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definitions - Islamophobia

Islamophobia (n.)

1.prejudice against Muslims"Muslim intellectuals are afraid of growing Islamophobia in the West"

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Islamophobia

                   
This article is about discrimination. For criticism of Islam, see Criticism of Islam. For criticism of political Islam, see Criticism of Islamism

Islamophobia is prejudice against, hatred or irrational fear of Islam or Muslims[1][2] The term dates back to the late 1980s or early 1990s,[3] but came into common usage after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States.[4] A person who exhibits such prejudice is an islamophobe.

In 1997, the British Runnymede Trust defined Islamophobia as the "dread or hatred of Islam and therefore, to the fear and dislike of all Muslims," stating that it also refers to the practice of discriminating against Muslims by excluding them from the economic, social, and public life of the nation. It includes the perception that Islam has no values in common with other cultures, is inferior to the West and is a violent political ideology rather than a religion.[5]

Contents

Overview

Professor in History of Religion, Anne Sophie Roald, states that Islamophobia was recognized as a form of intolerance alongside xenophobia and antisemitism at the "Stockholm International Forum on Combating Intolerance".[6] The conference, attended by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Secretary General Ján Kubis and representatives of the European Union and Council of Europe, adopted a declaration to combat "genocide, ethnic cleansing, racism, antisemitism, Islamophobia and xenophobia, and to combat all forms of racial discrimination and intolerance related to it." [7]

A perceived trend of increasing Islamophobia during the 2000s has been attributed by some commentators to the September 11 attacks,[8] while others associate it with the rapidly growing Muslim populations in the Western world, especially in Western Europe, due to both immigration and high fertility rate.[9] In May 2002, the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC), a European Union watchdog, released a report entitled "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", which described an increase in Islamophobia-related incidents in European member states post-9/11.[10] Although the term is widely recognized and used, both the term and the concept have been criticized.

Definitions

The word Islamophobia is a neologism formed from Islam and -phobia. The compound form Islamo- contains the thematic vowel -o-, and is found in earlier coinages such as Islamo-Christian from the 19th century.

In 1996, the Runnymede Trust established the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, chaired by Professor Gordon Conway, the vice-chancellor of the University of Sussex. Their report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was launched in November 1997 by the Home Secretary, Jack Straw. In the Runnymede report, Islamophobia was defined by the trust as "an outlook or world-view involving an unfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which results in practices of exclusion and discrimination."[11]

As opposed to being a psychological or individualistic phobia, according to professor of religion Peter Gottschalk and Gabriel Greenberg, "Islamophobia" connotes a social anxiety about Islam and Muslims.[12][13]

Origins and causes

History of the term

One early use cited as the term's first use is by the painter Alphonse Étienne Dinet and Algerian intellectual Sliman ben Ibrahim in their 1918 biography of Islam's prophet Muhammad.[14][15] Writing in French, they used the term islamophobie. Robin Richardson writes that in the English version of the book the word was not translated as "islamophobia", but rather as "feelings inimical to Islam". Dahou Ezzerhouni has cited several other uses in French as early as 1910, and from 1912 to 1918.[16] These early uses of the term did not, according to Christopher Allen, have the same meaning as in contemporary usage, as they described a fear of Islam by Muslims, rather than a fear or dislike/hatred of Muslims by non-Muslims.[15]

Richardson states that the first English print usage was Edward Said's 1985 article "Orientalism Reconsidered".[17] Another early documented use of the word was by the American news magazine Insight on the News in 1991, used to describe Russian activities in Afghanistan,[11] and this is the usage listed by the Oxford English Dictionary.[15] The term entered into common usage with the publication of the Runnymede Trust's report in 1997.[18] Kofi Annan asserted at a 2004 conference entitled "Confronting Islamophobia" that the word Islamophobia had to be coined in order to "take account of increasingly widespread bigotry".[19]

Contrasting views on Islam

The Runnymede report contrasted "open" and "closed" views of Islam, and stated that the following eight "closed" views are equated with Islamophobia:

  1. Islam is seen as a monolithic bloc, static and unresponsive to change.
  2. It is seen as separate and "other." It does not have values in common with other cultures, is not affected by them and does not influence them.
  3. It is seen as inferior to the West. It is seen as barbaric, irrational, primitive, and sexist.
  4. It is seen as violent, aggressive, threatening, supportive of terrorism, and engaged in a clash of civilizations.
  5. It is seen as a political ideology, used for political or military advantage.
  6. Criticisms made of "the West" by Muslims are rejected out of hand.
  7. Hostility towards Islam is used to justify discriminatory practices towards Muslims and exclusion of Muslims from mainstream society.
  8. Anti-Muslim hostility is seen as natural and normal.[20]

