» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Jihad

jihad (n.)

1.an organized program of advertisements

2.a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal

3.a holy war waged by Muslims against infidels

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Jihad

   Advertizing ▼

see also - Jihad

jihad (n.)

jihadi

phrases

-A Jihad for Love • Al Qalda training camp at Jihad Wahl • Al-Jihad (Bagdad) • Alms for Jihad • Amadu's Jihad • Andrew Jackson Jihad • Baabul Jihad • Butlerian Jihad • Butlerian Jihad (disambiguation) • Defeating Jihad • Defensive jihad • Egyptian Islamic Jihad • Egyptian Jihad Organization • Encyclopedia of Afghan Jihad • Eritrean Islamic Jihad • Facing Jihad Conference • Fulba Jihad state • Fulbe jihad state • Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami • Hay al Jihad massacre • Hayy Al-Jihad • Hidden Camera Jihad • Holy Jihad Brigades • Islamic Front for Armed Jihad • Islamic Jihad • Islamic Jihad (disambiguation) • Islamic Jihad Group • Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine • Islamic Jihad Organization • Islamic Jihad Union • Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine • Islamic Jihad of Yemen • Jama'at al-Jihad al-Islami • Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad • Jama’at al-Tawhid wa’al-Jihad • Jihad (Ahmadiyya) • Jihad (EP) • Jihad (disambiguation) • Jihad (documentary) • Jihad (song) • Jihad / Freezing Moon • Jihad Ahmed Jibril • Jihad Ahmed Mujstafa Diyab • Jihad Al Binna • Jihad Army • Jihad Azour • Jihad Ballout • Jihad Construction • Jihad Dhiab • Jihad Dyiab • Jihad Dyiab v. George W. Bush • Jihad Harik • Jihad Helwi • Jihad Jerry • Jihad Johnny • Jihad Kandahar • Jihad Khodr • Jihad Verses of Islam • Jihad Wahl Camp • Jihad Wahl training camp • Jihad Wal Camp • Jihad Watch • Jihad and Reform Front • Jihad bin-saif • Jihad bis saïf • Jihad in Hadith • Jihad vs. McWorld • Jihad-e-Akbar • Jihad-e-Asghar • Komando Jihad • Laskar Jihad • Lipstick Jihad • List of Palestinian Islamic Jihad suicide attacks • Love Jihad • Mansehra Jihad training camp • Monotheism and Jihad Group • Najim Jihad • Nejim Al-Jihad • Nejim al-Jihad • Now They Call Me Infidel; Why I Renounced Jihad for America, Israel and the War on Terror • Offensive jihad • Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad • Palestinian Islamic Jihad • Qaeda al-Jihad • Qaedat al-Jihad • Qaida al-Jihad • Raleigh jihad group • Sawt al-Jihad • School for the Jihad • Shiny Happy Jihad • Sise Jihad state • Sonic Jihad • Sonic Jihad (Paris album) • Sonic Jihad (Snake River Conspiracy album) • Star of Jihad • Supreme Command for Jihad and Liberation • Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn • Tanzim Qaedat al-Jihad • Tawhid al-Jihad • The Holy Jihad Brigade • The Jihad • The Jihad Foundation Organization in Mesopotamia • The Last Jihad • The Legacy of Jihad • Turkish Islamic Jihad • United Jihad Council • United Jihad Factions Council • Virginia Jihad Network • Voice of Jihad

analogical dictionary




Wikipedia

Jihad

                   

Jihad (English pronunciation: /ɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهادǧihād [dʒiˈhæːd]), an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God (al-jihad fi sabil Allah)".[1][2][3] A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is mujahideen. Jihad is an important religious duty for Muslims. A minority among the Sunni scholars sometimes refer to this duty as the sixth pillar of Islam, though it occupies no such official status.[4] In Twelver Shi'a Islam, however, Jihad is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion.

According to the authoritative Dictionary of Islam jihad is defined as: "A religious war with those who are unbelievers in the mission of Muhammad ... enjoined especially for the purpose of advancing Islam and repelling evil from Muslims."[1] The prominent British-American orientalist Bernard Lewis argues that in the hadiths and the classical manuals of Islamic law jihad has a military meaning in the large majority of cases.[5] In a commentary of the hadith Sahih Muslim, entitled al-Minhaj, the medieval Islamic scholar Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi stated that "one of the collective duties of the community as a whole (fard kifaya) is to lodge a valid protest, to solve problems of religion, to have knowledge of Divine Law, to command what is right and forbid wrong conduct".[6] An accurate interpretation of the concept of Jihad is provided by the BBC about how Muslims describe three different types of struggles:[7]

  • A believer's internal struggle to live out the Muslim faith as well as possible
  • The struggle to build a good Muslim society
  • Holy war: the struggle to defend Islam, with force if necessary

