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Justice League

                   
Justice League
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
First appearance The Brave and the Bold #28 (February/March 1960)
Created by Gardner Fox
In-story information
Base(s) The Hall and the Satellite
Watchtower
The Refuge
JLI Embassies
Detroit Bunker
Satellite
Secret Sanctuary
Roster
See:List of Justice League members

The Justice League, also called the Justice League of America or JLA, is a fictional superhero team that appears in comic books published by DC Comics.

First appearing in The Brave and the Bold #28 (February/March 1960), the Justice League originally appeared with the line-up of Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Flash (Barry Allen), Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), Aquaman, and the Martian Manhunter. The team roster has been rotated throughout the years with characters such as Green Arrow, Captain Marvel, Black Canary, the Atom, Hawkman, Hawkgirl, Elongated Man, Red Tornado, Firestorm, Zatanna, other Green Lanterns, and dozens of others. The team received its own comic book title in October 1960, when the first issue was published. It would continue to #261 in April 1987, which was the final issue. Throughout the years, various incarnations or subsections of the team have operated as Justice League America, Justice League Europe, Justice League International, Justice League Task Force, Justice League Elite, and Extreme Justice.

Various comic book series featuring the Justice League have remained generally popular with fans since inception and in most incarnations, its roster includes DC's most popular characters. The Justice League concept has also been adapted into various other entertainment media, including the classic Saturday morning Super Friends animated series (1973–1986), an unproduced Justice League of America live-action series, and most recently the animated series Justice League (2001–2004) and Justice League Unlimited (2004–2006). A live-action film was in the works in 2008 before being shelved. As of June 6, 2012 Warner Bros. has announced a new live action Justice League film from the writer of "Gangster Squad".[1]

Contents

  Publication history

  Silver and Bronze Age / Justice League of America

  The Brave and the Bold #28: Debut of the Justice League. Art by Mike Sekowsky and Murphy Anderson.
Justice League of America

Cover to Justice League of America #1.
Art by Mike Sekowsky.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Ongoing
Publication date October 1960 – April 1987
Number of issues 261
Creative team
Writer(s) Gardner Fox
Dennis O'Neill
Len Wein
Steve Englehart
Gerry Conway
Penciller(s) Mike Sekowsky
Dick Dillin
George Pérez
Inker(s) Sid Greene
Dick Giordano
Frank McLaughlin
Creator(s) Gardner Fox
Mike Sekowsky

Having successfully reintroduced a number of their Golden Age superhero characters (Flash, Green Lantern, etc.) during the late 1950s, editor Julius Schwartz asked writer Gardner Fox to reintroduce the Justice Society of America. Schwartz, influenced by the popularity of Major League Baseball's National League and American League, decided to change the name of the team from Justice Society to Justice League.[2] The Justice League of America debuted in The Brave and the Bold #28 (February–March 1960),[3] and after two further appearances in that title, got their own series which quickly became one of the company's best-selling titles. Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky were the creative team for the title's first eight years. Sekowsky's last issue was #63 (June 1968) and Fox departed with #65 (September 1968). Schwartz was the new title's editor and would oversee it until 1979.[4]

The initial Justice League lineup included seven of the DC superheroes being published regularly at that time: Superman, Batman, Aquaman, Flash, Green Lantern, Martian Manhunter, and Wonder Woman. Superman and Batman barely featured in most of the stories, not even appearing on the cover most of the time. Three of DC's other surviving or revived characters, Green Arrow,[5] the Atom,[6] and Hawkman[7] were added to the roster over the next four years. The title's early success was indirectly responsible for the creation of the Fantastic Four. In his autobiography Stan Lee relates how, during a round of golf, DC publisher Jack Liebowitz mentioned to Marvel-Timely owner Martin Goodman how well DC's new book (Justice League) was selling. Later that day Goodman told Lee to come up with a team of superheroes for Marvel; Lee and Jack Kirby produced the Fantastic Four.[8][9]

The Justice League operated from a secret cave outside of the small town of Happy Harbor, Rhode Island. A teenager named Lucas "Snapper" Carr tagged along on missions, and he became both the team's mascot and an official member. Snapper, noted for speaking in beatnik dialect and snapping his fingers, helped the group defeat the giant space starfish Starro the Conqueror in the team's first appearance. The supervillain Doctor Light first battle the team in issue #12 (June 1962).[10] Justice League of America #21 and #22 (August–September 1963) saw the first team-up of the Justice League and the Justice Society of America as well as the first use of the term "Crisis" in reference to a crossover between characters.[11] The folowing year's team-up with the Justice Society introduced the threat of the Crime Syndicate of America of Earth-Three.[12] The character Metamorpho was offered membership in the Justice League but declined.[13] Following the departures of Gardner Fox and Mike Sekowsky, writer Denny O'Neil and artist Dick Dillin became the new creative team. Dillin would draw the title from issue #64 (August 1968) through #183 (October 1980)[14]

O'Neil reshaped the Justice League's membership by removing Wonder Woman in issue #69 and the Martian Manhunter in issue #71.[15] Following the JLA-JSA team-up in issues #73-74 and the death of her husband, the Black Canary decides to move to Earth-One to make a fresh start, where she joins the Justice League.[16] The following issue saw the character develop the superpower known as her "canary cry".[17] In issue #77 (December 1969), Snapper Carr is tricked into betraying the cave headquarters' secret location to the Joker, resulting in his resignation from the team as well.[18]

  Satellite years

In need of a new secure headquarters, the Justice League moved into an orbiting satellite headquarters in Justice League of America #78 (February 1970).[19] The Elongated Man,[20] the Red Tornado,[21] Hawkwoman,[22] Zatanna,[23] and Firestorm[24] joined the team during this period, and Wonder Woman returned.