These "closed" views are contrasted, in the report, with "open" views on Islam which, while founded on respect for Islam, permit legitimate disagreement, dialogue and critique.[21] According to Benn and Jawad, The Runnymede Trust notes that anti-Muslim discourse is increasingly seen as respectable, providing examples on how hostility towards Islam and Muslims is accepted as normal, even among those who may actively challenge other prevalent forms of discrimination.[22]

Identity politics

It has been suggested that islamophobia is closely related to identity politics, and gives its adherents the perceived benefit of constructing their identity in opposition to a negative, essentialized image of Muslims. This occurs in the form of self-righteousness, assignment of blame and key identity markers.[23] Davina Bhandar writes that:[24]

[...] the term ‘cultural’ has become synonymous with the category of the ethnic or minority (...). It views culture as an entity that is highly abstracted from the practices of daily life and therefore represents the illusion that there exists a spirit of the people. This formulation leads to the homogenisation of cultural identity and the ascription of particular values and proclivities onto minority cultural groups.

She views this as an ontological trap that hinders the perception of culture as something "materially situated in the living practices of the everyday, situated in time-space and not based in abstract projections of what constitutes either a particular tradition or culture."

In some societies, Islamophobia has materialized due to the portrayal of Islam and Muslims as the national "Other", where exclusion and discrimination occurs on the basis of their religion and civilization which differs with national tradition and identity. Examples include Pakistani and Algerian migrants in Britain and France respectively.[25] This sentiment, according to Malcolm Brown and Robert Miles, significantly interacts with racism, although Islamophobia itself is not racism.[26]

Brown and Miles write that another feature of Islamophobic discourse is to amalgamate nationality (i.e. Arab), religion (Islam), and politics (terrorism, fundamentalism) — while most other religions are not associated with terrorism, or even "ethnic or national distinctiveness."[27] They feel that "many of the stereotypes and misinformation that contribute to the articulation of Islamophobia are rooted in a particular perception of Islam", such as the notion that Islam promotes terrorism; especially prevalent after the September 11, 2001 attacks.[28]

The two-way stereotyping resulting from islamophobia has in some instances resulted in mainstreaming of earlier controversial discourses, such as liberal attitudes towards gender equality[23][24] and homosexuals.[29] Christina Ho has warned against framing of such mainstreaming of gender equality in a colonial, paternal discourse, arguing that this may undermine minority women's ability to speak out about their concerns.[30]

Links to other ideologies

A 2007 article in Journal of Sociology defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism and a continuation of anti-Asian and anti-Arab racism.[31] Similarly, John Denham has drawn parallels between modern Islamophobia and the antisemitism of the 1930s,[32] so have Maud Olofsson,[33] and Jan Hjärpe, among others.[34][35]

Senior scientist at the Norwegian Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities, Cora Alexa Døving, argues that there are significant similarities between islamophobic discourse and European pre-nazi antisemitism.[23] She has suggested a common typology of notions:

  1. The takeover, meaning that a minority will overrun Western countries by means of international underground networks, high birthrates, and asserting that existing minorities will act as a fifth column.
  2. Institutions at risk, meaning that defining institutions of Western society, such as the Church, the family, the monarchy (historically), secularisation, freedom of the individual and gender equality within the family, are perceived to be in immediate danger of subversion by minorities.
  3. The naïve left, referring to left wing policies aimed at integration.
  4. Hate commanded by God, where the minority is portrayed as unable to draw a distinction between religious identity and the real world. The minority's religious identity is essential and universal, or always the most prominent. Minority religions are claimed to be exclusionist and inherently political.
  5. The sexualized man, referring to plays on gender, essentializing sexual crime and the minority's ability to adapt to the mainstream ideals of manlihood.
  6. Treatment of women and children, referring to treatment of minority women in constructing one's own group identity, suppositions about the minority children's education, and portrayal of women and children in a passive manner.
  7. Using history, linking negative incidents in the minority's history to present-day practices, and portraying one's own history as a result of contrasting positive achievements, commonly involving major distortions.
  8. Lack of will to integrate, not only related to takeover-conspiracies, but referring to innate barriers making integration impossible, frequently claiming enforced intracultural marriage and the wilful creation of parallel societies.
  9. Absence of humanism, portraying the minority as either uncontrollably irrational or calculating and manipulative, downplaying cultural achievements and masking intolerance in the celebration of Western Enlightenment.
  10. Something must be done, emphasizing purportedly regaining control, by passing laws that limit the freedoms solely of specific groups, commonly while paradoxically claiming to maintain Western liberties and freedoms.