In western societies the term jihad is often translated by non-Muslims as "holy war".[8][9] Scholars of Islamic studies often stress that these words are not synonymous.[10] Muslim authors, in particular, tend to reject such an approach, stressing non-militant connotations of the word.[11][12]

Contents

Origins

The beginnings of Jihad are traced back to the words and actions of Muhammad and the Quran.[13] This encourages the use of Jihad against non-Muslims.[14] The Quran, however, never uses the term Jihad for fighting and combat in the name of Allah; qital is used to mean “fighting.” Jihad in the Quran was originally intended for the nearby neighbors of the Muslims, but as time passed and more enemies arose, the Quranic statements supporting Jihad were updated for the new adversaries.[14] The first documentation of the law of Jihad was written by ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Awza’i and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani. The document grew out of debates that had surfaced ever since Muhammad's death.[13]

Usage of the term

In Modern Standard Arabic, jihad is one of the correct terms for a struggle for any cause, violent or not, religious or secular (though كفاح kifāḥ is also used).[citation needed] For instance, Mahatma Gandhi's satyagraha struggle for Indian independence is called a "jihad" in Modern Standard Arabic (as well as many other dialects of Arabic); the terminology is also applied to the fight for women's liberation.[15]

The term 'jihad' has accrued both violent and non-violent meanings. It can simply mean striving to live a moral and virtuous life, spreading and defending Islam as well as fighting injustice and oppression, among other things.[16] The relative importance of these two forms of jihad is a matter of controversy. A poll by Gallup showed that a "significant majority" of Muslim Indonesians define the term to mean "sacrificing one's life for the sake of Islam/God/a just cause" or "fighting against the opponents of Islam". In Lebanon, Kuwait, Jordan, and Morocco, the majority used the term to mean "duty toward God", a "divine duty", or a "worship of God", with no militaristic connotations. Other responses referenced, in descending order of prevalence:

  • "A commitment to hard work" and "achieving one's goals in life"
  • "Struggling to achieve a noble cause"
  • "Promoting peace, harmony or cooperation, and assisting others"
  • "Living the principles of Islam"[17]

Distinction of "greater" and "lesser" jihad

In his work, The History of Baghdad, Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, an 11th-century Islamic scholar, referenced a statement by the companion of Muhammad Jabir ibn Abd-Allah. The reference stated that Jabir said, "The Prophet... returned from one of his battles, and thereupon told us, 'You have arrived with an excellent arrival, you have come from the Lesser Jihad to the Greater Jihad—the striving of a servant (of Allah) against his desires (holy war)."[unreliable source?][18][19] This reference gave rise to the distinguishing of two forms of jihad: "greater" and "lesser". Some Islamic scholars dispute the authenticity of this reference and consider the meaning of jihad as a holy war to be more important.[18]

The Non Muslim scholar, David Cook's opinion is that the violent Jihad is not superseded by the spiritual Jihad, he writes:

In reading Muslim literature -- both contemporary and classical -- one can see that the evidence for the primacy of spiritual jihad is negligible. Today it is certain that no Muslim, writing in a non-Western language (such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu), would ever make claims that jihad is primarily nonviolent or has been superseded by the spiritual jihad. Such claims are made solely by Western scholars, primarily those who study Sufism and/or work in interfaith dialogue, and by Muslim apologists who are trying to present Islam in the most innocuous manner possible David Cook, Understanding Jihad, University of California Press, 2005, p.165-6[20]

According to the Muslim Jurist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, the quote in which Muhammad is reported to have said that greater Jihad is the inner struggle, is from an unreliable source:

"This saying is widespread and it is a saying by Ibrahim ibn Ablah according to Nisa'i in al-Kuna. Ghazali mentions it in the Ihya' and al-`Iraqi said that Bayhaqi related it on the authority of Jabir and said: There is weakness in its chain of transmission." Hajar al Asqalani, Tasdid al-qaws, see also Kashf al-Khafaa’ (no.1362)[21]

The best of jihad

During the Arab spring, many peaceful demonstrations in Arab countries faced violence and gunfire by their government's regime. The gunfires encouraged the protests and fed them to revolutions, based on their strong faith of what is called "the best of jihad". The best of jihad was encouraged by their prophet, Muhammad, saying:[22][23]

"The best Jihad is the word of Justice in front of the oppressive Sultan [ruler]."[24]

In a battlefield context, when jihad is used to denote warfare, Ibn Nuhaas cited the following hadith to explain the meaning of the "best Jihad":

Ibn Habbaan narrates: The Messenger of Allah was asked about the best jihad. He said: “The best jihad is the one in which your horse is slain and your blood is spilled.” [Al Baqarah 15][25]

In a similarly worded Hadith to the one above, Ibn Nuhaas cited a hadith from Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, where it states that the highest kind of Jihad, is "“The person who is killed whilst spilling the last of his blood.”[Ahmed 4/144][26]

