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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
||This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page. (April 2012)|
|The Johns Hopkins University|
|Motto||Veritas vos Liberabit (Latin)|
|Motto in English||The Truth Will Set You Free|
|Endowment||US $2.59 billion (2011)|
|President||Ronald J. Daniels|
|Provost||Lloyd B. Minor|
|Academic staff||3,100 (full time)|
|Admin. staff||15,000 (full time)|
|Location||Baltimore, Maryland, United States|
|Colors||Old Gold & Sable
Columbia Blue & Black
|Athletics||Division I Lacrosse
NCAA Division III
The Johns Hopkins University (informally Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins) is a private research university based in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The university was founded on January 22, 1876 and named for its benefactor, the philanthropist Johns Hopkins. Daniel Coit Gilman was inaugurated as first president on February 22, 1876.
Johns Hopkins maintains campuses in Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Italy; China and Singapore. The university is organized into two undergraduate divisions and five graduate divisions on two main campuses—the Homewood campus and the Medical Institutions campus—both located in Baltimore. The university also consists of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the Peabody Institute, the Carey Business School, and various other facilities.
Johns Hopkins pioneered the concept of the modern research university in the United States and has ranked among the world's top such universities throughout its history. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has ranked Johns Hopkins #1 among U.S. academic institutions in total science, medical and engineering research and development spending for 31 consecutive years. As of 2011, thirty-seven Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins, and the university's research is among the most cited in the world.
On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million (Between $140 million to $1.6 billion in 2011 dollars, by varying estimates) to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States.
The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons after his father and that son would be the university's benefactor.
In his 2001 undergraduate commencement address, university president William R. Brody said about the name: "In 1888, just 12 years after the university was founded, Mark Twain wrote about this university in a letter to a friend. He said: 'A few months ago I was told that the Johns Hopkins University had given me a degree. I naturally supposed this constituted me a Member of the Faculty and so I started in to help as I could there. I told them I believed they were perfectly competent to run a college as far as the higher branches of education are concerned, but what they needed was a little help here and there from a practical commercial man. I said the public is sensitive to little things and they wouldn't have full confidence in a college that didn't know how to spell the name John.' More than a century later, we continue to bestow diplomas upon individuals of outstanding capabilities and great talent. And we continue to spell Johns with an s."
Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh."
The original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The founders intended the university to be national in scope to strengthen ties across a divided country in the aftermath of the American Civil War. Therefore, the university's official inauguration took on great significance: 1876 was the nation's centennial year and February 22 was George Washington's birthday.
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about the Early History.|
The University's viability depended on its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman, recruited from the presidency of the University of California. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicist Henry A. Rowland (the first president of the American Physical Society), the classical scholars Basil Gildersleeve and Charles D. Morris; the economist Richard T. Ely; and the chemist Ira Remsen, who became the second president of the university in 1901.
Gilman focused on the expansion of knowledge, graduate education and support of faculty research. To Gilman, Johns Hopkins existed not for the sake of God, the state, the community, the board, the parents, or even the students, but for knowledge. Faculty who added to such knowledge were rewarded. A complementary focus on graduate education fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations with the founding of the first U.S. university press in 1878.
With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research–focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including William Osler, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Welch. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a Bachelors degree, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request.
In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, deciding to "build men, not buildings." In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which would have generated most of the interest, became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore delaying plans to site the university in Clifton. This decision became the only major criticism of Gilman's presidency. In the early 20th century the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, and so the estate became a public park. In the end, the 140 acres (57 ha) estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood was purchased as the university's new campus with assistance from prominent Baltimore citizens.
|Daniel Coit Gilman||May 1875 – August 1901|
|Ira Remsen||September 1901 – January 1913|
|Frank Goodnow||October 1914 – June 1929|
|Joseph Sweetman Ames||July 1929 – June 1935|
|Isaiah Bowman||July 1935 – December 1948|
|Detlev Bronk||January 1949 – August 1953|
|Lowell Reed||September 1953 – June 1956|
|Milton S. Eisenhower||July 1956 – June 1967|
|Lincoln Gordon||July 1967 – March 1971|
|Milton S. Eisenhower||March 1971 – January 1972|
|Steven Muller||February 1972 – June 1990|
|William C. Richardson||July 1990 – July 1995|
|Daniel Nathans||June 1995 – August 1996|
|William R. Brody||August 1996 – February 2009|
|Ronald J. Daniels||March 2009–Present|
The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. Along with the hospital, Hopkins established one of the nation's oldest schools of nursing in 1889. The school of medicine was America's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school, and was a prototype for academic medicine that emphasized bedside learning, research projects, and laboratory training. In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing education programs and in 1916 it founded the US' first school of public health. Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore became divisions of the university.