Matti Bunzl has argued that there are important differences between islamophobia and antisemitism. While antisemitism was a phenomenon closely connected to European nation-building processes, he sees islamophobia as having the concern of European civilization as its focal point.[36] Døving, on the other hand, maintains that, at least in Norway, the islamophobic discourse has a clear national element.[23] In a reply to Bunzl, French scholar of Jewish history, Esther Benbassa, agrees with him in that he draws a clear connection between modern hostile and essentializing sentiments towards Muslims and historical antisemitism. However, she argues against the use of the term islamophobia, since, in her opinion, it attracts unwarranted attention to an underlying racist current.[37]

The publication Social Work and Minorities: European Perspectives describes Islamophobia as the new form of racism in Europe,[38] arguing that "Islamophobia is as much a form of racism as anti-semitism, a term more commonly encountered in Europe as a sibling of racism, xenophobia and Intolerance."[39] Edward Said considers Islamophobia as it is evinced in Orientalism to be a trend in a more general antisemitic Western tradition.[40][41][42]

According to a 2012 report by a UK anti-racism group, counter-jihadist outfits in Europe and North America are becoming more cohesive by forging alliances, with 190 groups now identified as promoting an Islamophobic agenda.[43]

Criticism

Although the term is widely recognized and used,[44] the use of the term, its construction and the concept itself have been criticized.

Some scholars have criticized the term as vague, overly broad or misleading. In his 2010 book Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend, Andrew Shryock states that applying the term "is an exercise in negative characterization, a fact that makes [it] invaluable for political purposes, but potentially misleading for analytical and interpretive ones".[45] Writing in American Behavioral Scientist, Erik Bleich similarly states "there is no widely accepted definition of Islamophobia that permits systematic comparative and causal analysis".[46] Johannes Kandel writes that it "is a vague term which encompasses every conceivable actual and imagined act of hostility against Muslims".[47] At a 2009 symposium on "Islamophobia and Religious Discrimination", Robin Richardson, an original member of the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, argued that "the disadvantages of the term Islamophobia are significant" on seven different grounds, including that it implies it is merely a "severe mental illness" affecting "only a tiny minority of people"; that use of the term makes those to whom it is applied "defensive and defiant" and absolves the user of "the responsibility of trying to understand them" or trying to change their views; that it implies that hostility to Muslims is divorced from factors such as skin color, immigrant status, fear of fundamentalism, or political or economic conflicts; that it conflates prejudice against Muslims in one's own country with dislike of Muslims in countries with which the West is in conflict; that it fails to distinguish between people who are against all religion from people who dislike Islam specifically; and that the actual issue being described is hostility to Muslims, "an ethno-religious identity within European countries", rather than hostility to Islam.[17]

Johann Hari argues that authentic Islamophobia exists, and consists of the "notion that Islam is a uniquely evil religion, more inherently war-like and fanatical than Christianity or Judaism or the other primitive delusions." However, he criticizes how organizations like Islamophobia Watch use the term, stating that they "talk about defending Muslims, they end up defending the nastiest and most right-wing part of the Muslim community – the ones who are oppressing and killing the rest."[48]

Some critics argue that Islamophobia is real but is just another form of racism and does not require its own category.[49] In a 2008 article in the "Journal of Political Ideologies" Jose P. Zuquete argues that Islamophobia is a catch-all term that should be avoided. Islamophobia places under the broad umbrella of 'fear or hatred of Islam' discourses and criticisms that may have distinct sources, motivations and goals. He argues instead for the use of "anti-Islamic" (because it distinguishes between different discourses about Islam). The concept of Islamophobia as formulated by Runnymede is similarly criticized by professor Fred Halliday on several levels. He writes that the target of hostility in the modern era is not Islam and its tenets as much as it is Muslims, suggesting that a more accurate term would be "Anti-Muslimism." He also states that strains and types of prejudice against Islam and Muslims vary across different nations and cultures, which is not recognized in the Runnymede analysis.[50] Poole responds that many Islamophobic discourses attack what they perceive to be Islam's tenets, while Miles and Brown write that Islamophobia is usually based upon negative stereotypes about Islam which are then translated into attacks on Muslims. They also argue that "the existence of different ‘Islamophobias’ does not invalidate the concept of Islamophobia any more than the existence of different racisms invalidates the concept of racism."[51][52]

Other critics argue that the term conflates criticism of "Islamic totalitarianism" with hatred of Muslims. In the wake of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, a group of 12 writers, including novelist Salman Rushdie, signed a manifesto entitled Together facing the new totalitarianism in the French weekly satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, warning against the use of the term Islamophobia to prevent criticism of "Islamic totalitarianism".[53][54] Daniel Pipes says that "'Islamophobia' deceptively conflates two distinct phenomena: fear of Islam and fear of radical Islam."[55] Writing in the New Humanist, philosopher Piers Benn suggests that people who fear the rise of Islamophobia foster an environment "not intellectually or morally healthy", to the point that what he calls "Islamophobia-phobia" can undermine "critical scrutiny of Islam as somehow impolite, or ignorant of the religion's true nature."[56]

