1.an industrial city of southern Poland
6/16/00 - Katowice, Poland • 6/16/00 – Katowice, Poland • AZS AWF Katowice • Bishop of Katowice • Cathedral of Christ the King, Katowice • Dab Katowice • Dąb Katowice • GKS Katowice • Great Synagogue (Katowice) • History of Katowice • Katowice Airport • Katowice Central Station • Katowice International Airport • Katowice International Fair • Katowice Trade Hall roof collapse • Katowice Voivodeship • Katowice airport • Katowice metropolitan area • Katowice urban area • Katowice-Muchowiec Airport • List of mayors of Katowice • List of tallest buildings in Katowice • Parachute Tower Katowice • Podlesie, Katowice • Policyjny Klub Sportowy Katowice • Polish Radio Katowice • Port lotniczy Katowice-Pyrzowice • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Katowice • Silesian Institute in Katowice • St. Mary's Church, Katowice • St. Michael's church, Katowice • St. Stephen's Church (Katowice) • TVP Katowice • TVP Katowice (tower) • University of Economics in Katowice • University of Music in Katowice • Zarzecze, Katowice • Śródmieście, Katowice
Descripteurs EUROVOC (fr)[Thème]
(cathedral), (bishop), (council)[termes liés]
monde slave (fr)[Situé]
||This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2012)|
|• Mayor||Piotr Uszok|
|• City||164.67 km2 (63.58 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||352 m (1,155 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||266 m (873 ft)|
|• Density||1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||40-001 to 40-999|
|Area code(s)||+48 32|
Katowice (Polish: [katɔˈvʲit͡sɛ] ( listen); German: Kattowitz) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, on the Kłodnica and Rawa rivers (tributaries of the Oder and the Vistula respectively). Katowice is located in the Silesian Highlands, about 50 km (31 mi) north of the Silesian Beskids (part of the Carpathian Mountains) and about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of the Sudetes Mountains.
It is the central district of the Upper Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2.2 million to 3.5 million. Katowice is the center of science, culture, industry, business and transportation in southern Poland. It is the main city in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region and of the 2.7 million conurbation, the Katowice urban area, within a Silesian metropolitan area populated by 4,676,983 people.
Katowice has been the capital of the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999. Previously, it was the capital of the Katowice Voivodeship, before then, of the Silesian Voivodeship and before then Province of Upper Silesia in Germany.
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The area around Katowice in Upper Silesia has been inhabited by ethnic Silesians from its earliest documented history. It was first ruled by the Polish Silesian Piast dynasty (until its extinction). From 1335, it was a part of the Crown of Bohemia. In 1526 the territory passed to the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy after the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia. In 1742, most of Silesia was annexed from Austria by the Kingdom of Prussia during the First Silesian War.
Katowice gained city status in 1865 as Kattowitz in the Prussian Province of Silesia. The city flourished due to large mineral (especially coal) deposits in the nearby mountains. Extensive city growth and prosperity depended on the coal mining and steel industries, which took off during the Industrial Revolution. Kattowitz was inhabited mainly by Germans, Silesians, Jews and Poles. In 1884, 36 Jewish Zionist delegates met in Katowice, forming the Hovevei Zion movement. Previously part of the Beuthen district, in 1873 it became the capital of the new Kattowitz district. On 1 April 1899, the city of Kattowitz was separated from the district, becoming an independent city.
According to the Treaty of Versailles after World War I the Upper Silesia plebiscite was organised by the League of Nations. Though in the city of Katowice the plebiscite resulted 22,774 votes to remain in Germany and 3,900 votes for Poland, it was however attached to Poland as the district in which it was located the overall (combined with rural areas near the city and castle area) they were 66,119 votes for Poland and 52,992 for Germany. Following the Silesian Uprisings (1918–21) Katowice became part of the Second Polish Republic with a certain level of autonomy (Silesian Parliament as a constituency and Silesian Voivodeship Council as the executive body).
The city was occupied by Nazi Germany between 1939-1945.
In 1953 the city was renamed Stalinogród ("Stalin City") by the Polish communist government to honor the passing of the Soviet dictator. However, the new name was never accepted by the city's population and in 1956 the former name of 'Katowice' was restored.
Severe ecological damage to the environment occurred during the post-Second World War time of communist governance in the People's Republic of Poland, but recent changes in regulations, procedures and policies of Polish government since the fall of Communism have reversed much of the harm that was done.
Katowice lies on Katowice Highlands, as part of the Silesian Highlands, in the eastern part of Upper Silesia, within the central portion of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. In administrative terms, Katowice is an urban community in the Silesian Voivodeship in south-west Poland. It is central district of the Upper Silesian Metropolis — metropolis with the population of 2 millions. It borders the cities of Chorzów, Siemianowice Śląskie, Sosnowiec, Mysłowice, Lędziny, Tychy, Mikołów, Ruda Śląska and Czeladź. In geographical terms, it lies between the Vistula and Oder rivers, on the Silesian Highlands. Several rivers flow through the city, the major two being the Kłodnica and Rawa Rivers. Within 600 km (370 mi) of Katowice are the capital cities of six countries: Berlin, Vienna, Prague, Bratislava, Budapest and Warsaw.
The climate of the area is oceanic. The average temperature is 8.2 °Celsius (average −1.5 °C (29 °F) in January and up to average 18 °C (64 °F) in July). Yearly rainfall averages at 608.5 mm (23.96 in). The area's characteristic weak winds blow at about 2 m/s from the west — Moravian Gate.
|Climate data for Katowice|
|Average high °C (°F)||1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−4
|Precipitation cm (inches)||3.04
|Source: MSN Weather|
Katowice lies in the centre of the largest conurbation in Poland and is one of the largest in the European Union, numbering at about 2.7 million. This urban expansion boomed in the 19th century thanks to the rapid development of the mining and metallurgical industries. The Katowice urban area consists of about 40 adjacent cities and towns. However, the whole Silesian metropolitan area (mostly within the Upper Silesian Coal Basin) consists of over 50 cities/town. This metropolitan area has a population of 5,294,000.