It has also been reported that Muhammad considered performing hajj to be the best jihad for Muslim women.[27]

Spiritual struggle

Muslim scholar Mahmoud Ayoub states that "The goal of true jihad is to attain a harmony between islam (submission), iman (faith), and ihsan (righteous living)."[28]

In modern times, Pakistani scholar and professor Fazlur Rahman Malik has used the term to describe the struggle to establish "just moral-social order",[29] while President Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia has used it to describe the struggle for economic development in that country.[30]

Warfare (Jihad bil Saif)

Within classical Islamic jurisprudence—the development of which is to be dated into the first few centuries after the prophets death[31]—jihad is the only form of warfare permissible under Islamic law, and may consist in wars against unbelievers, apostates, rebels, highway robbers and dissenters renouncing the authority of Islam.[32] The primary aim of jihad as warfare is not the conversion of non-Muslims to Islam by force, but rather the expansion and defense of the Islamic state.[33][34] In later centuries, especially in the course of the colonization of large parts of the Muslim world, emphasis has been put on non-militant aspects of the jihad. Today, some Muslim authors only recognize wars with the aim of territorial defense as well as the defense of religious freedom as legitimate.[35]

Whether the Quran sanctions defensive warfare only or commands an all out war against non-Muslims depends on the interpretation of the relevant passages.[36] This is because it does not explicitly state the aims of the war Muslims are obliged to wage; the passages concerning jihad rather aim at promoting fighters for the Islamic cause and do not discuss military ethics.[37]

In the classical manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, the rules associated with armed warfare are covered at great length. Such rules include not killing women, children and non-combatants, as well as not damaging cultivated or residential areas.[38] More recently, modern Muslims have tried to re-interpret the Islamic sources, stressing that Jihad is essentially defensive warfare aimed at protecting Muslims and Islam.[34] Although some Islamic scholars have differed on the implementation of Jihad, there is consensus amongst them that the concept of jihad will always include armed struggle against persecution and oppression.[39]

Debate

Controversy has arisen over whether the usage of the term jihad without further explanation refers to military combat, and whether some have used confusion over the definition of the term to their advantage.[40]

Middle East historian Bernard Lewis argues that "the overwhelming majority of classical theologians, jurists, and traditionalists (specialists in the hadith) understood the obligation of jihad in a military sense."[41] Furthermore, Lewis maintains that for most of the recorded history of Islam, from the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad onward, the word jihad was used in a primarily military sense.[42]

Bernard Lewis' interpretation on Jihad is partially correct according to Fiqh Made Easy: A Basic Textbook of Islamic Law which describes Jihad as being "divided into four types:

  1. Jihad against the soul: Struggling against the soul to yearn for the Religion, act upon those teachings, and call others to them. (Paraphrased)
  2. Jihad against Shaytan: Struggling against Satan without doubts or desires.
  3. Jihad against the disbelievers and hypocrites: this is done with the tongue, hand, heart and wealth.
  4. Jihad against heretics, liars, and evilfolk: This is best done with the hand, if not the hand then the tongue, if that's not possible then the heart."[43]

Views of different Muslim groups

Ahmadiyya

In Ahmadiyya Islam, pacifism is a strong current, and jihad is one's personal inner struggle and should not be used violently for political motives. Violence is the last option only to be used to protect religion and one's own life in extreme situations of persecution.[44]

Sunni

Jihad has been classified either as al-jihād al-akbar (the greater jihad), the struggle against one's ego or self (nafs), or al-jihād al-asghar (the lesser jihad), the external, physical effort, often implying fighting (this is similar to the shiite view of jihad as well).

Gibril Haddad has analyzed the basis for the belief that internal jihad is the "greater jihad", Jihad al-akbar. Haddad identifies the primary historical basis for this belief in a pair of similarly worded hadith, in which Mohammed is reported to have told warriors returning home that they had returned from the lesser jihad of struggle against non-Muslims to a greater jihad of struggle against lust. Although Haddad notes that the authenticity of both hadeeth is questionable, he nevertheless concludes that the underlying principle of superiority internal jihad does have a reliable basis in the Quran and other writings.[45][46]

In contrast, the Hanbali scholar Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya did believe that "internal Jihad" is important[47] but he suggests those hadith as weak which consider "Jihad of the heart/soul" to be more important than "Jihad by the sword".[48] Contemporary Islamic scholar Abdullah Yusuf Azzam has argued the hadith is not just weak but "is in fact a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. It is only a saying of Ibrahim Ibn Abi `Abalah, one of the Successors, and it contradicts textual evidence and reality."[49]

Muslim jurists explained there are four kinds of jihad fi sabilillah (struggle in the cause of God):[50]

  • Jihad of the heart (jihad bil qalb/nafs) is concerned with combatting the devil and in the attempt to escape his persuasion to evil. This type of Jihad was regarded as the greater jihad (al-jihad al-akbar).
  • Jihad by the tongue (jihad bil lisan) is concerned with speaking the truth and spreading the word of Islam with one's tongue.
  • Jihad by the hand (jihad bil yad) refers to choosing to do what is right and to combat injustice and what is wrong with action.
  • Jihad by the sword (jihad bis saif) refers to qital fi sabilillah (armed fighting in the way of God, or holy war), the most common usage by Salafi Muslims and offshoots of the Muslim Brotherhood.