Some denounce the concept altogether. The New Criterion editor Roger Kimball argues that the word "Islamophobia" is a misnomer. "A phobia describes an irrational fear, and it is axiomatic that fearing the effects of radical Islam is not irrational, but on the contrary very well-founded indeed, so that if you want to speak of a legitimate phobia... ...we should speak instead of Islamophobia-phobia, the fear of and revulsion towards Islamophobia."[57] Sam Harris[Note 1] has stated that "apologists for Islam have even sought to defend their faith from criticism by inventing a psychological disorder known as 'Islamophobia'." He states that bigotry and racism are "evils" that must be opposed, and that "prejudice against Muslims or Arabs, purely because of the accident of their birth, is despicable", but argues that "it is not a form of bigotry or racism to observe that the specific tenets of the faith pose a special threat to civil society. Nor is it a sign of intolerance to notice when people are simply not being honest about what they and their coreligionists believe."[58]

Media

According to Elizabeth Poole in the Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, the media has been criticized for perpetrating Islamophobia. She cites a case study examining a sample of articles in the British press from between 1994 and 2004, which concluded that Muslim viewpoints were underrepresented and that issues involving Muslims usually depicted them in a negative light. Such portrayals, according to Poole, include the depiction of Islam and Muslims as a threat to Western security and values.[59] Benn and Jawad write that hostility towards Islam and Muslims are "closely linked to media portrayals of Islam as barbaric, irrational, primitive and sexist."[22] Egorova and Tudor cite European researchers in suggesting that expressions used in the media such as "Islamic terrorism", "Islamic bombs" and "violent Islam" have resulted in a negative perception of Islam.[60]

In 2008 Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting published a study "Smearcasting, How Islamophobes Spread Bigotry, Fear and Misinformation." The report cites several instances where mainstream or close to mainstream journalists, authors and academics have made analyses that essentialize negative traits as an inherent part of Muslims' moral makeup.[61]

The "Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism" (FAIR) was also established, designed to monitor coverage in the media and establish dialogue with media organizations. Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Islam Awareness Week and the "Best of British Islam Festival" were introduced to improve community relations and raise awareness about Islam.[62]

OIC stated that they will launch a TV channel to counter Islamophobia.[63]

Trends

Islamophobia has become a topic of increasing sociological and political importance.[27] According to Benn and Jawad, Islamophobia has increased since Ayatollah Khomeini's denouncement of Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses and the September 11 attacks.[64] Anthropologist Steven Vertovec writes that the purported growth in Islamophobia may be associated with increased Muslim presence in society and successes.[9] He suggests a circular model, where increased hostility towards Islam and Muslims results in governmental countermeasures such as institutional guidelines and changes to legislation, which itself may fuel further Islamophobia due to increased accommodation for Muslims in public life. Vertovec concludes: "As the public sphere shifts to provide a more prominent place for Muslims, Islamophobic tendencies may amplify."[9]

  A mannequin symbolizing a Muslim in a keffiyeh, strapped to a "Made in the USA" bomb display at a protest of Park51 in New York City.

Patel, Humphries, and Naik claim that "Islamophobia has always been present in Western countries and cultures. In the last two decades, it has become accentuated, explicit and extreme."[65] However, Vertovec states that some have observed that Islamophobia has not necessarily escalated in the past decades, but that there has been increased public scrutiny of it.[9] According to Abduljalil Sajid, one of the members of the Runnymede Trust's Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, "Islamophobias" have existed in varying strains throughout history, with each version possessing its own distinct features as well as similarities or adaptations from others.[66] An observatory report on Islamophobia by the Organisation of the Islamic Conference similarly states that Islamophobia has existed for as long as Islam itself.[67]

Assistant Professor Deepa Kumar writes that the modern-day demonization of Arabs and Muslims by US politicians and others is racist and Islamophobic, and employed in support of an unjust war. About the public impact of this rhetoric, she says that "One of the consequences of the relentless attacks on Islam and Muslims by politicians and the media is that Islamophobic sentiment is on the rise." She also chides some "people on the left" for using the same "Islamophobic logic as the Bush regime". She concludes with the statement "At times like this, people of conscience need to organize and speak out against Islamophobia."[68]