Hopkins was a prominent abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After his death, reports said his conviction was a decisive factor in enrolling Hopkins' first African-American student, Kelly Miller, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics, and in admitting Harvard-trained physician Whitfield Winsey and two other African-American physicians to Maryland's Medical and Chirurgical Society MedChi. These physicians could attend meetings only because they were held on campus. As the memory of Hopkins faded and trustees like King died, Hopkins became like other Baltimore institutions, particularly in terms of race. The Johns Hopkins University chronology stated that on March 15, 1892, an administrator hired by Gilman recommended that the hospital should have a "…separate ward for colored patients." Johns Hopkins Hospital subsequently became segregated. Johns Hopkins' "separate but equal" stance was evident when it came to these segregated wards: "Special care will be taken to see that the heating and ventilation apparatus is as perfect as possible. A sun balcony will be erected on each floor on the east side, for convalescents, while a sun bay-window will be constructed at the south end of the south wing. On each floor there will be a dining room, kitchen, lavatory and bath-rooms...The building will be fireproof throughout."
As segregation grew within Johns Hopkins institutions, it affected pay, hiring and promotions. Staff in segregated wards and those employed in the lower rungs of the service industries had the longest history within the Johns Hopkins Institutions. Johns Hopkins' students, physicians, administrators and staff of African descent had a much shorter history within these institutions. The first black undergraduate was Frederick Scott who entered the school in 1945. In 1967 the first black students earned graduate degrees. Dr. James Nabwangu a British-trained Kenyan, was the first black graduate of the medical school. A second was earned by Robert Gamble.
The first African-American instructor was laboratory supervisor Vivien Thomas, who also invented and developed research instruments, served as an assistant in surgery to surgeon Alfred Blalock and worked closely with Blalock and Helen Taussig in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operation. Black students and professionals were rare at Johns Hopkins Institutions and Maryland's state medical societies until after the 1940s. Diversity increased only in the 1960s and 1970s. African-Americans and women were labeled "The Uninvited" in the second major history of the university.
Hopkins' most well–known battle for women's rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the university; Mary E. Garrett, M. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers. They donated and raised the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be admitted. Unfortunately, this stipulation applied only to the medical school. Other graduate schools were opened to women by president Ira Remsen only in 1907. Christine Ladd-Franklin was the first woman to earn a PhD at Hopkins, in mathematics in 1882. The trustees denied her the degree and refused to change the policy about admitting women; she finally received her degree 44 years later. In 1893 Florence Bascomb became the university's first female PhD.
The nursing school opened in 1889 and accepted women and men as students.
The decision to admit women at undergraduate level was not considered until the late 1960s and was eventually adopted in October 1969; in the fall of 1970, 90 females, five of them African-American, became undergraduates. In the academic year 1970–1971, 4.7% of students in the Arts and Sciences programs were women. In the year 1985–1986 the proportion of female students in the Arts and Sciences programs had increased to around 38%. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate population was 47% female and 53% male.
|Main Campuses & Divisions|
(Medical Institutions Campus)
|Downtown Baltimore||Washington D.C.||Laurel, Maryland|
|School of Arts and Sciences
|School of Education
|School of Engineering
|School of Nursing
|School of Medicine
|School of Public Health
|School of Business
|School of Advanced International Studies
|Applied Physics Laboratory
The first campus was located on Howard Street. Eventually, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the estate of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll's Homewood House is considered one of the finest examples of Federal residential architecture. The estate then came to the Wyman family, which participated in making it the park-like main campus of the schools of arts and sciences and engineering at the start of the 20th century. Most of its architecture was modeled after the Federal style of Homewood House. Homewood House is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate programs are here.
Collectively known as Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI) campus, the East Baltimore facility occupies several city blocks spreading from the Johns Hopkins Hospital trademark dome.
The Washington, D.C. campus is on Massachusetts Avenue.
The Applied Physics Laboratory, a division of the university co-equal to the nine schools but with a non-academic mission, lies between Baltimore and Washington in Laurel, Maryland.
The President is JHU's chief executive officer, and the university is organized into nine academic divisions.
In 2011, the Sustainable Endowments Institute gave Johns Hopkins a College Sustainability Report Card grade of "C+." In particular the Institute criticized JHU for failing to disclose its endowment's holdings and proxy voting record on environmental issues.