Some contemporary Islamists have succeeded in replacing the greater jihad, the fight against desires, with the lesser jihad, the holy war to establish, defend and extend the Islamic state.[51]

Sufic

The Sufic view classifies "Jihad" into two; the "Greater Jihad" and the "Lesser Jihad". Muhammad put the emphasis on the "greater Jihad" by saying that "Holy is the warrior who is at war with himself".[citation needed] In this sense external wars and strife are seen but a satanic counterfeit of the true "jihad" which can only be fought and won within; no other Salvation existing can save man without the efforts of the man himself being added to the work involved of self-refinement. In this sense it is the western view of the Holy Grail which comes closest to the Sufic ideal; for to the Sufis Perfection is the Grail; and the Holy Grail is for those who after they become perfect by giving all they have to the poor then go on to become "Abdal" or "changed ones" like Enoch who was "taken" by God because he "walked with God". (Genesis:5:24) here the "Holy Ones" gain the surname "Hadrat" or "The Presence".

History

The Assassins - 1124

The fedayeen were the ardent followers of Hasan-i Sabbah (d. 1124), a leader of Ismail Shia in Iran, Iraq, and in Syria. Known to the west as the Assassins.[52] The Assassins are regarded as "the first group to make systematic use of murder as a political weapon." Established in Iran and Syria in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, they used assassination and terrorism with the aim of overthrowing Sunni Islam's order and establishing their own.[53]

Fedayeen-i Islam

The most open and clear religious fedayeen in the modern period were the Fedayeen-i Islam. Through assassinations of secular officials they aimed at changing the regime in Iran towards Islamization and introduce Sharia law.[52]

In the 1890s the Shiite leadership in Iran became very involved in violence, terrorism via Fedayeen-i Islam. Meaning the "self-sacrificers of Islam" they followed Shia theology, targeting British and Russian officials for assassination.[54]

Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of the Shiites in Iran, was from the same area as the earlier "assassins". The Hur Brotherhood was another group of Assassins that emerged from a combination of religion and politics in the 1890s; modern fedayeen, like the Assassins, find strength in the promise of a reward in "paradise."[55]

The Ayatollah was very involved with the Fedayeen-i Islam who had a "network of holy killers engaged in repeated attempts at political assassinations." In 1944 he published: Kashf al-Asrar ("the Revealing of Secrets"), served as a guidance for the violent Fedayeen.[56] Indeed, the militant group covered for the Ayatollah Khomeini until he became in power.[52]

Muslim brotherhood

In 1928, Hassan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood, a rigidly conservative and highly secretive Egyptian-based organization dedicated to resurrecting a Muslim empire (Caliphate). According to al-Banna, "It is the nature of Islam to dominate, not to be dominated, to impose its law on all nations and to extend its power to the entire planet."[57] The Muslim Brotherhood, also called Muslim Brethren (jamiat al-Ikhwan al-muslimun, literally Society of Muslim Brothers), it opposes secular tendencies of Islamic nations and wants return to the precepts of the Quran, and rejection of Western influences.[58] Al Bana was Born out of the extreme Muslim right wing's desire to counter the ideology of modernization, the Brotherhood's platform included a strict interpretation of the Quran that glorified suicidal violence. Along with Al Banna, the grand Mufti of Jerusalem Haj-al Amin Al-Husseini was also an enormously influential Muslim leader of the time. Together, the two created a powerful and popular Islamist party by classically appealing to fundamentalist Islamic principals while blaming the world's problems on the Jews.[59] Al-Banna also gave the group the motto it still uses today: "Allah is our purpose, the Prophet our leader, the Quran our constitution, jihad our way and dying for God our supreme objective." The 9/11 Commission Report states the Brotherhood's influence on Osama bin Laden and on Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman responsible for the 1993 attack on the WTC.[57][60] An important aspect of the Muslim Brotherhood ideology is the sanctioning of Jihad such as the 2004 fatwa issued by Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi making it a religious obligation of Muslims to abduct and kill U.S. citizens in Iraq.[58]

It advocated a war of Arabism and Islamic Jihad against the British and the Jews.[61]

The Muslim brotherhood waged a "Holy war" against Syria after the Hama massacre.[62]