Ziauddin Sardar, an Islamic scholar, writes in The New Statesman that Islamophobia is a widespread European phenomenon, so widespread that he asks whether Muslims will be victims of the next pogroms.[69] He writes that each country has its anti-Muslim extremists, citing Jean-Marie Le Pen in France; Pim Fortuyn in the Netherlands; and Philippe Van der Sande of Vlaams Blok, a Flemish nationalist party in Belgium. Filip Dewinter, the leader of the nationalist Flemish "Vlaams Belang" has said that his party is "Islamophobic." He said: "Yes, we are afraid of Islam. The Islamisation of Europe is a frightening thing."[70]

Sardar argues that Europe is "post-colonial, but ambivalent." Minorities are regarded as acceptable as an underclass of menial workers, but if they want to be upwardly mobile, as Sardar says young Muslims do, the prejudice rises to the surface. Wolfram Richter, professor of economics at Dortmund University of Technology, told Sardar: "I am afraid we have not learned from our history. My main fear is that what we did to Jews we may now do to Muslims. The next holocaust would be against Muslims."[69]

EUMC reports

The largest project monitoring Islamophobia was undertaken following 9/11 by the EU watchdog, European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). Their May 2002 report "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", written by Chris Allen and Jorgen S. Nielsen of the University of Birmingham, was based on 75 reports — 15 from each EU member nation.[71][72] The report highlighted the regularity with which ordinary Muslims became targets for abusive and sometimes violent retaliatory attacks after 9/11. Despite localized differences within each member nation, the recurrence of attacks on recognizable and visible traits of Islam and Muslims was the report's most significant finding. Incidents consisted of verbal abuse, blaming all Muslims for terrorism, forcibly removing women's hijabs, spitting on Muslims, calling children "Usama", and random assaults. Muslims have been hospitalized and on one occasion paralyzed.[72] The report also discussed the portrayal of Muslims in the media. Inherent negativity, stereotypical images, fantastical representations, and exaggerated caricatures were all identified. The report concluded that "a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim and other xenophobic ideas and sentiments has, and may well continue, to become more tolerated."[72]

The EUMC has since released a number of publications related to Islamophobia, including The Fight against Antisemitism and Islamophobia: Bringing Communities together (European Round Tables Meetings) (2003) and Muslims in the European Union: Discrimination and Islamophobia (2006).[73]

Islamophobic incidents

Islamophobia Today

Islamophobia Today is a e-news magazine dedicated to cover all important incidents related to 'Islamophobia' and anti-Muslim sentiment.[74]

