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definitions - Junk food

junk food (n.)

1.food that tastes good but is high in calories having little nutritional value

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Junk food

                   
  With protein of poor nutritional quality, more fat than (and nearly five times the sodium of) potato chips, pork rinds meet the common criteria for junk food.

Junk food is an informal term for food that is of little nutritional value and often high in fat, sugar, and/or calories.[1][2][3]

It is widely believed that the term was coined by Michael Jacobson, director of the Center for Science in the Public Interest, in 1972.[4]

Junk foods typically contain high levels of calories from sugar or fat with little protein, vitamins or minerals. Common junk foods include salted snack foods, gum, candy, sweet desserts, fried fast food, and carbonated beverages. [5]

Contents

  Health effects

A study by Paul Johnson and Paul Kenny at the Scripps Research Institute (2008) suggested that junk food consumption alters brain activity in a manner similar to addictive drugs like cocaine or heroin.[6] After many weeks with unlimited access to junk food, the pleasure centers of rat brains became desensitized, requiring more food for pleasure. After the junk food was taken away and replaced with a healthy diet, the rats starved for two weeks instead of eating nutritious fare.[7] A 2007 British Journal of Nutrition study found that mothers who eat junk food during pregnancy increased the likelihood of unhealthy eating habits in their children.[8]

A report published in the Journal of the Federation of America suggests that babies of mothers with a high-sugar and high-fat diet while pregnant are more prone to junk food themselves. The study was conducted on rats and suggests that "infants whose mothers eat excessive amounts of high-fat, high-sugar junk foods when pregnant or breastfeeding are likely to have a greater preference for these foods later in life."[9]

A 2008 report suggests that mothers who eat junk food while pregnant or breast-feeding have children who are more prone to obesity. The children are also more prone to type 2 diabetes, raised cholesterol, and high blood fat.[10]

  Taxation

To reduce unhealthy foods, in December 2011 Denmark has introduced the first fat-food tax in the world by imposing a surcharge on foods that contain more than 2.3 percent saturated fat. Hungary has also imposed a tax on packaged foods that contain unhealthy concentration, such as beverages containing more than 20 mg of caffeine per 100 ml.[11]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn
  2. ^ www.diet.com/g/glossary
  3. ^ http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&hs=blB&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&q=junk+food&tbs=dfn:1&tbo=u&sa=X&ei=VLQgToj7KObf0QGfpPTJAw&ved=0CEsQkQ4%7C
  4. ^ O'Neill, Brendon (November 30, 2006). "Is this what you call junk food?". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/6187234.stm. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  5. ^ Larsen, Joeanne; MS, RD, LD http://www.dietitian.com/junkfood.html
  6. ^ Johnson, Paul M.; Kenny, Paul J. (2010). "Addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats: Role for dopamine D2 receptors". Nature Neuroscience 13 (5): 635–41. DOI:10.1038/nn.2519. PMC 2947358. PMID 20348917. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2947358. 
  7. ^ Goodwin, Jenifer. Junk Food 'Addiction' May Be Real. Business Week. March 29, 2010.
  8. ^ Craving for junk food 'inherited' Mothers who eat junk food during pregnancy may be condemning their children to crave the same diet, according to animal tests. BBC News. 14 August 2007.
  9. ^ "'Junk Food' Moms Have 'Junk Food' Babies". Science Daily. 2011-03-24. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110323105200.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Latest+Science+News%29. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  10. ^ "Moms Eat Junk Food, Kids Get Fat". CBS News. 2008-01-06. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/07/01/health/webmd/main4222324.shtml. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  11. ^ "Welcoming the age of disease prevention". December 17, 2011. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/12/17/welcoming-age-disease-prevention.html. 

  External links

   
               

 

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