Len Wein wrote issues #100–114 wherein he and Dillin re-introduced the Seven Soldiers of Victory in issues #100-102[25] and the Freedom Fighters in issues #107-108.[26] In the fall of 1972, Wein and writers Gerry Conway and Steve Englehart crafted a metafictional unofficial crossover spanning titles from both major comics companies. Each comic featured Englehart, Conway, and Wein, as well as Wein's first wife Glynis, interacting with Marvel or DC characters at the Rutland Halloween Parade in Rutland, Vermont. Beginning in Amazing Adventures #16 (by Englehart with art by Bob Brown and Frank McLaughlin), the story continued in Justice League of America #103 (by Wein, Dillin and Dick Giordano), and concluded in Thor #207 (by Conway and penciler John Buscema). As Englehart explained in 2010, "It certainly seemed like a radical concept and we knew that we had to be subtle (laughs) and each story had to stand on its own, but we really worked it out. It's really worthwhile to read those stories back to back to back — it didn't matter to us that one was at DC and two were at Marvel — I think it was us being creative, thinking what would be really cool to do."[27][28][29] Libra, a supervillain created by Wein and Dillin in Justice League of America #111 (May–June 1974),[30] would play a leading role in Grant Morrison's Final Crisis storyline in 2008.

Writers Cary Bates and Elliot S. Maggin wrote themselves into the 1975 JLA-JSA crossover in issues #123 and 124 with Bates becoming a supervillain.[31][32]

Wonder Woman rejoined the team following a major two-year story arc largely written by Martin Pasko. To prove her worthiness to rejoin the JLA, Wonder Woman voluntarily underwent twelve trials analogous to the labors of Hercules, each of which was monitored in secret by a member of the JLA.[33] After the conclusion of the storyline in Wonder Woman #222, the character's return to the JLA occurred in a two-part story in Justice League of America #128-129 (March–April 1976).[34]

Steve Englehart wrote the series beginning with issue #139 and provided another unofficial crossover with Marvel Comics in issue #142 by reworking his character Mantis into the DC Universe as a character named "Willow".[35] Englehart left the title with issue #150.

Writer Gerry Conway had a lengthy association with the title as well. His first JLA story appeared in issue #125 (December 1975) and he became the series' regular writer with issue #151 (February 1978). With a few exceptions, Conway would write the team's adventures until issue #255 (October 1986).[36] Julius Schwartz, who had edited the title since the first issue, left the series as of issue #165 (April 1979).[4] The 1979 crossover with the Justice Society in issues #171 and 172 saw the death of the original Mister Terrific.[37] After Dick Dillin's death, George Pérez, Don Heck, and Rich Buckler would rotate as artist on the title. The double-sized anniversary issue #200 (March 1982) was a "jam" featuring a story written by Conway, a framing sequence drawn by Pérez, and chapters drawn by Pat Broderick, Jim Aparo, Dick Giordano, Gil Kane, Carmine Infantino, Brian Bolland, and Joe Kubert. Bolland's chapter gave the artist his "first stab at drawing Batman."[38] Pérez would leave the title as of issue #200[39] to concentrate on The New Teen Titans although he would contribute covers to the JLA through issue #220 (November 1983). The 1982 team-up with the Justice Society in issues #207-209 crossed over with All-Star Squadron #14-15.[40][41]

  Detroit

Seeking to capitalize on the popularity of their other team books, which focused upon heroes in their late teens/early 20s, Gerry Conway and artist Chuck Patton revamped the Justice League series. After most of the original heroes failed to arrive in order to help the team fend off an invasion of Martians, Aquaman dissolved the League and reformatted its charter to only allow heroes who would devote their full time to the roster.[42] The new team initially consisted of Aquaman, Zatanna, Martian Manhunter, Elongated Man, the Vixen, and a trio of teenage heroes Gypsy, Steel, and Vibe.[43] Aquaman would leave the team after a year and was replaced as leader by the Martian Manhunter. Because of his own edict of only wanting full-time heroes in the League, Aquaman's estranged wife Mera gave him an ultimatum to stay with either the group or with her to salvage their marriage.

The final storyline for the original Justice League of America series (#258-261) by writer J. M. DeMatteis and artist Luke McDonnell,[44] culminated a story-arc involving long-time Justice League enemy Professor Ivo's murders of Vibe and Steel and the resignations of Vixen, Gypsy, and the Elongated Man during the events of DC's Legends mini-series, which saw the team disband.

Fan response to the series' new direction was largely negative and even the return of Batman to the team in Justice League of America #250 could not halt the decline of the series. Reader sentiment regarding this incarnation of the Justice League has since been metatextually reflected in the comics themselves. In volume 2 issue #31 (May 2009), Zatanna says, "With our current line-up we couldn't beat Justice League Detroit!" to which Dr. Light responds, "Don't be ridiculous. Everybody can beat Detroit!" During Grant Morrison's JLA, a brainwashed Gypsy, upon seeing Aquaman, said "you went away"; Triumph claimed that Aquaman had stopped caring about her and the Detroit team after he'd become a member of a more popular, powerful League. [45]

  Modern incarnations

  Justice League International

The 1986 company-wide crossover "Legends" concluded with the formation of a new Justice League. The new team was dubbed "Justice League" then "Justice League International" (JLI) and was given a mandate with less of an American focus. The new series, written by Keith Giffen and J. M. DeMatteis with art by Kevin Maguire[46] (and later Adam Hughes), added quirky humor to the team's stories. In this incarnation, the membership consisted partly of heroes from Earths that, prior to their merging in the Crisis on Infinite Earths, were separate. The initial team included Batman, Black Canary, Blue Beetle, Captain Marvel, Doctor Light (a new Japanese female character, emerging from the Crisis of Infinite Earths, not the supervillain who had appeared previously), Doctor Fate, Martian Manhunter, Mister Miracle, and Guy Gardner; and soon after inception, added Booster Gold, Captain Atom, Fire (then known as the Global Guardians' Green Flame), Ice (then known as the Global Guardians' Icemaiden), and two Rocket Reds (one was a Manhunter spy, and one was Dimitri Pushkin). The Giffen/DeMatteis team worked on Justice League for five years and closed out their run with the "Breakdowns" storyline in 1991 and 1992.[47] The series' humorous tone and high level of characterization proved very popular.

After Giffen and DeMatteis' departure, new writers gave the storylines a more serious tone. Though initially showing enough promise that DC created numerous spin-off titles, in the long run these incarnations of the League proved much less popular than the Giffen/DeMatteis era had. In 1996, the series was canceled, along with spinoffs Justice League Europe, Extreme Justice, and Justice League Task Force.