See also


Notes

References

  1. ^ Teaching the Global Dimension David Hick, Cathie Holden (2007). P.140.
  2. ^
    • Sandra Fredman, Discrimination and Human Rights, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-924603-3, p.121.
    • Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Muslims in the West: From Sojourners to Citizens, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-514806-1, p.19
    • Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, Runnymede Trust, 1997, p. 1, cited in Quraishi, Muzammil. Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005, p. 60. ISBN 0-7546-4233-X. Early in 1997, the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, at that time part of the Runnymede Trust, issued a consultative document on Islamophobia under the chairmanship of Professor Gordon Conway, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sussex. The final report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was launched in November 1997 by Home Secretary Jack Straw
  3. ^ Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, Runnymede Trust, 1997, p. 1, cited in Quraishi, Muzammil. Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005, p. 60; Annan, Kofi. "Secretary-General, addressing headquarters seminar on confronting Islamophobia", United Nations press release, December 7, 2004.
  4. ^
    • Casciani, Dominic. "Islamophobia pervades UK – report", BBC News, June 2, 2004.
    • Rima Berns McGowan writes in Muslims in the Diaspora (University of Toronto Press, 1991, p. 268) that the term "Islamophobia" was first used in an unnamed American periodical in 1991.
  5. ^ Runnymede 1997, p. 5, cited in Quraishi 2005, p. 60.
  6. ^ Roald, Anne Sophie (2004). New Muslims in the European Context: The Experience of Scandinavian Converts. Brill. p. 53. ISBN 90-04-13679-7. 
  7. ^ "Conference Two: Combating Intolerance". Chancellery of the Government of Sweden. http://www.humanrights.gov.se/stockholmforum/2001/conference_2001.html. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  8. ^ Benn, Jawad (2004) p. 111
  9. ^ a b c d Steven Vertovec, "Islamophobia and Muslim Recognition in Britain"; in Haddad (2002) pp. 32–33
  10. ^ See:
    • Greaves (2004) p. 133
    • Allen, Chris; Nielsen, Jorgen S.; Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001 (May 2002), EUMC.
  11. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Race and Ethics, p. 215
  12. ^ Corrina Balash Kerr (2007-11-20). "Faculty, Alumnus Discuss Concept of "Islamophobia" in Co-Authored Book". Wesleyan University Newsletter. http://www.wesleyan.edu/newsletter/campus/2007/1107islambook.html. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  13. ^ "Images of Muslims: Discussing Islamophobia with Peter Gottschalk". Political Affairs.. 2007-11-19. Archived from the original on 2007-12-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20071206034654/http://www.politicalaffairs.net/article/articleview/6181/1/296/. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  14. ^ Dinet, Alphonse Étienne; ben Ibrahim, Sliman (1918). La Vie de Mohammed, Prophète d’Allah. Paris.  cited from Otterbeck, Jonas; Bevelander, Pieter (2006) (in Swedish) (PDF), Islamofobi - en studie av begreppet, ungdomars attityder och unga muslimars utsatthet, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia, ISBN 91-976073-6-3, http://www.levandehistoria.se/files/islamofobi.pdf, retrieved 23 November 2011, ""modern orientalists [are partially] influenced by an islamofobia, which is poorly reconciled with science and hardly worthy of our time"" 
  15. ^ a b c Allen, Christopher (2010). Islamophobia. Ashgate Publishing. pp. 5–6.
  16. ^ Ezzerhouni, Dahou. "L'islamophobie, un racisme apparu avec les colonisations", Algerie-Focus, February 3, 2010. "Le mot serai ainsi apparu pour la première fois dans quelques ouvrages du début du XXème siècle. On peut citer entre autre « La politique musulmane dans l’Afrique Occidentale Française » d’Alain Quellien publié en 1910, suivi de quelques citations dans la Revue du Monde Musulman en 1912 et 1918, la Revue du Mercure de France en 1912, « Haut-Sénégal-Niger » de Maurice Delafosse en 1912 et dans le Journal of Theological Studies en 1924. L’année suivante, Etienne Dinet et Slimane Ben Brahim, employaient ce terme qui «conduit à l’aberration » dans leur ouvrage « L’Orient vu par l’Occident »."
  17. ^ a b Richardson, Robin (December 2009). "Islamophobia or anti-muslim racism – or what?"PDF (119 KB), Insted website. Accessed December 30, 2011.
  18. ^ Otterbeck, Jonas; Bevelander, Pieter (2006) (in Swedish), Islamofobi - en studie av begreppet, ungdomars attityder och unga muslimars utsatthet, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia, ISBN 91-976073-6-3, http://www.levandehistoria.se/files/islamofobi.pdf, retrieved 23 November 2011 
  19. ^ Annan, Kofi. "Secretary-General, addressing headquarters seminar Wed Confronting Islamophobia", United Nations, press release, December 7, 2004.
  20. ^ "Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All"PDF (69.7 KB), Runnymede Trust, 1997.
  21. ^ Benn; Jawad (2004) p. 162
  22. ^ a b Benn; Jawad (2004) p. 165
  23. ^ a b c d Døving, Cora Alexa (2010). "Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: A Comparison of Imposed Group Identities" (PDF). Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Forum for Islamforskning) (2): 52–76. http://www.islamforskning.dk/Tidsskrift_2_2010/anti-semitism_and_islamophobia.pdf. Retrieved 23 November 2011. 
  24. ^ a b Bhandar, Davina (2010). "Cultural politics: disciplining citizenship". Citizenship Studies 14 (3): 331–343. DOI:10.1080/13621021003731963. 
  25. ^ See:
    • Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, p. 216
    • Miles; Brown (2003) p. 163
  26. ^ Miles; Brown (2003) p. 163, 164
  27. ^ a b Miles; Brown (2003) p. 163
  28. ^ Miles; Brown (2003) p. 166
  29. ^ Mepschen, Paul; Duyvendak, Jan Willem; Tonkens, Evelien H. (2010). "Sexual Politics, Orientalism and Multicultural Citizenship in the Netherlands". Sociology 44 (5): 962–979. DOI:10.1177/0038038510375740 url=http://soc.sagepub.com/cgi/content/long/44/5/962. 
  30. ^ Ho, Christina (2007). "Muslim women's new defenders: Women's rights, nationalism and Islamophobia in contemporary Australia". Women's Studies International Forum 30 (4): 290–298. DOI:10.1016/j.wsif.2007.05.002. 
