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definition - Jogye Order

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Jogye Order

                   
Jogye Order

Kyong Ho Seong-Wu, 75th Patriarch
Korean name
Hangul 조계종
Hanja 曹溪宗
Revised Romanization Jogye-jong
McCune–Reischauer Chogye-chong

The Jogye Order, officially the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism (대한불교조계종, 大韓佛敎 曹溪宗) is the representative order of traditional Korean Buddhism with roots that date back 1,200 years to Unified Silla National Master Doui, who brought Seon (known as Zen in the West) and the practice taught by the Sixth Patriarch, Huineng, from China about 820 C.E.

In 1994, the Jogye order managed 1,725 temples, 10,056 clerics and had 9,125,991 adherents.[1]

Contents

  History

In 826, the "Nine Mountains of Seon" adopted the name Jogye, which is the Cantonese village where Patriarch Huineng's home temple is located. They all were instrumental in the development of the nation during Unified Silla and thereafter. During Goryeo, National Masters Bojo Jinul and Taego Bou led major Seon movements. The Jogye Order was thus established as the representative Seon order until the persecution of the Joseon Dynasty.

For nearly 500 years, however, Buddhism was repressed in favor of Confucianism. During the reign of Joseon King Sejong (r. 1418-1450), two sects were formed, one of all the doctrinal schools and another of all the Seon schools. These were then temporarily disbanded under the reign of King Yonsangun (r. 1494-1506), resulting in great confusion. However, during the Hideyoshi invasions of the late 16th century, National Masters Seosan and Samyeong raised armies that protected the nation which improved the situation of Buddhism for a time. However it was not until the political reforms of 1895 that monks were permitted in the cities again. Then in 1899, under the leadership of Seon Master Gyeongheo (1849-1912), monks petitioned from Haeinsa Temple to reestablish the traditions and the philosophical basis for a reconstructed Buddhist order. Eventually, the Wonjong and Imjejong (Linji) orders were founded, and attempts were made to revive the doctrinal schools and to reestablish activities in the cities, but these movements were soon suppressed during the Japanese occupation, which began in 1910.

Leading resistance and liberation fighters against the occupying forces included such famous monks as Yongsong and Manhae, and efforts continued to keep Korean Buddhist traditions alive. In 1921 the Sonhakwon Seon Meditation Center was established and in 1929, a Monks’ Conference of Joseon Buddhism was held. In 1937, a movement for the establishment of a Central Headquarters began which was successful with the building of the Main Buddha Hall of Jogyesa Temple in Seoul in 1938. Finally in 1941 the Joseon Buddhism Jogye Order which was distinctly Korean and free from Japanese influence, was established. This was the first legal Buddhist order in modern Korea and the precursor of today's Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. Following liberation from Japan in 1945, Seon monks who had preserved and cherished Korean Buddhist traditions began a purification drive to re-establish the traditional celibate orders and take back the temples from married priest, a remnant of the Japanese Occupation. Finally, in 1955 the Jogye Order was established centered around celibate monks; however, as a result of mediation between the elder monks and the government, already-married priests were also included.

On April 11, 1962 Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism was officially established with three main goals: training and education; sutra translation into Korean from Chinese characters; and propagation. These goals continue to guide the Jogye Order today as well. It was in 1947-1949 that a group of monks at Bongamsa Temple began a movement advocating "Living According to the Teachings of the Buddha" and this provided the opportunity for the establishment of fundamental principles and traditions as well as the accepted ceremonies of the order.

  Conflicts with the Lee Myung-bak government

The Jogye Order has faced a lot of conflicts with the current government led by President Lee Myung-bak, a conservative Presbyterian Christian. The government is at odds with the Jogye Order by the decreasing of Temple Stay fundings, the lack of government recognition of the Buddhist Lantern Festival, and neglecting Jogye-affiliated temple names in the new address system.[2]

  Head temples

The numerous temples of the Jogye order are arranged under 24 "head temples." The head temples each oversee a district (gyogu), containing a large number of subordinate temples.[1]

1. Jogyesa: Gyeonji-dong, Jongno-gu, central Seoul.
2. Yongjusa: Taean-eup, Hwaseong, southern Gyeonggi-do.
3. Sinheungsa: Seorak-dong, Sokcho, eastern Gangwon-do.
4. Woljeongsa: Jinbu-myeon, Pyeongchang County, central Gangwon-do.
5. Beopjusa: Naesongni-myeon, Boeun County, Chungcheongbuk-do.
6. Magoksa : Sagok-myeon, Gongju, Chungcheongnam-do.
7. Sudeoksa: Deoksan-myeon, Yesan County, Chungcheongnam-do.
8. Jikjisa : Daehang-myeon, Gimcheon, Gyeongsangbuk-do.
9. Donghwasa: Dohak-dong, Dong-gu, Daegu.
10. Eunhaesa: Cheongtong-myeon, Yeongcheon, Gyeongsangbuk-do.
11. Bulguksa: Jinhyeon-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do
12. Haeinsa: Gaya-myeon, Hapcheon County, Gyeongsangnam-do.
13. Ssanggyesa: Hwagae-myeon, Hadong County, Gyeongsangnam-do.
14. Beomeosa: Cheongnyong-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan.
15. Tongdosa: Habuk-myeon, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do.
16. Gounsa : Danchon-myeon, Uiseong County, Gyeongsangbuk-do.
17. Geumsansa: Geumsan-myeon, Gimje, Jeollabuk-do.
18. Baekyangsa: Bukha-myeon, Jangseong County, Jeollanam-do.
19. Hwaeomsa: Masan-myeon, Gurye County, Jeollanam-do.
20. Songgwangsa: Songgwang-myeon, Suncheon, Jeollanam-do.
21. Daeheungsa: Samsan-myeon, Haenam County, Jeollanam-do.
22. Gwaneumsa: Ara-dong, Jeju-si, Jeju-do.
23. Seonunsa: Asan-myeon, Gochang County, Jeollabuk-do.
24. Bongseonsa: Jinjeop-eup, Namyangju, Gyeonggi-do.

  Notes

  1. ^ Seung Sahn (d. 2004) is said to be the 78th in his line of Jogye patriarchs, and the first Korean Seon master to travel to the West. "Kwan Um School of Zen website". http://www.kwanumzen.com/. Retrieved 2006-03-29. 
  2. ^ This list is drawn from the official Jogye Order website. "List of Head temples". http://eng.buddhism.or.kr/content/20021104/200211041036409948.asp. Retrieved 2006-03-29. 
  3. ^ This is drawn primarily from the official Jogye Order website. "?". http://www.koreanbuddhism.net/jokb/content_list.asp?cat_seq=69. 
  4. ^ This is drawn primarily from the official Jogye Order website. "?". http://www.koreanbuddhism.net/jokb/content_list.asp?cat_seq=69. 
  1. ^ Grayson, James Huntley (2002). Korea: a religious history. Psychology Press. pp. 190. ISBN 978-0-7007-1605-0. 
  2. ^ Hwang (황), Yun-jeong (윤정) (2011-07-19). "불교계-정부 화해무드 다시 급랭하나" (in Korean). Yonhap News. http://www.yonhapnews.co.kr/bulletin/2011/07/19/0200000000AKR20110719130800005.HTML. Retrieved 2011-09-25. 

  See also

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Jogye Order


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