The BBC explains how the roots of Jihad and the origins of Bin Laden's concept of jihad can be traced back to two early 20th century figures, who started powerful Islamic revivalist movements in response to colonialism and its aftermath. al-Banna blamed the western idea of separation between religion and politics for Muslims' decline. In the 1950s Sayed Qutb, Muslim Brotherhood's prominent member, took the arguments of al-Banna even further. For Qutb, "all non-Muslims were infidels - even the so-called people of the book, the Christians and Jews," he also predicted an eventual clash of civilisations between Islam and the west. "Qutb inspired a whole generation of Islamists, including Ayatollah Khomeini." The Muslim world widely accepted his ideology post Arabs' defeat in the 1967 war.[63]

The Muslim Brotherhood has been involved in violent attacks. From its Islamic theme in its symbolism: on its flag there's a brown square frames a green circle with a white perimeter. Two swords cross inside the circle beneath a red Quran. The cover of the Quran says: "Truly, it is the Generous Quran." The Arabic beneath the sword handles translates as "Be prepared." A reference to a Quranic verse that talks of preparing to fight the enemies of God.[64] It is among 17 groups categorized as "terrorist organizations" by the Russian government,[65] as well as in Egypt, where they started to perform terrorist attacks, now banned by that government.[66]

Scholar states that in "The Muslim Brotherhood's Conquest of Europe," its real goal is to extend Islamic law Sharia throughout Europe and the United States.[67]

Contemporary Islamism holds that Islam is now under attack, and therefore -experts explain-

Jihad is now a war of defense, and as such has become not only a collective duty but an individual duty without restrictions or limitations. That is, to the Islamists, Jihad is a total, all-encompassing duty to be carried out by all Muslims – men and women, young and old. All infidels, without exception, are to be fought and annihilated, and no weapons or types of warfare are barred. Furthermore, according to them, current Muslim rulers allied with the West are considered apostates and infidels. One major ideological influence in Islamist thought was Sayyid Qutb. Qutb, an Egyptian, was the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood movement. He was convicted of treason for plotting to assassinate Egyptian president Gamal Abd Al-Nasser and was executed in 1966. He wrote extensively on a wide range of Islamic issues. According to Qutb, "There are two parties in all the world: the Party of Allah and the Party of Satan – the Party of Allah which stands under the banner of Allah and bears his insignia, and the Party of Satan, which includes every community, group, race, and individual that does not stand under the banner of Allah."[68]

In the "Holy land foundation" case of the Palestinian Arab al-Arian's involvement in funding terror organization, the Muslim Brotherhood's papers detailed plan to seize U.S. The Group's takeover plot emerged when revealed a handful of classified evidence detailing Islamist extremists' ambitious plans for a U.S. takeover. Terrorism researchers said "the memos and audiotapes, many translated from Arabic and containing detailed strategies by the international Islamist group the Muslim Brotherhood, are proof that extremists have long sought to replace the Constitution with Shariah, or Islamic law," paving its way via a plot to form "a complex network of seemingly benign Muslim organizations whose real job, according to the (US) government, was to spread militant propaganda and raise money." The Muslim Brotherhood created some American Muslim groups and sought influence in others, many of which are listed as unindicted co-conspirators in the Holy Land case, such as CAIR.[69]

On a website devoted to Ramadhan, the Muslim Brotherhood posted a series of articles by Dr. Ahmad 'Abd Al-Khaleq about Al-Walaa Wa'l-Baraa, an Islamic doctrine which, in its fundamentalist interpretation, stipulates absolute allegiance to the community of Muslims and total rejection of non-Muslims and of Muslims who have strayed from the path of Islam. In his articles, the writer argues that according to this principle, a Muslim can come closer to Allah by hating all non-Muslims -Christians, Jews, atheists, or polytheists - and by waging jihad against them in every possible manner.[70]

Indeed, the Muslim Brotherhood has a long-standing war on the West. From 1948 until the 1970s it engaged in assassinations and terrorism in Egypt, and has indoctrinated many who went on to commit acts of terror.[71] Muslim Brotherhood's supreme guide issued the statement that Al Qaeda's "Bin Laden is a Jihad Fighter."[72]

The accused mastermind of the 9/11 terror massacre, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was raised in Kuwait and joined the Muslim Brotherhood at age 16.[73][74]

Warfare in Muslim societies

  The Fulani Jihad States of West Africa, c. 1830

The major imperial Muslim dynasties of Ottoman Turkey (Sunni) and Persia (Shia) each established systems of authority around traditional Islamic institutions. In the Ottoman empire, the concept of ghaza was promulgated as a sister obligation to jihad. The Ottoman ruler Mehmed II is said to have insisted on the conquest of Constantinople (Christian Byzantium) by justifying ghaza as a basic duty. Later Ottoman rulers would apply ghaza to justify military campaigns against the Persian Safavid dynasty. Thus both rival empires established a tradition that a ruler was only considered truly in charge when his armies had been sent into the field in the name of the true faith, usually against giaurs or heretics — often meaning each other. The 'missionary' vocation of the Muslim dynasties was prestigious enough to be officially reflected in a formal title as part of a full ruler style: the Ottoman (many also had Ghazi as part of their name) Sultan Murad Khan II Khoja-Ghazi, 6th Sovereign of the House of Osman (1421–1451), literally used Sultan ul-Mujahidin.[citation needed]