In 2007 carbon emissions were inventoried and electric vehicles were used for some campus transportation needs.
As of 2007 dining services managers sought locally–sourced produce and seafood, and integrated organic food into menus. In addition, the smaller cafés around campus sell exclusively organic, shade–grown coffees. A small pilot composting program operated on the undergraduate campus.
In 2007 the university was pursuing LEED certification for several buildings. Energy retrofits in certain buildings have resulted in over 50% less energy consumption. Retrofits included a green roof, experimentation with waterless urinals and low-flow shower heads, and upgraded fluorescent lighting that reduced electricity for lighting on one campus by over 40 percent. Similar lighting retrofits were underway at all campuses. At the beginning of 2012, Hopkins sustainability announced the installation of 2,708 solar panels atop buildings at Homewood (Rec/Athletic Center, Mattin Center), the Eastern Building on 33rd Street and the East Baltimore Campus (Pinkard Building, 2024 Building, Bloomberg Building, Hampton House). These solar panels will produce 997,400 kWh and decrease 1,200,000 lbs of greenhouse gases each year.
In 2004, one campus completed a water conservation retrofit that annually saved over 8,000,000 US gallons (30,000,000 l) of water.
As of 2010 students contributed significantly to environmental initiatives, setting up the JHU recycling program, hosting a national "Greening" conference, launching a transportation shuttle service between campuses and making the campus more bike-friendly. Each year, students conduct the "S.E.X.:I.T." competition to see which dormitory can save the most electricity.
The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two corporations, the university and The Johns Hopkins Health System, formed in 1986. The latter has grown into the bigger entity, with fiscal year 2005 consolidated net revenue of $3.3 billion, employing 27,700 people, including some 4,700 full–time physicians.
JHU's bylaws specify a Board of Trustees of between 18 and 65 voting members. Trustees serve six–year terms subject to a two–term limit. The alumni select 12 trustees. Four recent alumni serve 4-year terms, one per year, typically from the graduating class. The bylaws prohibit students, faculty or administrative staff from serving on the Board, except the President as an ex–officio trustee. The Johns Hopkins Health System has a separate Board of Trustees, many of whom are doctors or health care executives. Some JHU Trustees also serve on the Johns Hopkins Health System Board.
The full-time, four year undergraduate program is "most selective" with low transfer-in and a high graduate co-existence. The university is one of fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities (AAU); it is also a member of the Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) and the Universities Research Association (URA).
|Johns Hopkins University|
|C/O 2016 Applicants||20,504|
|C/O 2016 Admitted||3,632 (17.7%)|
|SAT Median (2400)||720R, 760M, 730W|
|ACT Median (36)||33|
|Freshman Class Size||1,362|
In 2010, 87% of admitted students graduated in the top tenth of their high school class and the inter-quartile range on the SAT reading was 670–750, math was 690–780, and writing was 670–770. 97% of freshmen returned after the first year, 84% of students graduated in 4 years and 92% graduated in 6 years. Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily. As a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased. Early Decision is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice. These students, if admitted, are required to enroll. This application is due November 1. Most students, however, apply Regular Decision, which is a traditional non-binding round. These applications are due January 1 and students are notified April 1.
|University rankings (overall)|
|U.S. News & World Report||13|
At the undergraduate level, Hopkins was ranked #13 among National Universities by U.S. News and World Report (USNWR). It is ranked #6 in the nation in the high school counselor reputation rankings. The 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Hopkins #18 internationally (#16 nationally) and 3rd in the world for Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy. In 2010, Johns Hopkins ranked 13th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 16th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings. Johns Hopkins also placed #2 in the 2010 University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), #2 in the 2011 HEEACT – Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities, ranked #7 among Top Performing Schools according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index (FSPI) in 2008, and was listed #9 among research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance in 2007.
For medical and public health research U.S. News and World Report ranks the School of Medicine #2 and has consistently ranked the Bloomberg School of Public Health #1 in the nation. The School of Nursing was ranked #1 nationally among peer institutions. The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Johns Hopkins University #3 in the world for biomedicine and life sciences. Hopkins ranks #1 nationally in receipt of federal research funds and the School of Medicine is #1 among medical schools in receipt of extramural awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Newsweek named Johns Hopkins as the "Hottest School for Pre-meds" in 2008. The Johns Hopkins Hospital was ranked as the top hospital in the United States for the eighteenth year in a row by the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of American hospitals.