  JLA

JLA

Cover for JLA #1. Art by Howard Porter and John Dell.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Ongoing
Publication date January 1997 – February 2006
Number of issues 125
Creative team
Writer(s) Grant Morrison, Mark Waid, Joe Kelly, Denny O'Neil, Chuck Austen, Kurt Busiek, Geoff Johns, Allan Heinberg, Bob Harras
Penciller(s) Howard Porter
Bryan Hitch
Doug Mahnke
Inker(s) John Dell
Paul Neary
Creator(s) Grant Morrison
Howard Porter

The low sales of the various Justice League spinoff books prompted DC to revamp the League as a single team (all the various branch teams were disbanded) on a single title. A Justice League of America formed in the September 1996 limited series Justice League: A Midsummer's Nightmare by Mark Waid and Fabian Nicieza, which reunited the "Original Seven" of the League for the first time since Crisis on Infinite Earths. In 1997, DC Comics launched a new Justice League series titled JLA, written by Grant Morrison with art by Howard Porter and inker John Dell.[48]

This series, in an attempt at a "back-to-basics" approach, used as its core the team's original seven members (or their successors): Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Aquaman, Flash (Wally West), Green Lantern (Kyle Rayner), and the Martian Manhunter. Additionally, the team received a new headquarters, the "Watchtower", based on the Moon. JLA quickly became DC's best-selling title,[49] a position it enjoyed off and on for several years. [50]

Morrison introduced the idea of the JLA allegorically representing a pantheon of gods, with their different powers and personalities, incorporating such characters as Zauriel, Big Barda, Orion, Huntress, Barbara Gordon (Oracle), Steel (John Henry Irons), and Plastic Man. He also had temporaries as Aztek, Tomorrow Woman, and Green Arrow (Connor Hawke).

Under Morrison, the series pitted the League against a variety of enemies. These included White Martians, renegade angels, a new incarnation of the Injustice Gang led by Lex Luthor, and the Key. Other foes were the new villain Prometheus, the existing JLA villain Starro the Conqueror, "The Ultra-Marines", and a futuristic Darkseid. Morrison's run culminated in an arc title "World War III" which involves the New Gods preparing the Earth for battle against a creature known as "Maggedon", a super-sentient weapon of mass destruction.

Morrison departed with issue #41, after which the book saw runs by Mark Waid and Joe Kelly. Subsequent to this, the series switched to a series of rotating writers with issue #91 while Kelly (via JLA #100) was given a the mini-series Justice League Elite, which featured Green Arrow, Flash, and several other characters. The new format saw stories by John Byrne, Chuck Austen, and Kurt Busiek. Geoff Johns and Allan Heinberg would take over the book with #115, which saw a multi-part storyline that dealt with the aftermath of Identity Crisis, and served as a lead-in to the events of "Infinite Crisis", as Superboy-Prime destroyed the Watchtower at the end of issue #119. Bob Harras would ultimately write the book's final storyline (JLA #120-125) as Green Arrow struggled in vain to keep the League afloat.

  52

In 52 Week 24, Firestorm recruits a group to reform the Justice League. It consists of Firehawk, Super-Chief, Bulleteer, and Ambush Bug. They fight a deranged Skeets who takes Super-Chief's powers and kills him as well as numerous people given powers by Lex Luthor's Everyman Project. Afterward, Firestorm breaks up the team.

Also in the series, Luthor's new Infinity, Inc. was informally referred to as a "Justice League" in solicitations and on covers.

  Justice League of America (vol. 2)

Justice League of America (vol. 2)

Variant incentive cover for Justice League of America (vol. 2) #1
Art by Michael Turner.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Ongoing
Publication date August 2006 – August 2011
Number of issues 60 (including #0) as of August 2011
Creative team
Writer(s) Brad Meltzer
Dwayne McDuffie
Len Wein
James Robinson
Penciller(s) Ed Benes
Mark Bagley
Brett Booth
Creator(s) Brad Meltzer
Ed Benes

One year after the events of Infinite Crisis, Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman reunite in the Batcave to re-form the League in Justice League of America #0, the kick-off for a new series by Brad Meltzer and Ed Benes.[51] The series featured a roster which included Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), Black Canary, Red Arrow (Green Arrow's former sidekick), Red Tornado, Vixen, Black Lightning, and Hawkgirl. The first arc of the series focused upon Red Tornado and pitted the team against a new intelligent incarnation of Solomon Grundy and the rebuilt Amazo. The new incarnation of the team has two main headquarters, linked by a transporter. The first site is The Hall, which in mainstream DC Universe is a refurnished version of the Justice Society of America and the All-Star Squadron's former headquarters located in Washington, D.C. Black Canary is elected as the first official Chairperson after the fight against Amazo and Solomon Grundy, and led both the Justice League and Justice Society in a complex quest to reunite time-lost members of the pre-Crisis Legion of Super-Heroes, who had been sent back in time to free both Bart Allen and Flash from the other dimensional realm of the Speed Force. Meltzer left the series at the end of issue #12, with one of his subplots (Per Degaton, a pre-nuclear fire mutation version of Despero, and a circa 1948 version of the Ultra-Humanite gathering for an unknown plot) resolved in the pages of Booster Gold.

Dwayne McDuffie took over the writing job with the Justice League Anniversary Special and the main book with issue #13. Due to DC Comics seeking to launch a spin-off Justice League book led by Hal Jordan, the character was removed from the main League series and replaced by John Stewart. Firestorm also joined the roster, with the series entering into a series of tie-in storylines towards Countdown to Final Crisis, with the arrest of a large number of supervillains (gathered by Lex Luthor and Deathstroke to attack the League on the eve of the wedding of Black Canary and Green Arrow) setting up the Salvation Run tie-in miniseries. Also, roster members Red Tornado and Geo-Force were written out. McDuffie's initial issues received mixed reviews and experienced minor conroversy due to fan favorite Hal Jordan's removal in favor of Stewart. Jordan ended up being restored to the roster by issue #19 of the series, only to be removed once again by issue #31 once Justice League: Cry for Justice was completed and ready to be shipped.

Issue #21 saw the return of Libra and the Human Flame, setting up their appearances in Final Crisis. Later issues would resolve issues involving Vixen's power level increase and see the integration of the Milestone Comics characters the Shadow Cabinet and Icon, who fought the Justice League over the remains of the villainous Doctor Light. The group suffered greater losses during Final Crisis with the deaths of Martian Manhunter and Batman, as well as the resignations of Superman and Wonder Woman, who could no longer devote themselves full-time to the League due to the events of the New Krypton and Rise of the Olympian storylines in their respective titles. Hal Jordan would also resign as well, clearing the way for John Stewart's return to the team. Black Canary found herself declaring the League no more, though the group would continue with Canary taking a secondary role in the group. Her last act as leader would be assigning John Stewart and Firestorm the task of hunting down the Human Flame, for his part in the murder of Martian Manhunter, as seen in the Final Crisis Aftermath: Run! miniseries.