The so-called Fulbe jihad states and a few other jihad states in western Africa were established by a series of offensive wars.[75]

The commands inculcated in the Quran (in five suras from the period after Muhammad had established his power) on Muslims to fight those who will neither embrace Islam nor pay a poll-tax (Jizya) were not interpreted as a general injunction on all Muslims constantly to make war on the infidels (originally only polytheists who claimed to be monotheists, not "People of the Book", Jesus is seen as the last of the precursors of the Prophet Muhammed; the word infidel had different historical uses, notably used by the Crusaders to refer to the Muslims they were fighting against). It was generally supposed that the order for a general war can only be given by the Caliph (an office that was claimed by the Ottoman sultans), but Muslims who did not acknowledge the spiritual authority of the Caliphate (which is vacant), such as non-Sunnis and non-Ottoman Muslim states, always looked to their own rulers for the proclamation of a jihad; there has been in fact no universal warfare by Muslims on non-believers since the early caliphate. Some proclaimed Jihad by claiming themselves as mahdi, e.g. the Sudanese Mahommed Ahmad in 1882.[76]

Non-Muslim opinions

The United States Department of Justice has used its own ad hoc definitions of jihad in indictments of individuals involved in terrorist activities:

  • "As used in this First Superseding Indictment, 'Jihad' is the Arabic word meaning 'holy war'. In this context, jihad refers to the use of violence, including paramilitary action against persons, governments deemed to be enemies of the fundamentalist version of Islam."[77]
  • "As used in this Superseding Indictment, 'violent jihad' or 'jihad' include planning, preparing for, and engaging in, acts of physical violence, including murder, maiming, kidnapping, and hostage-taking."[78] in the indictment against several individuals including José Padilla.

In her book Muhammad: a Biography of the Prophet, B.A. Robinson writes:

"Fighting and warfare might sometimes be necessary, but it was only a minor part of the whole jihad or struggle."[79]

Maxime Rodinson, an orientalist, wrote that "Jihad is a propagandistic device which, as need be, resorts to armed struggle – two ingredients common to many ideological movements."[80]

In English-speaking countries, especially the United States, the term "jihadist" has been used in Western media as a synonym for mujahid, and frequently used to describe militant Islamic groups, including but not restricted to Islamic terrorism.