The university's graduate programs in the areas of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Engineering (Biomedical, Electrical & Environmental), Human Development & Family Studies, Health Sciences, Humanities, Physical & Mathematical Sciences and International Affairs & Development all rank among the top-10 of their respective disciplines.
The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) ranked #1 (2005), #2 (2007), and #2 (2009), by College of William and Mary's surveys conducted once every two years beginning in 2005, for its MA program among the world's top schools of International Affairs for those who want to pursue a policy career.
The School of Education is ranked #6 nationally by U.S. News and World Report. Although no formal rankings exist for music conservatories, the Peabody Institute is generally considered one of the most prestigious conservatories in the country, along with Juilliard and the Curtis Institute.
Johns Hopkins is ranked the #1 Social Media College by StudentAdvisor. Several university departments have been known to actively engage on various social media platforms such as Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr to reach prospective students, current students, and alumni.
The Johns Hopkins University Library system houses more than 3.6 million volumes. It includes ten main divisions: the Sheridan Libraries at Homewood, the Welch Medical Library, the Medical Institution Libraries, the School of Nursing Library, Abraham M. Lilienfeld Library at the Bloomberg School, the Peabody Institute Library, the Carey Business School and School of Education libraries, the School of Advanced International Studies Libraries (Sydney R. and Elsa W. Mason Library and Bologna Center Library), the R.E. Gibson Library at the Applied Physics Laboratory Library and other minor satellite locations, as well as the archives.
The Milton S. Eisenhower Library, located on the Homewood campus, is the main library. It was built in the 1960s. It houses over 2.6 million volumes and over 20,000 journal subscriptions. The Eisenhower Library is a member of the university's Sheridan Libraries encompassing collections at the Albert D. Hutzler Reading Room (called "The Hut" by students) in Gilman Hall, the John Work Garrett Library at Evergreen House, and the George Peabody Library at Mount Vernon Place. Together these collections provide the major research library resources for the university, serving Johns Hopkins academic programs worldwide. The library was named for Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of the university and brother of former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower. JHU's library was previously housed in Gilman Hall, and other smaller departmental libraries throughout the Homewood campus.
Only two of the Eisenhower library's six stories are above ground, though the architects designed the building so that every level has windows and natural light. The design accords with a bit of traditional campus lore that no structure can be taller than Gilman Hall, the oldest academic building ( although no written rule limits building height). In December 2008, an addition directly to the south of the library was announced. The six-and-a-half-story expansion will be named the Brody Learning Commons in honor of University President William R. Brody and will function as a "…collaborative learning space." It is scheduled to open on August 13, 2012.
The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins' undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers. In FY 2009, Johns Hopkins received $1.856 billion in federal research grants—more than any other US university. Thirty-three (33) Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni or faculty members. JHU views its academic strengths as being in art history, biological, physical and other natural sciences, biomedical engineering, creative writing, English, history, economics, international studies, medicine, music, neuroscience, nursing, political theory, public health, public policy, and the Romance languages.
Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking #3 globally behind Harvard University and Max Planck Society with the highest total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America.
In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding. In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation (NSF) ranking. These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland. The Johns Hopkins University also offers the "Center for Talented Youth" program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the "Center for Talented Youth" or CTY helps fulfill the university's mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world.
The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running university press in the United States. To date the Press has published more than 6,000 titles and currently publishes 65 scholarly periodicals and over 200 new books each year. Since 1993, the Johns Hopkins University Press has run Project MUSE, an online collection of over 250 full–text, peer–reviewed journals in the humanities and social sciences. The Press also houses the Hopkins Fulfilment Services (HFS), which handles distribution for a number of university presses and publishers. Taken together, the three divisions of the Press—Books, Journals (including MUSE) and HFS—make it one of the largest of America's university presses.
The Johns Hopkins Student Government Association represents undergraduates in campus issues and projects. It is elected annually. Blueprints for a new programming board called The Hopkins Organization for Programming ("The HOP") were drawn up during the summer and fall of 2006.
In addition Charles Village, the region of North Baltimore surrounding the university, has undergone several restoration projects, and the university has gradually bought the property around the school for additional student housing and dormitories. The Charles Village Project, scheduled for completion in 2008, brought new commercial spaces to the neighborhood. The project included Charles Commons, a new, modern residence hall that includes popular retail franchises.
Hopkins invested in improving campus life with an arts complex in 2001, the Mattin Center, and a three–story sports facility, the O'Connor Recreation Center. The large on–campus dining facilities at Homewood were renovated in the summer of 2006.
