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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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|Qaraqalpaq tili, Қарақалпақ тили|
|Spoken natively in||Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Russia|
|Native speakers||412,000 (1993)|
|Official language in||Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan is the official area)|
Map showing locations of Karakalpak (red) within Uzbekistan
Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. Ethnic Karakalpaks who live in the viloyatlar of Uzbekistan tend to speak local Uzbek dialects.
Karakalpak is a member of the Kypchak Turkic family of languages, which includes Tatar, Kumyk and Kazakh. The Kypchak family is a subgroup of the Turkic languages. Within the Kypchak Turkic family, Karakalpak is most closely related to Kazakh and Nogai. Due to its proximity to the Uzbek language areal, much of the vocabulary and grammar has an Uzbek influence. Like Finnish, Hungarian, and Turkish, Karakalpak has vowel harmony, is agglutinative and has no grammatical gender. Word order is usually subject–object–verb.
Karakalpak is spoken mainly in the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic of Uzbekistan. Approximately 2,000 people in Afghanistan and smaller diaspora in parts of Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkey, and other parts of the world speak Karakalpak. Some people hold that the Karakalpak language is merely a dialect of the Kazakh language with some minor local vocabulary; this is allegedly due to Stalin's policies of mixing the ethnic groups of Central Asia to ensure they could not unite and revolt against the USSR (another example is the large Uzbek minority in the Khojend region of Tajikistan).
Karakalpak has official status in the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic.
The Ethnologue identifies two dialects of Karakalpak: Northeastern and Southwestern. Menges mentions a third possible dialect spoken in the Fergana Valley. The Southwestern dialect has č for the Northeastern š.
Karakalpak has 21 native consonant phonemes and regularly uses 4 non-native phonemes in loan words. Non-native sounds are shown in parentheses.
Vowel harmony functions in Karakalpak much as it does in other Turkic languages. Words borrowed from Russian or other languages may not observe rules of vowel harmony, but the following rules usually apply:
|Vowel||May be followed by:|
|o||a, o, u, ɯ|
|œ||e, i, œ, y|
|u||a, o, u|
|y||e, œ, y|
men I, sen you (singular), ol he, she, it, that, biz we, siz you (plural), olar they
bir 1, eki 2, u'sh 3, to'rt 4, bes 5, altı 6, jeti 7, segiz 8, tog'ıs 9, on 10, ju'z 100, mın' 1000
Karakalpak was written in the Arabic and Persian script until 1928, in the Latin script (with additional characters) from 1928 to 1940, after which Cyrillic was introduced. Following Uzbekistan's independence in 1991, the decision was made to drop Cyrillic and revert to the Latin alphabet. Whilst the use of Latin script is now widespread in Tashkent, its introduction into Karakalpakstan remains gradual. The Cyrillic and Latin alphabets are shown below with their equivalent representations in the IPA. Cyrillic letters with no representation in the Latin alphabet are marked with asterisks.
Menges, Karl H. (1947). Qaraqałpaq Grammar. Morningside Heights, New York: King's Crown Press.
Johanson, Lars and Csató, Éva Ágnes (1998). The Turkic Languages. London: Routledge.
|Karakalpak language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|