Vixen would take over the team, with Plastic Man rejoining the group. Len Wein wrote a three-part fill-in story for Justice League of America[52] that ran from #35 to #37. McDuffie was fired from the title before he could return, after discussion postings to the DC Comics message board, detailing behind-the-scenes creative decisions on his run, were republished in the rumor column "Lying In The Gutter".[53] James Robinson was announced as the new Justice League of America writer.[54]

Wein's fill-in run would be published as Justice League: Cry For Justice neared its conclusion, as Vixen and Black Canary's group (sans John Stewart) would confront Hal Jordan and Green Arrow's makeshift Justice League group, which had stumbled upon a plot by the villain Prometheus that had resulted in much death and carnage. During the confrontation over Jordan's group using torture to extract information from the villains being blackmailed into carrying out Prometheus' plan, both Roy Harper and Supergirl would discover that one of Jordan's heroes, Captain Marvel Jr., was really Prometheus in disguise. In the ensuing battle, the League would suffer horrible losses: Roy Harper was maimed and his daughter Lian and hundreds of thousands of people in Star City would be killed by a doomsday device Prometheus activated. Vixen would have her leg broken and Plastic Man would have his powers permanently scrambled, making him a slowly disintegrating puddle creature. To save other cities from being destroyed like Star City, the League reluctantly allowed Prometheus to go free. Green Arrow (with help from the Shade) would track down and kill Prometheus.

Following the events of "Blackest Night", Hal Jordan and Donna Troy begin the task of rebuilding the League, with Green Arrow, the Atom, Batman, Mon-El, Donna, Cyborg, Doctor Light, Starfire, Congorilla, and the Guardian.

At the end of issue #43, the majority of the new members leave for various reasons. Mon-El and the Guardian leave after Mon-El returns to the future, Black Canary returns to the Birds of Prey, Starfire leaves to join the R.E.B.E.L.S., Green Lantern leaves to locate the other Lantern Corps Entities, and Green Arrow is forced to leave due to his fugitive status. James Robinson revealed this was due having second thoughts about his decision to use so many characters, and revealed that the team would have a different roster in the coming months.[55] To replace the departed members, Jade and Jesse Quick were added to the team. Cyborg remained with the team in a reduced capacity, and was eventually given his own co-feature storyline for issues 48–50.[56]

DC announced that Saint Walker of the Blue Lantern Corps would be joining the Justice League during a tie-in to the Reign of Doomsday crossover, but the character did not become a full member due to the cancellation of the title.[57]

The series ended with issue #60 (October 2011), with the title being one of the numerous DC books cancelled after the Flashpoint crossover. The issue saw Batman disbanding the League due to most of the individual members becoming preoccupied with personal commitments.

  The New 52

Justice League

Cover for Justice League (vol. 2) #1 (October 2011).
Art by Jim Lee and Scott Williams.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Ongoing
Publication date August 2011 – present
Number of issues 9
Main character(s) Justice League
Creative team
Writer(s) Geoff Johns
Penciller(s) Jim Lee
Inker(s) Scott Williams
Colorist(s) Alex Sinclair
Creator(s) Geoff Johns
Jim Lee

In September 2011, following the conclusion of the Flashpoint miniseries, all DC titles were canceled and relaunched from issue #1, with DC continuity being rebooted again. Justice League of America was relaunched as Justice League, written by Geoff Johns and drawn by Jim Lee, and was the first of the new titles released, coming out the same day as the final issue of Flashpoint.[58] The first six issues were set five years in the past and featured a brand new origin for the team,[59] while issue 7 and beyond will take place in the present day.[60]

The starting line-up of the team consists of Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), Aquaman, the Flash (Barry Allen), and Cyborg,[61][62] while the Atom (Ryan Choi), Hawkman (Carter Hall), Firestorm (Ronnie Raymond), Green Arrow (Oliver Queen), Aquaman's wife Mera, Deadman, recently created character Element Woman,[63] and Lady Luck, a revamp of the Golden Age character, are set to join as additional members in the future.[64]

In addition to this series, two other Justice League-related titles were launched during the same month: a new Justice League International; written by Dan Jurgens and drawn by Aaron Lopresti;[65] featuring an initial roster of Batman, Booster Gold, Rocket Red (Gavril Ivanovich), Vixen, Green Lantern (Guy Gardner), Fire, Ice, August General in Iron,[66] and Godiva, and Justice League Dark; written by Peter Milligan and drawn by Mikel Janin; featuring a roster consisting of John Constantine, Shade, the Changing Man, Madame Xanadu, Deadman, Zatanna, and the new character Mindwarp.[67] In May 2012, DC announced the cancellation of Justice League International.[68]

  Various origins of the Justice League

In a story told in flashback in Justice League of America #9 (February 1962), Earth was infiltrated by the Appelaxians.[69] Competing alien warriors were sent to see who could conquer Earth first to determine who will become the new ruler of their home planet. The aliens' attacks drew the attentions of Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Flash (Barry Allen), Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), Aquaman, and Martian Manhunter. While the superheroes individually defeated most of the invaders, the heroes fell prey to a single competitor's attack; only by working together were they able to defeat the competitor. For many years, the heroes heralded this adventure as the event that prompted them to agree to pool resources when confronted with similar menaces.

In Justice League of America #144 (July 1977), Green Arrow uncovered inconsistencies in the team's records[70] and extracted admissions from his colleagues that the seven founders had actually formed the League after the Martian Manhunter was rescued from Martian forces by the other six founders, along with several other heroes including Robin, Robotman, Congo Bill/Congorilla, Rex the Wonder Dog, and even Lois Lane. Green Lantern participated in this first adventure solely as Hal Jordan, due to the fact that he had yet to become the costumed hero at that time (the biggest inconsistency Arrow found, as they celebrated the earlier incident's date, while recounting only the later one's events). When the group formalized their agreement, they suppressed news of it because of anti-Martian hysteria. Because the heroes had not revealed their identities to each other at the time, they did not realize that Jordan and Green Lantern were one and the same when he turned up in costume during the event described in #9. While most subsequent accounts of the League have made little mention of this first adventure, the animated Justice League series adapted this tale as the origin of the Justice League as well.