Quality of life is enriched by the proximity of neighboring academic institutions, including Loyola College, Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA), UMBC, Goucher College, and Towson University, as well as nearby Inner Harbor.
Annually, the Johns Hopkins Spring Fair is held on the Homewood campus over a three day weekend in mid-to-late April. Food, arts and crafts, and non–profit vendors, along with a popular musical act and various other activities attract nearly 25,000 people from the greater Baltimore–Washington area. The Spring Fair is the largest entirely student–run fair in the country.
Since 1972, the Johns Hopkins Outdoors Club, or JHOC, has organized weekend trips for students looking to experience the outdoors. Along with Outdoor Pursuits, an arm of the University's Rec Center, JHOC offers students the opportunity to participate in activities such as canoeing, kayaking, caving, and mountain biking.
Living on campus is required for first- and second-year students, except for commuter students who live with a parent or legal guardian. Housing is not guaranteed for juniors or seniors at Johns Hopkins.
Freshmen housing is centered around Freshman Quad, which consists of three major residence hall complexes: The Alumni Memorial Residences (AMR I and AMR II), Building A and Building B. AMR I was built in 1923 and includes Royce, Sylvester, Vincent, Willard, Wilson and Wood houses; AMR II in 1954, holding Adams, Baker, Clark, Gildersleeve, Griffin, Hollander, Jennings, Lazear houses. The houses were named for Hopkins Alumni who died in World Wars I and II. While each house has its own outside entrance, there are no dividers indoors that distinguish them. In 1983, Buildings A and B were added to Freshmen Quad. They have not yet been dedicated. Freshmen are also housed in Wolman Hall and the terrace floor of McCoy Hall, located on the other side of North Charles Street.
Freshman enter a housing lottery in their spring semester to determine where they will live during their sophomore year. Juniors and seniors may choose between entering the campus housing lottery or moving into nearby apartments or row houses. They occupy one of four buildings. The first, McCoy Hall, is located next to Wolman Hall on North Charles Street. McCoy Hall is predominantly composed of sophomores and transfer students. Apartment-style housing is offered in the Bradford Apartments, one block east of campus on St. Paul Street, and in the Homewood Apartments, two blocks south on North Charles Street. The last is Charles Commons, the newest and largest university–owned dormitory, located at the corner of North Charles and East 33rd. It was completed in 2006 to house 618 students and represented a major step by the university towards offering on–campus housing to students. Charles Commons consists of two 11–story towers connected by a bridge, residential suites and features a ballroom, fitness center and several conference rooms. Nolan's on 33rd, a dining hall specializing in dinner services, is also located in the building.
JHU rents several buildings on North Charles Street to house students when necessary. At full capacity, dormitory buildings can house approximately 60% of undergraduates. Privately–owned apartment buildings around Homewood are usually filled with Hopkins upperclassmen, so despite the lack of university–owned dormitories, housing is available.
The University Office of Greek Life recognizes thirteen fraternities and eight sororities, which include approximately 25% of the student body. Greek life has been a part of the university culture since 1877, when Beta Theta Pi fraternity became the first to form a chapter on campus. Sororities arrived at Hopkins in 1982. As with all Hopkins programs, Greek discrimination on the basis of "marital status, pregnancy, race, color, ethnicity, national origin, age, disability, religion, sexual orientation, veteran status" is prohibited. JHU also has an anti–hazing policy and prohibits alcohol at recruitment activities. Hopkins does not permit "city–wide" chapters, and requires all members of a JHU recognized fraternity or sorority to be a JHU student.
As of Spring 2011, 1,208 students were members of one of Hopkins' fraternities or sororities. The All–Greek Average GPA was 3.31, above the undergraduate average GPA. In Spring 2010 the university was considering construction of a "fraternity row" of houses to consolidate the groups on campus.
All Johns Hopkins fraternities and sororities belong to one of four Councils: the Inter–Fraternity Council, the National Panhellenic Conference, the National Pan-Hellenic Council and the Multicultural Council.
The Inter–Fraternity Council includes eleven fraternities:
The National Panhellenic Conference includes four sororities:
The National Pan–Hellenic Council includes two historically African–American groups:
The Multicultural Council includes four groups:
Delta Phi Fraternity, also known as St. Elmo's, maintains a chapter exclusive to students at Johns Hopkins, though it is not recognized by the Office of Greek Life.
Unrecognized Alpha Kappa Alpha and Delta Sigma Theta African–American interest sororities often recruit Johns Hopkins undergraduates, in their city–wide chapters. Delta Sigma Theta was the first National Pan–Hellenic Council member to charter on the campus in 1976, as well as the first sorority of any kind on the JHU campus.