David Cook, author of Understanding Jihad, said "In reading Muslim literature — both contemporary and classical — one can see that the evidence for the primacy of spiritual jihad is negligible. Today it is certain that no Muslim, writing in a non- Western language (such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu), would ever make claims that jihad is primarily nonviolent or has been superseded by the spiritual jihad. Such claims are made solely by Western scholars, primarily those who study Sufism and/or work in interfaith dialogue, and by Muslim apologists who are trying to present Islam in the most innocuous manner possible."[81] Cook argued that "Presentations along these lines are ideological in tone and should be discounted for their bias and deliberate ignorance of the subject" and that "[i]t is no longer acceptable for Western scholars or Muslim apologists writing in non-Muslim languages to make flat, unsupported statements concerning the prevalence — either from a historical point of view or within contemporary Islam—of the spiritual jihad."[81]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: a comprehensive guide to belief and practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 87. ISBN 0-313-36025-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=U94S6N2zECAC&pg=PA87. Retrieved 5 January 2011. 
  2. ^ Wendy Doniger, ed. (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-87779-044-2. , Jihad, p.571
  3. ^ Josef W. Meri, ed. (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96690-6. , Jihad, p.419
  4. ^ John Esposito(2005), Islam: The Straight Path, pp.93
  5. ^ Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam (University of Chicago Press, 1988), p. 72. Cf. William M. Watt, Islamic Conceptions of the Holy War in: Thomas P. Murphy, The Holy War (Ohio State University Press, 1974), p. 143
  6. ^ Shaykh Hisham Kabbani; Shaykh Seraj Hendricks, Shaykh Ahmad Hendricks. "Jihad—A Misunderstood Concept from Islam". The Muslim Magazine. http://www.sunnah.org/fiqh/jihad_judicial_ruling.htm. Retrieved 16 August 2006. 
  7. ^ "Jihad". http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_1.shtml. Retrieved 20 February 2012. 
  8. ^ cf. e.g. BBC news article Libya's Gaddafi urges 'holy war' against Switzerland
  9. ^ Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam (Brill, 1977), p. 3
  10. ^ Patricia Crone, Medieval Islamic Political Thought (Edinburgh University Press, 2005), p. 363
  11. ^ Jihad and the Islamic Law of War
  12. ^ Rudolph Peters, Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History (Mouton Publishers, 1979), p. 118
  13. ^ a b Rudolph Peters, Jihād (The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World); Oxfordislamicstudies. . Retrieved February 17, 2008.
  14. ^ a b Jonathon P. Berkey, The Formation of Islam; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2003
  15. ^ Al-Batal, Mahmoud; Kristen Brustad, and Abbas Al-Tonsi (2006). "6-"من رائدات الحركة النسائية العربية" (One of the Pioneers of the Arabic Feminist Movement)" (in Arabic, English). Al-Kitaab fii Tacllum al-cArabiyya, Part II (2 ed.). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-1-58901-096-3. "To struggle or exert oneself for a cause........جاهََدَ، يجاهِد، الجهاد" 
  16. ^ Esposito (2002a), p.26
  17. ^ John L. Esposito, Dalia Mogahed, Who Speaks for Islam? What a Billion Muslims Really Think (Gallup, 2007) p. 20 f.
  18. ^ a b "Jihad". BBC. 2009-08-03. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_1.shtml. 
  19. ^ Fayd al-Qadir vol.4 pg. 511
  20. ^ Understanding Jihad, David Cook, Pg 165
  21. ^ Sunnah.org
  22. ^ Performing Best Jihad in Egypt Accessed: May 9, 2011
  23. ^ The Need for Understanding and Tolerance Accessed: May 11, 2011
  24. ^ Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, ibn Majah
  25. ^ Ibn Nuhaas, Book of Jihad, Translated by Nuur Yamani, p. 107
  26. ^ Ibn Nuhaas, Book of Jihad, Translated by Nuur Yamani, p. 177
  27. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:43
  28. ^ Mahmoud M. Ayoub, Islam: Faith and History, pp. 68-69)
  29. ^ Fazlur Rahman, Major Themes of the Quran, (Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1980), pp. 63-64.
  30. ^ Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Weiner, 1996), pp. 116-17
  31. ^ Albrecht Noth, Der Dschihad: sich mühen für Gott. In: Gernot Rotter, Die Welten des Islam: neunundzwanzig Vorschläge, das Unvertraute zu verstehen (Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1993), p. 27
  32. ^ Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam (The Johns Hopkinns Press, 1955), pp. 74-80
  33. ^ "Djihād". Encyclopedia of Islam Online. 
  34. ^ a b R. Peters (1977), p.3
  35. ^ Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam (Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005), p. 125
  36. ^ Fred M. Donner, The Sources of Islamic Conceptions of War, in: James Turner Johnson, Just War and Jihad (Greenwood Press, 1991), p. 47
  37. ^ Albrecht Noth, Heiliger Krieg und Heiliger Kampf in Islam und Christentum (Röhrscheid, 1966), p. 13
  38. ^ Muhammad Hamidullah, The Muslim Conduct of State (Ashraf Printing Press 1987, pp. 205-208
  39. ^ Ghamidi, Javed (2001). "The Islamic Law of Jihad". Mizan. Dar ul-Ishraq. http://www.studying-islam.org/articletext.aspx?id=771. 
  40. ^ What Does Jihad Mean? "For example, Yasir Arafat's May 1994 call in Johannesburg for a "jihad to liberate Jerusalem" was a turning point in the peace process; Israelis heard him speak about using violence to gain political ends and questioned his peaceable intentions. Both Arafat himself and his aides then clarified that he was speaking about a "peaceful jihad" for Jerusalem."
  41. ^ Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), p. 72.
  42. ^ Lewis, Bernard, The Crisis of Islam, 2001 Chapter 2
  43. ^ Fiqh Made Easy: A Basic Text of Islamic Law; Saalikh bin Gahneem As-Sadlan pg. 117-18
  44. ^ "Ahmadiyya Community, Westminster Hall Debate". TheyWorkForYou.com. http://www.theyworkforyou.com/whall/?id=2010-10-20a.284.0. Retrieved 28 October 2010. 
  45. ^ Haddad, Gibril (2005-02-28). "Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith". living Islam. http://www.livingislam.org/n/dgjh_e.html. Retrieved August 16, 2006. 
  46. ^ Haddad, Gibril. "Accusations on Shaykh Hamza Yusuf". sunnipath.com. Archived from the original on July 25, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060725001826/http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/qa00002862.aspx. Retrieved August 16, 2006. 
  47. ^ Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith
  48. ^ Jihad in the Hadith, Peace with Realism, April 16, 2006
  49. ^ Join the caravan
  50. ^ Majid Khadduri: War and Peace in the Law of Islam, p.56
  51. ^ Understanding Jihad, February, 2005
  52. ^ a b c campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. 238. ISBN 0-8160-5454-1. 
  53. ^ Lewis, Bernard (2002). The Assassins: a radical sect in Islam. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00498-9. 
  54. ^ Schlagheck, Donna M. (1988). International terrorism: an introduction to concepts and actors. Lexington Books. p. 58. ISBN 0-669-15454-7. 
  55. ^ Combs, Cindy C. (2002). Terrorism in the twenty-first century. Prentice Hall. p. 19. ISBN 0-13-020887-6. 
  56. ^ Gold, Dore (2009). The Rise of Nuclear Iran: How Tehran Defies the West. Regnery Publishing. p. [1]. ISBN 1-59698-571-2. 
  57. ^ a b THE DEVELOPMENT OF MPAC'S ISLAMIST IDEOLOGY: A PRIMER Investigative Project
  58. ^ a b "The Muslim Brotherhood". JVL. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/muslimbrotherhood.html. Retrieved 2010-09-28. 
  59. ^ Jewish Tribune - German scholar alerts all to threat of Islamofascism
  60. ^ The Quran: Suicide playbook, Farah
  61. ^ Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs. Dictionary of Genocide: A-LVolume 1 of Dictionary of Genocide, Paul Robert Bartrop. ABC-CLIO, 2008. p. 226 ISBN 978-0-313-34642-2
  62. ^ Samuel Totten, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs. Dictionary of Genocide: A-LVolume 1 of Dictionary of Genocide, Paul Robert Bartrop. ABC-CLIO, 2008. p. 181 ISBN 978-0-313-34642-2
  63. ^ BBC NEWS | Middle East | Analysis: The roots of jihad
  64. ^ Muslim Brotherhood - ADL Terrorist Symbol Database
  65. ^ BBC NEWS | Europe | Russia names 'terrorist' groups
  66. ^ Muslim Brotherhood - Egypt
  67. ^ The Muslim Brotherhood's Conquest of Europe :: Middle East Quarterly
  68. ^ Contemporary Islamist Ideology Authorizing Genocidal Murder, 27 January 2004, MEMRI [2]
  69. ^ Muslim Brotherhood's papers detail plan to seize U.S. | News for Dallas, Texas | Dallas Morning News | Breaking News for Dallas-Fort Worth (September 17, 2007)
  70. ^ Muslim Brotherhood Website: Jihad Against Non-Muslims Is Obligatory
  71. ^ Terrorism FSM
  72. ^ Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide: Bin Laden is a Jihad Fighter, Special Dispatch Series - No. 2001 - 25 July 2008, MEMRI [3]
  73. ^ The Biography Channel - Notorious Crime Profiles Khalid Sheikh Mohammed - Serial Killers & Other Criminals - Notorious Crime Files The Biography Channel
  74. ^ Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: make me a martyr for 9/11-Scotsman.com News
  75. ^ Onwar.com
  76. ^ "Sudan: The Mahdiyah, 1884-98". US Library of Congress, A Country Study.
  77. ^ Milnet.com
  78. ^ Findlaw.com
  79. ^ B.A. Robinson (2003-03-28). "The Concept of Jihad "Struggle" in Islam". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_jihad.htm. Retrieved August 16, 2006. 
  80. ^ Maxime Rodinson. Muhammad. Random House, Inc., New York, 2002. p. 351.
  81. ^ a b Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. University of California Press, 2005. Retrieved from Google Books on November 27, 2011. ISBN 0-520-24203-3, ISBN 978-0-520-24203-6.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading

External links

   
               

 

All translations of Jihad


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

5748 online visitors

computed in 0.093s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼

Willful Blindness: Memoir of the Jihad (3.97 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Islamic Radicalism and Global Jihad (25.11 USD)

Commercial use of this term

The Legacy of Jihad (8.16 USD)

Commercial use of this term

The Grand Jihad: How Islam and the Left Sabotage America (3.97 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam (9.95 USD)

Commercial use of this term

My Accidental Jihad (8.58 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia (3.97 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Magic Arabian Nights Jihad Moderate Play MP (24.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad (4.63 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Jihad: From Qu'ran to Bin Laden (6.05 USD)

Commercial use of this term

The New Frontiers of Jihad: Radical Islam in Europe (6.57 USD)

Commercial use of this term

The Jihad Virus: A Novel (3.97 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Jihad vs. Terrorism (4.09 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Somalia between Jihad and Restoration (9.9 USD)

Commercial use of this term

The Mind of Jihad (23.48 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Jihad for Jerusalem: Identity and Strategy in International Relations (9.06 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Jihad Joe (18.44 USD)

Commercial use of this term

The Last Jihad (Political Thrillers Series #1) (3.97 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Andrew Jackson Jihad People Who Can Eat People Are The Luckiest People LP Vinyl (19.98 USD)

Commercial use of this term