Secret Origins (vol. 2) #32 (November 1988) updated Justice League of America #9's origin for post-Crisis continuity. Differences included the inclusion of the original Black Canary as a founding member and the absence of Batman, Wonder Woman, and Superman. The JLA: Year One limited series, by Mark Waid, Brian Augustyn, and Barry Kitson, further expanded upon the Secret Origins depiction.[71]

In Justice League Task Force #16 (Sept. 1994), during Zero Hour, an unknown superhuman named Triumph appeared. Triumph was revealed to have been a founding member of the Justice League and was their leader. On his first mission with the fledgling Justice League Triumph seemingly "saved the world" but was teleported into a dimensional limbo that also affected the timestream, resulting in no one having any memory of him.

In Infinite Crisis #7 (June 2006), the formation of "New Earth" (the new name for the post-Crisis Earth) restored Wonder Woman as a founding member of the Justice League. In Brad Meltzer's Justice League of America (vol. 2) #0 (September 2006), it was revealed that Superman and Batman were again founding members as well. 52 #51 (June 2007) confirmed that the 1989 Secret Origins and JLA: Year One origins were still in continuity at that time, with Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman joining the team with founding members' status shortly after the group's formation with Aquaman, Black Canary, Flash, Green Lantern, and Martian Manhunter.[72] In Justice League of America #12 (October 2007), the founding members of the Justice League were shown to be Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), Flash (Barry Allen), Aquaman, and the Martian Manhunter.

With DC's history rewritten due to the Flashpoint limited series, an entirely new origin for the Justice League was introduced in the subsequent Justice League series which debuted with an October 2011 cover date as part of the company-wide event, The New 52. Issue #1 portrayed the first meeting between Batman and Hal Jordan, with the two encountering each other during a battle against a Parademon in Gotham City. After realizing the creature is extraterrestrial in origin, the two heroes head to Metropolis to seek out Superman and are attacked by him.[73] Later, after a brief fight in which the Flash arrives and Batman convinces Superman they are on the same side, they move to an abandoned building to work on analyzing a mysterious alien box, when it suddenly activates and more Parademons arrive.[74] While fighting the Parademons, Aquaman and Wonder Woman appear and join forces with the other heroes.[75] The mysterious box leads to Darkseid's arrival on Earth, and the heroes come together, along with newcomer Cyborg, to defeat him. The public are enamoured with the heroes, and a writer dubs the group the 'Justice League', following the Flash's suggestion of 'Super Seven'.[76]

  Related series

  Formerly Known as the Justice League

In 2003, Giffen, DeMatteis, and Maguire returned with a separate limited series called Formerly Known as the Justice League[77] with the same humor as their Justice League run, and featuring some of the same characters in a team called the "Super Buddies" (a parody of the Super Friends). A follow-up limited series, entitled I Can't Believe It's Not the Justice League, soon was prepared, although it was delayed due to the events shown in the Identity Crisis limited series, but was eventually released as the second arc in JLA: Classified. The Super Buddies consisted of Blue Beetle; Booster Gold; Captain Atom, Fire; Mary Marvel; the Elongated Man with his wife, Sue Dibny; Maxwell Lord; and L-Ron. The second story arc of JLA: Classified focuses on the Super Buddies in a humorous story that features Power Girl, Guy Gardner, and Doctor Fate.

  JLA/Avengers

In 2003-2004, George Pérez and Kurt Busiek produced a JLA/Avengers crossover,[78] an idea that had been delayed for 20 years for various reasons. In this limited series, the Justice League and the Avengers were forced to find key artifacts in one another's universe, as well as deal with the threats of villains Krona and the Grandmaster.

  JLA: Classified

JLA: Classified

Cover of JLA: Classified #1 by Ed McGuinness.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Ended
Publication date January 2005 - May 2008
Number of issues 54
Creative team
Writer(s) various
Artist(s) various
Creator(s) Grant Morrison
Ed McGuinness

In 2004, DC began an anthology series titled JLA: Classified, which would feature rotating writers and artists producing self-contained story-arcs and aborted mini-series projects that were reappropriated for publication within the pages of the series, starring the JLA. While the bulk of the stories took place within the continuity of the series (circa JLA #76–113) some of the stories take place outside of regular DC Universe canon. The series was canceled as of issue #54 (May 2008).

  Justice

In October 2005, DC began publishing the 12-issue miniseries Justice by writer Jim Krueger, writer/illustrator Alex Ross, and artist Doug Braithwaite. The story, which takes place outside regular DC continuity, has Lex Luthor assembling the Legion of Doom after he and several other villains begin to have nightmares about the end of the world and the failures of the Justice League to prevent said apocalypse. As the Legion begins engaging in unprecedented humanitarian deeds throughout the world, they also launch a series of attacks on the Justice League and their families. The threat that the Legion was warned about destroying the Earth turns out to be caused by Brainiac, who seeks to destroy Earth during the chaos.

  Justice League: Cry for Justice

Originally a planned ongoing title, Justice League: Cry For Justice is a mini-series written by James Robinson and drawn by Mauro Cascioli. The mini-series, set after the events of Final Crisis, has Hal Jordan leaving the League following the deaths of Batman and Martian Manhunter, as their deaths have caused Hal to seek out a more proactive manner of dealing with super-villains. Hal, along with Green Arrow and later Supergirl, Captain Marvel Jr., and Batwoman are then recruited by Ray Palmer to investigate a murder of a former colleague carried out on orders from Prometheus. This ties into another string of murders, bringing Starman Mikaal Tomas and Congorilla together as their investigation of the murders of several European super-heroes are also revealed to be the work of Prometheus.

With help from the Hawkman villain I.Q., Prometheus plans on creating the ultimate weapon in mass murder, a massive doomsday device which he plans on using to destroy entire cities, as part of his revenge scheme against the JLA for lobotomizing him. Disguised as Captain Marvel Jr., Prometheus maims Roy Harper and brutally injuring JLA members Dr. Light II, Vixen, and Plastic Man while using the JLA Satellite to activate his doomsday device, which destroys Star City, killing 90,000 innocent civilians, including Roy Harper's young daughter Lian. Prometheus ultimately extorts his freedom from the League in exchange for the codes to shut down his weapon, much to the horror of the JLA members. Green Arrow (with help from reformed villain the Shade), tracks Prometheus down and kills him by firing an arrow into his head.