Kappa Alpha Theta, a National Panhellenic Conference (NPC) sorority, was disbanded by its national headquarters on April 14, 2009 after twelve years on campus. The removal was due to repeated risk management violations.
In March 2010, Johns Hopkins University officially opened for NPC extension.[clarification needed] In May 2010, the University Panhellenic Council selected Pi Beta Phi, which opened in the fall of 2010.
Recruitment for Inter–Fraternity Council and Panhellenic Conference fraternities and sororities takes place during the spring semester for freshmen, though some groups recruit upperclassmen during the fall semester. All participants must have completed one semester and must be in good academic standing.
Many of the fraternities maintain houses off campus, but no sororities do. Baltimore City allows housing to be zoned specifically for use as a fraternity or sorority house, but in practice this zoning code has not been awarded for at least 50 years. Only Sigma Phi Epsilon's building has this zoning code due to its consistent ownership since the 1920s.
Hopkins has many student publications.
Hopkins Student Enterprises (HSE) is a startup incubator with the goal of fostering student innovation and encouraging the development of student–run businesses. Currently, 4 businesses are in operation:
Athletic teams are called Blue Jays. Even though sable and gold are used for academic robes, the university's athletic colors are Columbia blue (PMS 284) and black. Hopkins celebrates Homecoming in the spring to coincide with the height of the lacrosse season. The Men's and Women's lacrosse teams are in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Other teams are in Division III and participate in the Centennial Conference. JHU is also home to the Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame, maintained by US Lacrosse.
The school's most prominent team is its men's lacrosse team. The team does not belong to a conference. The team has won 44 national titles – nine Division I (2007, 2005, 1987, 1985, 1984, 1980, 1979, 1978, 1974), 29 United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA), and six Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (ILA) titles. Hopkins' primary national rivals are Princeton University, Syracuse University, and the University of Virginia; its primary intrastate rivals are Loyola College (competing in what is called the "Charles Street Massacre"), Towson University, the United States Naval Academy, and the University of Maryland. The rivalry with Maryland is the oldest. The schools have met 103 times since 1899, twice in playoff matches.
The women's team is a member of the American Lacrosse Conference (ALC). The team is developing into a top twenty team. The Lady Blue Jays were ranked number 19 in the 2008 Inside Lacrosse Women's DI Media Poll (ILWDIMP). They ranked number 8 in both the 2007 Intercollegiate Women's Lacrosse Coaches Association (IWLCA) Poll for Division I and the ILWDIMP. In 2006, they were ranked 14th in the ILWDIMP, in 2005, they were 11th, and, in 2004, they were 9th. However, recently the team has struggled and finished with a record of 5 wins and 12 losses in the 2009 season.
Hopkins has notable Division III Athletic teams. In 2009–2010, Hopkins won 8 Centennial Conference titles in Women's Cross Country, Women's Track & Field, Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Football, and Men's and Women's Tennis. The Women's Cross Country team became the first women's team at Hopkins to achieve a #1 National ranking. In 2006–2007 teams won Centennial Conference titles in Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Men's and Women's Tennis and Men's Basketball. Hopkins has an acclaimed fencing team, which ranked in the top three Division III teams in the past few years and in both 2008 and 2007 defeated the University of North Carolina, a Division I team. In 2008, they defeated UNC and won the MACFA championship. The Swimming team ranked in the top two of Division III for the last 10 years.
The Men's Swimming team placed second at DIII Nationals in 2008. The Water Polo team was number one in Division III for several of the past years, playing a full schedule against Division I opponents. Hopkins also has a century-old rivalry with McDaniel College (formerly Western Maryland College), playing the Green Terrors 83 times in football since the first game in 1894. In 2009 the football team reached the quarterfinals of the NCAA Division III tournament. In 2008, the baseball team ranked second, losing in the final game of the DIII College World Series to Trinity College.
As of 2011, there had been 37 Nobel Laureates, who attended the university as undergraduate students, graduate students or were faculty members. Woodrow Wilson, who received his PhD from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was Hopkins' first affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. Twenty-three laureates were faculty members, five earned PhDs, eight earned M.D. while Francis Peyton Rous and Martin Rodbell earned undergraduate degrees.
Eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category. Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot and George Whipple won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Two Johns Hopkins laureates won Nobel Prizes in Physics, Riccardo Giacconi in 2002  and Adam Riess in 2011. 
|Wikisource has the text of the 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica article Johns Hopkins University.|
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