  31. ^ Scott Poynting, Victoria Mason (2007). "The resistible rise of Islamophobia". Journal of Sociology 43 (1): 61–86. DOI:10.1177/1440783307073935. 
  32. ^ The Times: Fascism fears: John Denham speaks out over clashes
  33. ^ SvD: Reinfeldt: Kärnan i partiets idé
  34. ^ SvD: Sverigedemokrat till hårt angrepp mot muslimsk ideologi i tal
  35. ^ VG: Erna Solberg mener muslimer hetses som jødene på 30-tallet
  36. ^ Bunzl, Matti (2007). Anti-semitism and Islamophobia: hatreds old and new in Europe. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-9761475-8-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=37UsAQAAIAAJ&q=%22Islamophobic+claims%22#search_anchor. Retrieved 23 November 2011. 
  37. ^ Benbassa, Esther (2007). "Xenophobia, Anti-Semitism, and Racism" (PDF). Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: Hatred Old and New in Europe. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. p. 86f. ISBN 978-0-9761475-8-9. http://www.estherbenbassa.net/SCANS/XENOPHOBIA.PDF. Retrieved 23 November 2011. 
  38. ^ Johnson; Soydan; Williams (1998) p. 182
  39. ^ Johnson; Soydan; Williams (1998) p. xxii
  40. ^ Edward W.Said, Orientalism, Pantheon Books, New York 1978 pp.27–28
  41. ^ Edward W. Said, ‘Orientalism Reconsidered’ in Francis Barker, Peter Hulme, Margaret Iversen, Diana Loxley (eds), Literature, Politics, and Theory, Methuen & Co, London 1986 pp.210–229, pp.220f.
  42. ^ Bryan Stanley Turner, introd. to Bryan S. Turner (ed.) Orientalism: Early Sources, (Vol 1, Readings in Orientalism), Routledge, London (2000) reprint 2002 p.12
  43. ^ Mark Townsend (14 April 2012). "Far-right anti-Muslim network on rise globally as Breivik trial opens". guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/apr/14/breivik-trial-norway-mass-murderer. Retrieved 15 April 2012. 
  44. ^ Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies p. 218, Routledge 2003. Routledge. 2003. p. 218. "The Runnymede Trust has been successful in that the term Islamophobia is now widely recognized and used, though many right-wing commentators either reject its existence or argue that it is justified." 
  45. ^ Shryock, Andrew (2010). Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend. Indiana University Press. p. 3.
  46. ^ Bleich, Erik (December 2011). "What Is Islamophobia and How Much Is There? Theorizing and Measuring an Emerging Comparative Concept", American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 55 no. 12, pp. 1581-1600.
  47. ^ Kandel, Johannes (August 2006). Islamophobia – On the Career of a Controversial TermPDF (118 KB), Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
  48. ^ He writes: While Islamophobia Watch talk about defending Muslims, they end up defending the nastiest and most right-wing part of the Muslim community – the ones who are oppressing and killing the rest."- Hari, Johann. "Don't call me an Islamophobe", June 6, 2006.
  49. ^ Bodi, Faisal (2004-01-12). "Islamophobia should be as unacceptable as racism". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2004/jan/12/race.religion. Retrieved 2010-05-05. 
  50. ^ Aldridge, Alan (February 1, 2000). Religion in the Contemporary World: A Sociological Introduction. Polity Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-7456-2083-1. 
  51. ^ Miles; Brown (2003) pp. 165–166
  52. ^ Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies (2003)p. 219
  53. ^ "We refuse to renounce our critical spirit out of fear of being accused of "Islamophobia", a wretched concept that confuses criticism of Islam as a religion and stigmatisation of those who believe in it." Rushdie, Salman et al. "Writers' statement on cartoons", BBC News, March 1, 2006.
  54. ^ Rushdie, Salman et al. "Writers' statement on cartoons", BBC News, March 1, 2006.
  55. ^ Pipes, Daniel (2005-10-25). "Islamophobia?". New York Sun. http://www.danielpipes.org/article/3075. 
  56. ^ "On Islamophobia-phobia".
  57. ^ Kimball, Roger. "After the suicide of the West", January 2006.
  58. ^ Harris, Sam (August 13, 2010). "What Obama Got Wrong About the Mosque". The Daily Beast.
  59. ^ Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, p. 217
  60. ^ See Egorova; Tudor (2003) pp. 2–3, which cites the conclusions of Marquina and Rebolledo in: "A. Marquina, V. G. Rebolledo, ‘The Dialogue between the European Union and the Islamic World’ in Interreligious Dialogues: Christians, Jews, Muslims, Annals of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts, v. 24, no. 10, Austria, 2000, pp. 166–8. "
  61. ^ Steve Rendall and Isabel Macdonald, Making Islamophobia Mainstream; How Muslim-bashers broadcast their bigotry, summary of Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting report, at its website, November/December 2008.
  62. ^ Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, p. 218
  63. ^ "OIC will launch channel to counter Islamophobia". YUSUF JAMEEL. Deccan Herald (Srinagar). April 18, 2012. http://www.deccanchronicle.com/channels/nation/north/oic-will-launch-channel-counter-islamophobia-482. Retrieved April 18, 2012. 
  64. ^ Benn; Jawad (2004) p. 111
  65. ^ Naina Patel, Beth Humphries and Don Naik, "The 3 Rs in social work; Religion,‘race’ and racism in Europe", in Johnson; Soydan; Williams (1998) pp. 197–198
  66. ^ Imam Dr Abduljalil Sajid. "Islamophobia: A new word for an old fear". http://www.wcrp.be/articles/Sajid9-11-04.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  67. ^ 1st OIC Observatory Report on Islamophobia[dead link]
  68. ^ Fighting Islamophobia: A Response to Critics – Deepa Kumar, MRZine, February 2006
  69. ^ a b "The next holocaust", New Statesman, 5 December 2005.
  70. ^ "Belgian Establishment Fears Crack-Up"[dead link], The Flemish Republic.org newsletter, April–June 2006.
  71. ^ "EUMC presents reports on Discrimination and Islamophobia in the EU". "European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia media release". 2006-12-18. http://www.eumc.europa.eu/eumc/index.php?fuseaction=content.dsp_cat_content&catid=43d8bc25bc89d&contentid=4582ddc822d41. 
  72. ^ a b c Allen, Chris and Nielsen, Jorgen S. "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", EUMC, May, 2002.
  73. ^ EUMC website – Publications . Retrieved 2007-11-17.
  74. ^ 'Islamophobia Today, retrieved April 10, 2012.