The mini-series leads directly into the formation of a brand new JLA roster with Green Lantern Hal Jordan, Donna Troy, Dick Grayson as Batman, Doctor Light (Kimiyo Hoshi), Mon-El, Cyborg, Starfire, Congorilla, Guardian, and Mikaal Tomas.

  JLA/The 99

Launching in October 2010, JLA/The 99 was a crossover mini-series featuring the Justice League teaming up with the heroes of Teshkeel Comics' The 99 series. The JLA consisted of Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern (John Stewart), the Flash (Barry Allen), the Atom (Ray Palmer), Doctor Light (Kimiyo Hoshi), Hawkman, and Firestorm (Jason Rusch).

  Awards

The original Justice League of America series has won:

  Collected editions

  Silver Age Justice League of America

This series has been collected in the following:

# Title Material collected
1 Justice League of America Archives volume 1 The Brave and the Bold #28-30, Justice League of America #1-6
2 Justice League of America Archives volume 2 Justice League of America #7-14
3 Justice League of America Archives volume 3 Justice League of America #15-22
4 Justice League of America Archives volume 4 Justice League of America #23-30
5 Justice League of America Archives volume 5 Justice League of America #31-38, #40*
6 Justice League of America Archives volume 6 Justice League of America #41-47, #49-50*
7 Justice League of America Archives volume 7 Justice League of America #51-57, #59-60*
8 Justice League of America Archives volume 8 Justice League of America #61-66, #68-70*
9 Justice League of America Archives volume 9 Justice League of America #71-80
10 Justice League of America Archives volume 10 Justice League of America #81-93

*omitted issues featured reprints of material from earlier Archives.

  Justice League/Justice League International/Justice League America (1987–1996)

This series has been collected in the following hardcover collections:

# Title Material collected
1 Justice League International Volume 1 Justice League #1-6, Justice League International (vol. 1) #7
2 Justice League International Volume 2 Justice League International (vol. 1) #8-14, Justice League Annual #1
3 Justice League International Volume 3 Justice League International (vol. 1) #15-22
4 Justice League International Volume 4 Justice League International (vol. 1) #23-25, Justice League America #26-30
5 Justice League International Volume 5 Justice League International Annual #2-3, Justice League Europe #1-6
6 Justice League International Volume 6 Justice League America #31-35, Justice League Europe #7-11

  JLA (January 1997 – February 2006)

This series has been collected in the following trade paperbacks:

# Title Material collected
1 New World Order JLA #1-4
2 American Dreams JLA #5-9
3 Rock of Ages JLA #10-15
4 Strength in Numbers JLA #16-23, JLA Secret Files #2, Prometheus (one-shot)
5 Justice For All JLA #24-33
6 World War III JLA #34-41
7 Tower of Babel JLA #42-46, JLA Secret Files #3, JLA 80-Page Giant #1
8 Divided We Fall JLA #47-54
9 Terror Incognita JLA #55-60
10 Golden Perfect JLA #61-65
11 The Obsidian Age (Book 1) JLA #66-71
12 The Obsidian Age (Book 2) JLA #72-76
13 Rules of Engagement JLA #77-82
14 Trial By Fire JLA #84-89
15 The Tenth Circle JLA #94-99
16 Pain of the Gods JLA #101-106
17 Syndicate Rules JLA #107-114, and a story from JLA Secret Files 2004
18 Crisis of Conscience JLA #115-119
19 World Without a Justice League JLA #120-125

This series has been collected in the following hardcover collections:

# Title Material collected
1 JLA: The Deluxe Edition Vol. 1 JLA #1-9, plus a story included in JLA: Secret Files and Origins #1
2 JLA: The Deluxe Edition Vol. 2 JLA #10-17, Prometheus (one-shot), plus JLA/WILDCATS
3 JLA: The Deluxe Edition Vol. 3 JLA #22-26, 28-31 and 1,000,000
4 JLA: The Deluxe Edition Vol. 4 JLA #34, 36-41, JLA: Classified #1-3, JLA: Earth II

  Justice League of America (vol. 2) (August 2006 – August 2011)

This series has been collected in the following hardcover collections:

# Title Material collected
1 The Tornado's Path Justice League of America (vol. 2) #1-7
2 The Lightning Saga Justice League of America (vol. 2) #0, #8-12; Justice Society of America (vol. 3) #5-6
3 The Injustice League Justice League of America (vol. 2) #13-16; JLA Wedding Special #1
4 Sanctuary Justice League of America (vol. 2) #17-21
5 The Second Coming Justice League of America (vol. 2) #22-26
6 When Worlds Collide Justice League of America (vol. 2) #27-28, #30-34
7 Team History Justice League of America (vol. 2) #38-43
8 The Dark Things Justice League of America (vol. 2) #44-48; Justice Society of America (vol. 3) #41-42
9 Omega Justice League of America (vol. 2) #49-53
10 The Rise of Eclipso Justice League of America (vol. 2) #54-60

  The New 52 Justice League (vol. 2) (August 2011 - Ongoing)

The series has been collected in the following hardcover collections:

# Title Material collected
1 Origin Justice League (vol. 2) #1-6
2 The Villain's Journey Justice League (vol. 2) #7-12

  Miscellaneous reprints

These trades reprint themed issues.

