecological Invasion. Farrar Straus and Giroux. p. 336. ISBN 0-374-53043-2. 
  • Davis, Mark A. (2009). Invasion Biology. Oxford University Press. p. 243. ISBN 0-19-921876-5. 
  • Elton, Charles S. (2000) [First published 1958]. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. University of Chicago Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-226-20638-7. 
  • Lockwood, Julie; Martha Hoopes, Michael Marchetti (2007) [2006]. Invasion Ecology. Blackwell Publishing. p. 304. ISBN 978-1-4051-1418-9. 
  • McNeeley, Jeffrey A. (2001). The Great Reshuffling: Human Dimensions Of Invasive Alien Species. World Conservation Union (IUCN). p. 109. ISBN 978-2-8317-0602-3. 
  • Terrill, Ceiridwen (2007). Unnatural Landscapes: Tracking Invasive Species. University of Arizona Press. p. 240. ISBN 0-8165-2523-4. 
  • Van Driesche, Jason; Roy Van Driesche (2004). Nature Out of Place: Biological Invasions In The Global Age. Island Press. p. 377. ISBN 978-1-55963-758-9. 

  External links

     
               

 

All translations of Invasive_species


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

4682 online visitors

computed in 0.047s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