Bibliography

  • Cashmore, E, ed. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. Routledge. 
  • Benn, T.; Jawad, H. (2004). Muslim Women in the United Kingdom and Beyond: Experiences and Images. Brill Publishers. ISBN 90-04-12581-7. 
  • Egorova, Y.; Parfitt, T. (2003). Jews, Muslims, and Mass Media: Mediating the 'Other'. London: Routledge Curzon. ISBN 0-415-31839-4. 
  • Haddad, Y. (2002). Muslims in the West: From Sojourners to Citizens. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514805-3. 
  • Johnson, M. R. D.; Soydan, H; Williams, C. (1998). Social Work and Minorities: European Perspectives. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16962-3. 
  • Miles, R.; Brown, M. (2003). Racism. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-29676-5. 

Further reading

  • Allen, Chris. Islamophobia (Ashgate Publishing Company; 2011)
  • Abbas, Tahir (2005). Muslim Britain: Communities Under Pressure. Zed. ISBN 978-1-84277-449-6. 
  • van Driel, B. (2004). Confronting Islamophobia In Educational Practice. Trentham Books. ISBN 1-85856-340-2. 
  • Gottschalk, P.; Greenberg, G. (2007). Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-5286-9. 
  • Greaves, R. (2004). Islam and the West Post 9/11. Ashgate publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7546-5005-7. 
  • Kaplan, Jeffrey (2006). Islamophobia in America?: September 11 and Islamophobic Hate Crime, Terrorism and Political Violence (Routledge), 18:1, 1–33.
  • Kincheloe, Joe L. and Shirley R. Steinberg (2004).The Miseducation of the West: How the Schools and Media Distort Our Understanding of Islam. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Press. (Arabic Edition, 2005).
  • Konrad, Felix: From the "Turkish Menace" to Exoticism and Orientalism: Islam as Antithesis of Europe (1453–1914)?, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: June 22, 2011.
  • Pynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2007). The resistible rise of Islamophobia: Anti-Muslim racism in the UK and Australia before 11 September 2001. Journal of Sociology, The Australian Sociological Association. 43(1): 61–86.
  • Richardson, John E. (2004). (Mis)representing Islam: the racism and rhetoric of British broadsheet newspapers. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 90-272-2699-7. http://books.google.com/?id=WanqiF2XULsC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q= 
  • Shryock, Andrew, ed. Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend (Indiana University Press; 2010) 250 pages; essays on Islamophobia past and present; topics include the "neo-Orientalism" of three Muslim commentators today: Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Reza Aslan, and Irshad Manji.
  • Tausch, Arno with Christian Bischof, Tomaz Kastrun and Karl Mueller (2007), ‘'Against Islamophobia: Muslim Communities, Social Exclusion and the Lisbon Process in Europe'’ Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers
  • Tausch, Arno with Christian Bischof, and Karl Mueller (2007), "Muslim Calvinism”, internal security and the Lisbon process in Europe Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers
  • Tausch, Arno (2007), Against Islamophobia. Quantitative analyses of global terrorism, world political cycles and center periphery structures Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers
  • Quraishi, M. (2005). Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study. Ashgate publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7546-4233-X. 
  • Ramadan, T. (2004). Western Muslims and the Future of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517111-X. 
  • Zuquete, Jose Pedro (2008), The European extreme-right and Islam: New directions, [Journal of Political Ideologies]

External links

   
               

 

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