# Title Material collected
1 Justice League of America Hereby Elects Justice League of America #4, 75, 105-106, 146, 161, and 173-174
2 JLA: The Greatest Stories Ever Told Justice League of America #19, 77, 122 and 166-168, Justice League #1, JLA Secret Files #1 and JLA #61
3 Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 1 Justice League of America ##21-22, 29-30, 37-38 and 46-47
4 Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 2 Justice League of America #55-56, 64-65, 73-74 and 82-83
5 Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 3 Justice League of America #91-92, 100-102, 107-108 and 113
6 Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 4 Justice League of America #123-124, 135-137 and 147-148
7 Crisis on Multiple Earths volume 5 Justice League of America #159-160, 171-172 and 183-185

  In other media

  See also

  Spin-off groups

  Theme Park Ride

  References

  1. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/06/justice-league-movie_n_1573571.html
  2. ^ Eury, Michael (2005). The Justice League Companion. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 1-893905-48-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=QxJPl_R0FtwC&pg=PA1938&dq=Justice+League+of+America+Companion+original+team's+name&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lj2CT5rONYmPgwewvLDCBw&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Justice%20League%20of%20America%20Companion%20original%20team's%20name&f=false. "The readers were more familiar with 'League' from the National League and the American League." 
  3. ^ McAvennie, Michael; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1960s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. "Editor Julius Schwartz had repopulated the [superhero] subculture by revitalizing Golden Age icons like Green Lantern and the Flash..He recruited writer Gardner Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky, and together they came up with the Justice League of America, a modern version of the legendary Justice Society of America from the 1940s." 
  4. ^ a b Julius Schwartz' run on the Justice League of America at the Grand Comics Database
  5. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "Doom of the Star Diamond" Justice League of America 4 (April-May 1961)
  6. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "The Menace of the 'Atom' Bomb!" Justice League of America 14 (September 1962)
  7. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "Riddle of the Runaway Room!" Justice League of America 31 (November 1964)
  8. ^ Lee, Stan; Mair, George (May 7, 2002). Excelsior! The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Fireside Books. ISBN 978-0-684-87305-3. 
  9. ^ Apocryphal legend has it that in 1961, either Jack Liebowitz or Irwin Donenfeld of DC Comics (then known as National Periodical Publications) bragged about DC's success with the Justice League (which had debuted in The Brave and the Bold #28 [February 1960] before going on to its own title) to publisher Martin Goodman (whose holdings included the nascent Marvel Comics) during a game of golf. However, film producer and comics historian Michael Uslan partly debunked the story in a letter published in Alter Ego #43 (December 2004), pp. 43-44:
    Irwin said he never played golf with Goodman, so the story is untrue. I heard this story more than a couple of times while sitting in the lunchroom at DC's 909 Third Avenue and 75 Rockefeller Plaza office as Sol Harrison and [production chief] Jack Adler were schmoozing with some of us ... who worked for DC during our college summers.... [T]he way I heard the story from Sol was that Goodman was playing with one of the heads of Independent News, not DC Comics (though DC owned Independent News). ... As the distributor of DC Comics, this man certainly knew all the sales figures and was in the best position to tell this tidbit to Goodman. ... Of course, Goodman would want to be playing golf with this fellow and be in his good graces. ... Sol worked closely with Independent News' top management over the decades and would have gotten this story straight from the horse's mouth.

    Goodman, a publishing trend-follower aware of the JLA's strong sales, confirmably directed his comics editor, Stan Lee, to create a comic-book series about a team of superheroes. According to Lee in Origins of Marvel Comics (Simon and Schuster/Fireside Books, 1974), p. 16:

    Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most. It was a book called The [sic] Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes. ... ' If the Justice League is selling ', spoke he, 'why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?'
  10. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 105: "In a tale written by Gardner Fox, with art by Mike Sekowsky, Dr. Light's first [adventure] was almost the JLA's last."
  11. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 109: "The two-part 'Crisis on Earth-One!' and 'Crisis on Earth-Two!' saga represented the first use of the term 'Crisis' in crossovers, as well as the designations 'Earth-1' and 'Earth-2'. In it editor Julius Schwartz, [writer Gardner] Fox, and artist Mike Sekowsky devised a menace worthy of the World's Greatest Heroes."
  12. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 112: "Writer Gardner Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky crafted a tale in which the Crime Syndicate...ambushed the JLA on Earth-1."
  13. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Sekowsky, Mike (p), Sachs, Bernard (i). "Metamorpho Says No!" Justice League of America 42 (February 1966)
  14. ^ Dick Dillin's run on Justice League of America at the Grand Comics Database. Dillin missed only the planned reprint issues #67, 76, 85 and 93; issue #153 which was pencilled by George Tuska; and issue #157 where Dillin provided the intro and epilogue pages while Juan Ortiz pencilled the main story.
  15. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 133: "In less than a year on the Justice League of America series, scribe Denny O'Neil and artist Dick Dillin had made major changes to the team. Two issues after Wonder Woman left the JLA, the Martian Manhunter did the same."
  16. ^ O'Neil, Denny (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Greene, Sid (i). "Where Death Fears to Tread" Justice League of America 74 (September 1969)
  17. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 135: "November [1969] saw Black Canary both relocate and develop her 'canary cry'...The crime-fighting beauty at the behest of writer Denny O'Neil and artist Dick Dillin, left the JSA on Earth-2 to join the JLA on Earth-1."
  18. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 135: "As told by writer Denny O'Neil and artist Dick Dillin, the JLA suffered heartbreak at the hands of Snapper Carr...a disgraced Snapper resigned his JLA honorary membership."
  19. ^ O'Neil, Denny (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giella, Joe (i). "The Coming of the Doomsters" Justice League of America 78 (February 1970)
  20. ^ Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Specter in the Shadows!" Justice League of America 105 (April-May 1973)
  21. ^ Wein, Len (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Giordano, Dick (i). "Wolf in the Fold!" Justice League of America 106 (July-August 1973)
  22. ^ Englehart, Steve (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Inner Mission!" Justice League of America 146 (September 1977)
  23. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "The Reverse-Spells of Zatanna's Magic" Justice League of America 161 (December 1978)
  24. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "The Siren Song of the Satin Satan" Justice League of America 179 (June 1980)
  25. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 152 "Through an impromptu team-up of the JLA and the Justice Society on Earth-2, writer Len Wein and artist Dick Dillin ushered in the return of DC's Seven Soldiers of Victory."
  26. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 156 "The annual Justice League-Justice Society get-together resulted in scribe Len Wein and artist Dick Dillin transporting both teams to the alternate reality of Earth-X. There, Nazi Germany ruled after winning a prolonged World War II and only a group of champions called the Freedom Fighters remained to oppose the regime."
  27. ^ Larnick, Eric (October 30, 2010). "The Rutland Halloween Parade: Where Marvel and DC First Collided". ComicsAlliance.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/63ia1MoQZ. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  28. ^ Cronin, Brian (October 1, 2010). "Comic Book Legends Revealed #280". ComicBookResources.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/63iZZ9PQQ. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  29. ^ Amazing Adventures #16 (Jan. 1973), Justice League of America #103 (Dec. 1972), and Thor #207 (Jan. 1973) at the Grand Comics Database
  30. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 160 "Through the words of scripter Len Wein and the art of Dick Dillin, the masked menace of Libra established himself as a grave threat to the World's Greatest Heroes."
  31. ^ Bates, Cary; Maggin, Elliot S. (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Where on Earth Am I?" Justice League of America 123 (October 1975), DC Comics
  32. ^ Bates, Cary; Maggin, Elliot S. (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Avenging Ghosts of the Justice Society!" Justice League of America 124 (November 1975), DC Comics
  33. ^ Jimenez, Phil; Wells, John (2010). The Essential Wonder Woman Encyclopedia. Del Rey. pp. 420–421. ISBN 0-345-50107-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=81F5RWxOdaAC&pg=PA420&lpg=PA420&dq=Wonder+Woman+twelve+trials+JLA&source=bl&ots=q7cPD2gJ_y&sig=o9FllV3flj9VT2xrJ2xsTlD3J4w&hl=en&ei=eXXRTpSlDIHg2QX60OTODw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&sqi=2&ved=0CGMQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=Wonder%20Woman%20twelve%20trials%20JLA&f=false. Retrieved November 26, 2011. 
  34. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 169: "The Justice League officially reinstated Wonder Woman in issue #222 of her own series. However, her meeting with the JLA within the pages of their comic [Justice League of America #128] didn't go well, thanks to writer Martin Pasko and artist Dick Dillin."
  35. ^ Cronin, Brian (September 15, 2005). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #16!". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on April 21, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/675lCCd7F. Retrieved April 21, 2012. "Englehart next began a run on Justice League of America, and in issue #142, Mantis showed up! Only this time, she was calling herself Willow." 
  36. ^ Gerry Conway's run on Justice League of America at the Grand Comics Database
  37. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 182: "Writer Gerry Conway and artist Dick Dillin crafted a tale of foul play aboard the JLA satellite, during the team's annual get-together with Earth-2's JSA. Mr. Terrific...was murdered before he could expose a turncoat among the heroes."
  38. ^ Bolland, Brian; Pruett, Joe ed. (2006). The Art of Brian Bolland. Image Comics. p. 130. ISBN 1-58240-603-0. 
  39. ^ George Pérez' run on Justice League of America at the Grand Comics Database
  40. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 198: "The Justice League of America teamed up with the Justice Society of America on a large-scale with 'Crisis on Earth-Prime', a five-part saga that crossed from the pages of Justice League of America into All-Star Squadron."
  41. ^ Thomas, Roy (2000). "The Justice League-Justice Society Team-Ups". The All-Star Companion. TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 191–192. ISBN 1-893905-05-5.  Justice League of America #207-209 (Oct.-Dec. 1982) and All-Star Squadron #14-15 (Oct.-Nov. 1982)
  42. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Patton, Chuck (p), Hunt, Dave (i). "--The End of the Justice League!" Justice League of America Annual 2 (1984)
  43. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 209 "The prestigious Justice League of America got a bit easier to join, thanks to writer Gerry Conway and artist Chuck Patton. Marking the debut of camouflaging hero Gypsy, the shockwave-casting Vibe, and the second generation hero Steel, this landmark comic saw many of the more famous League members step down in order to make way for a younger roster to carry on their legacy."
  44. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 226: "Alongside artist Luke McDonnell, DeMatteis crafted a dramatic four-part finale to the first series of DC's premier team of superheroes."
  45. ^ JLA #31
  46. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 228: "It was clear that the [Justice League] needed a major overhaul. But no one quite expected how drastic the transformation would truly be in the hands of writers Keith Giffen and J. M. DeMatteis and artist Kevin Maguire."
  47. ^ Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 251: "The lauded Giffen/DeMatteis era of the Justice League came to a dramatic close with "Breakdowns", a sixteen-part storyline that crossed through the pages of both Justice League America and Justice League Europe."
  48. ^ Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 278: "JLA #1 hit the stands, enthralling readers with its compelling, fast-paced story by writer Grant Morrison, and showcasing the art of talented relative newcomer Howard Porter"
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  50. ^ Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 278: "Renewed as one of DC's most popular titles, JLA ran for 125 issues before its next relaunch. Earning countless spin-off miniseries and specials, the Justice League reclaimed its place atop DC's hit titles list."
  51. ^ Cowsill, Alan "2000s" in Dolan, p. 326: "After the success of Identity Crisis, best-selling novelist Brad Meltzer was given the job of relaunching the Justice League of America in the title's second series. With Ed Benes providing the pencils, Meltzer stripped the Justice League back to basics."
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  70. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 174: "Green Arrow thought he had learned the Justice League of America's origin back in issue #9...Now, he found inconsistencies in the story. Writer Steve Englehart and artist Dick Dillin revealed the truth as told by former JLA member J'onn J'onzz."
  71. ^ Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 282: "It was up to writers Mark Waid and Brian Augustyn and artist Barry Kitson to fill in the blanks. With their twelve-issue maxiseries JLA: Year One, the trio examined the early days of the team...JLA: Year One proved a success, and cleaned up decades of convoluted comic history."
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  73. ^ Johns, Geoff (w), Lee, Jim (p), Williams, Scott (i). "Justice League Part One" Justice League v2, 1 (October 2011)
  74. ^ Johns, Geoff (w), Lee, Jim (p), Williams, Scott (i). "Justice League Part Two" Justice League v2, 2 (December 2011)
  75. ^ Johns, Geoff (w), Lee, Jim (p), Williams, Scott (i). "Justice League Part Three" Justice League v2, 3 (January 2012)
  76. ^ Johns, Geoff (w), Lee, Jim (p), Williams, Scott (i). "Justice League Part Six" Justice League v2, 6 (April 2012)
  77. ^ Cowsill "2000s" in Dolan, p. 311: "In 2003, writers J. M. DeMatteis and Keith Giffen and original artist Kevin Maguire worked on a six-part series reuniting [their version of] the team."
  78. ^ Cowsill "2000s" in Dolan, p. 311 "[JLA/Avengers] was an event that...proved to be one of the biggest and best of the DC and Marvel crossovers, incorporating many of the two companies' greatest heroes and villains."

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