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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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1.local anemia in a given body part sometimes resulting from vasoconstriction or thrombosis or embolism
1.(MeSH)A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Anoxia-Ischemia, Brain • Anoxia-Ischemia, Cerebral • Basilar Artery Ischemia • Brain Anoxia-Ischemia • Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia • Brain Ischemia • Brain Ischemia-Anoxia • Brain Ischemia-Hypoxia • Brain Stem Ischemia, Transient • Brainstem Ischemia, Transient • Cerebral Anoxia-Ischemia • Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia • Cerebral Ischemia • Cerebral Ischemia, Transient • Cerebral Ischemia-Anoxia • Cerebral Ischemia-Hypoxia • Cold Ischemia • Cold Ischemia Time • Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain • Hypoxia-Ischemia, Cerebral • Injury, Ischemia-Reperfusion • Ischemia, Cerebral • Ischemia, Myocardial • Ischemia-Anoxia, Brain • Ischemia-Anoxia, Cerebral • Ischemia-Hypoxia, Brain • Ischemia-Hypoxia, Cerebral • Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury • Myocardial Ischemia • Optic Nerve Ischemia • Spinal Cord Ischemia • Spinal Cord Ischemia, Experimental • Vertebral Artery Ischemia • Vertebro-Basilar Ischemia • Vertebrobasilar Ischemia • Warm Ischemia • Warm Ischemia Time
Ischemia (n.) [MeSH]
maladie humaine (fr)[Classe]
maladie des globules rouges (fr)[Classe]
atteint d'une maladie (personne) (fr)[Classe...]
(faint; feeble; flaccid; weak)[Caract.]
blood disease, blood disorder[Hyper.]
maladie à cause physique (fr)[Classe]
(blood circulation; bloodstream; blood stream)[termes liés]
In medicine, ischemia, also spelled as ischaemia or ischæmia, (from Greek language ισχαιμία, ischaimía; isch- root denoting a restriction or thinning or to make or grow thin/lean, haema blood) is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive). Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue. It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis or embolism).
Ischemic means having or showing symptoms of ischemia, while nonischemic means "not related to or showing signs of ischemia".
An inadequate flow of blood to a part of the body may be caused by any of the following:
Since oxygen is carried to tissues in the blood, insufficient blood supply causes tissue to become starved of oxygen. In the highly aerobic tissues of the heart and brain, irreversible damage to tissues can occur in as little as 3–4 minutes at body temperature. The kidneys are also quickly damaged by loss of blood flow. Tissues with slower metabolic rates may undergo irreversible damage after 20 minutes.
Ischemia results in tissue damage in a process known as ischemic cascade. The damage is the result of the build-up of metabolic waste products, inability to maintain cell membranes, mitochondrial damage, and eventual leakage of autolyzing proteolytic enzymes into the cell and surrounding tissues.
Restoration of blood supply to ischemic tissues can cause additional damage known as reperfusion injury that can be more damaging than the initial ischemia. Reintroduction of blood flow brings oxygen back to the tissues, causing a greater production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species that damage cells. It also brings more calcium ions to the tissues causing further calcium overloading and can result in potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias and also accelerates cellular self-destruction. The restored blood flow also exaggerates the inflammation response of damaged tissues, causing white blood cells to destroy damaged cells that may otherwise still be viable.
Cardiac ischemia may be asymptomatic or may cause chest pain, known as angina pectoris. It occurs when the heart muscle, or myocardium, receives insufficient blood flow. This most frequently results from atherosclerosis, which is the long-term accumulation of cholesterol-rich plaques in the coronary arteries. Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of death in most Western countries and a major cause of hospital admissions.
Both large and small bowel can be affected by ischemia. Ischemia of the large intestine may result in an inflammatory process known as ischemic colitis. Ischemia of the small bowel is called mesenteric ischemia.
Brain ischemia is insufficient blood flow to the brain, and can be acute (i.e., rapid) or chronic (i.e., long-lasting). Acute ischemic stroke is a neurologic emergency that may be reversible if treated rapidly. Chronic ischemia of the brain may result in a form of dementia called vascular dementia.
Lack of blood flow to a limb results in acute limb ischemia.
Reduced blood flow to the skin layers may result in mottling or uneven, patchy discoloration of the skin
Decrease in body temperature reduces the aerobic metabolic rate of the affected cells, reducing the immediate effects of hypoxia. Reduction of body temperature also reduces the inflammation response and reperfusion injury.
For frostbite injuries, limiting thawing and warming of tissues until warmer temperatures can be sustained may reduce reperfusion injury.
For blood clots, administration of "clot-buster" drugs such as Alteplase within the critical time period, together with some collateral circulation to the ischemic area is a main factor in patient recoveries.
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