In 2006, Katowice and 14 adjacent cities united under one municipal organism — the union of cities — Upper Silesian Metropolis. Its population is 2 million and its area is 1,104 km². In 2006-2007, the union planned to unite these cities in one city under the name "Silesia"; however, this proved unsuccessful.
Notable attractions include:
Katowice belong to those Polish cities which do not originate from medieval towns. The city centre was formed in the mid-19th century when the city was part of the Kingdom of Prussia and had an ethnic-German majority. The buildings of the time are decorated in an eclectic style (mostly Renaissance with elements of Baroque) and elements of Art Nouveau style (secesja). By the end of the nineteenth century the centre of Katowice was being referred to as a "little Paris", something which may surprise visitors today,
Most of the original 19th century buildings that formed the soul of the city were destroyed in the 1950s-1970s and Mass residential blocks were erected in their stead, with the utilitarian design typical of Eastern bloc countries.
In recent years the city has been transformed again. Public spaces attract heavy investment and the city has gained entirely new squares, parks and monuments. Katowice's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture.
Examples of Modernism (International Style and Bauhaus inspired architecture) may be found in the city centre. Central Katowice also contain a significant number of Art Nouveau (Secesja) buildings along with the Communist Era giants such as Spodek or Superjednostka.
Katowice's Rynek is the old centre and marketplace of the city. Unfortunately many old buildings were demolished in the 1950s to make space for monumental communist modern buildings. Several streets around the Rynek and the Rynek itself are now closed to traffic and have been made into a shopping promenades.
Regeneration of the Rynek area should start at 2007-2008 and there was an international architectural competition in 2006 to find the best design.
Katowice is a large coal and steel center. It has several coal mines (Wujek Coal Mine, Mysłowice-Wesoła Coal Mine, Wieczorek Coal Mine, Murcki Coal Mine, Staszic Coal Mine) organized into unions — Katowice Coal Holding company (pl: Katowicki Holding Węglowy), two steelworks (Huta Baildon, Huta Ferum), and one foundry of non-ferrous metals (Huta Metali Nieżelaznych Szopienice).
Katowice is also a large business and trade fair center. Every year in Katowice International Fair and Spodek, tens of international trade fairs are organized. Katowice has the second largest business centre in Poland (after Warsaw Business Centre). Skyscrapers stand along Chorzowska, Korfantego and Roździeńskiego street in the centre of the city. The newest office buildings (A-class) in Katowice are the Chorzowska 50, Altus Skyscraper and Silesia Towers (under construction).
Katowice is the seat of Katowice Special Economic Zone (Katowicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna).
The unemployment rate in Katowice is one of the lowest in Poland, at 2% (2008), according to the official figures. The city is still characterized by its working class strength and thus attracts many people seeking jobs from neighbouring cities (other districts USMU.
Katowice is the third largest scientific centre in Poland (after Warsaw and Cracow). It has over 20 schools of higher education, at which over 100,000 persons study.
There are also:
The public transportation system of the Katowice and Upper Silesian Metropolis consists of four branches — buses and trams united in the KZK GOP and furthermore the regional rail. Additional services are operated by private companies and the state-owned railways.
Silesian Interurbans - one of the largest tram systems in the World, in existence since 1894. The system spreads for more than 50 kilometres (east-west) and covers 14 districts of the Upper Silesian Metropolis.
|This section requires expansion.|
Several important roads in neighbourhoods of Katowice (USMU):
The city and the area is served by the Katowice International Airport, located about 30 km (19 mi) from the center of Katowice. With over 20 international and domestic flights daily, it is by far the biggest airport in Silesia (~2,5 million passengers served in 2008; 2 terminals: A and B).
Because of the long commute to the airport, there is a proposal to convert the much nearer sport aviation-serving Katowice-Muchowiec Airport into a so-called city airport, a second international airport for smaller, business-oriented traffic.
|This unreferenced section requires citations to ensure verifiability.|
The first railroad reached this area in 1846 (the Upper Silesia Railway, in Polish: Kolej Górnośląska; in German: Oberschlesische Eisenbahn). Nowadays Katowice is one of the main railway nodes and exchange points in Silesia and in Poland. The Polskie Koleje Państwowe (Polish State-Owned Railways) in the area of the proposed union constitute one of the main transport hubs in Poland (the most important one being Warsaw). The main railroad station is Katowice Central Station which has recently been demolished. A new station is currently under construction. Both the domestic and the international connections run from there to almost every major city in Poland and Europe.
The Silesian Stadium is located between Chorzów and Katowice. It is a national stadium of Poland, more than 50 international matches of Poland national football team were played here as well as around 30 matches of UEFA competitions. There were also a Speedway World Championship, Speedway Grand Prix of Europe and many concerts featuring international stars.
Tourists can relax playing tennis or squash, doing water sports also sailing (for example — in Dolina Trzech Stawów), horse-riding (in Wesoła Fala and Silesian culture and refreshment park), cycling or going to one of numerous excellently equipped fitness clubs. Near the city center are sporting facilities like swimming pools (for example "Bugla", "Rolna") and in neighbourhood — golf courses (in Siemianowice Śląskie).
Defunct sports clubs:
Katowice is twinned with:
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