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Kite types

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Various types of kites exist,[1] depending on such features as materials, shape, use, or skill required to operate. A modified parachute that has a positive lift/drag ratio is a kite. A tethered body that gains a positive lift/drag ratio upon being towed in some media is a kite. Kites have a wing body and a kite line; the kite line is moored to a fixed or moving body which could even be the kite line itself; the moving body could be a falling payload or a human pilot, as in some hang gliders. Kites of very low stable lift/drag ratio are only rarely treated as kites, but rather as streamers and flags. Kites may fly in air, water or other media. A deflection off the direction of the ambient stream obtains because of the shape of the kite's wing. New types of kites continue to be invented and designed.[2]

Contents

Dominant material typing

Kites are often classified by the dominant material used to make the main body of the kite (plastic, animal skin, wood, metal, composite, paper, metal foil, synthetic textile, newspaper, rip-stop nylon, nylon, Dacron, steel, aluminum). Some kiters pride themselves on being successful in making the main kite body out of only one type of material (excusing glues, bonding agents, bridle lines), for example a Styrofoam-only kite, an aluminum-foil-only Rogallo kite, a paper-only kite, an ice-only kite, a balsa-wood-only kite. Mixed-material kites may have one dominant material but some other secondary material as well; this is the usual case. A kite whose dominant material is tissue paper may have various kinds of stiffening framing sticks that are not tissue paper but perhaps made of rattan, reed, bamboo, tree wood, fiberglass, carbon fiber, sandwiched aerogel, plastic drinking straws, glass, metal, grass[3] or other material. Sellers use the categories "paper kites" and "plastic kites" to indicate the dominant material.[4]

Wing character

Kites vary by the nature of the main wing part (monoplane, flexible sail, stiffened flexible sail, rigid wing, biplane, multiplane, ram-air inflated, closed bladder gas inflated, rotating wing,[5][6] object mimic (of animals, birds, boats, airplanes, insects, people, places, things). For example, the main body of the kite—the wing part—may be made up of inflated gas bladders to give endless shapes; here are three references to such wings:[7][8][9] Such closed-bladder inflated wings differ from open-cell ram-air inflation like the Domina Jalbert parafoil kite. Open single-surface flexible sails are also often considered to be simply inflated by the wind.The wing of the kite is also characterized as to its aspect ratio. Low-aspect ratio kites are tall compared to the front width of the kite's wing. High-aspect ratio kites have wings that are wide compared to their height or depth.[10]Also, the wing character construction type is frequently distinguished: stick-and-sail, monolithic solid (foam, wood, metal, plastic), inflated bladder, monocoque, highly trussed, or sail-only soft fully flexible; or a hybrid mix of fundamental construction types. Finally, wing character is typed by level of craftsmanship, from low to high.

Number of sub-kite units in the kite system or team display

A kite may be made of a single wing, or several wings, or several sub-kite units; in such cases, the literature denotes several types of kite trains and coteries. A collection of kites in a kite system being flown as one system or one collection has its own challenges. Perhaps the most famous kite system type with multiple sub-kite units is the dragon kite. Man-lifting kites have also used a collection of kites to achieve the lift required to lift one or more persons. Miniature kites[11] or larger kites may be connected in various ways to make one kite system. The arrangement patterns are important: train, chain of unit kites each of which has its own main tether, chain, coterie, single-branching, multiple branching, and combinations of patterns. When a kite train is bi-anchored (various angles to the wind), then a rainbow arch pattern can be formed; these arch kite trains are frequently seen at kite festivals. The "ladder" mill dynamic kite chain system is seriously being proposed for utility-level electricity generation.[12] World records for the number of kites in a kite train are to be found in the literature. Teams of people are frequently used to fly kites of high-count sub-kite units.[13][14]

When the kite system's unit kites are controlled by a team of kite pilots in one integral display, then the number of team pilots and the number of kites are noted: two-pilot teams, three-pilot teams, etc. A large team might tow one very large kite. In a team like The Flying Squad of nine kite pilots, each person might fly his own sub-kite while as a team their kites form unified displays [5]. One pilot might simultaneously pilot several kites; the pilot with the several kites forms one kite system of perhaps two or three or more kites in the system [6];[15]

A kite train using a single main line to which sub-kite units are attached is one pattern; however, two through lines can be the base for sub-units, or three lines, or more. A stack of parafoil kites is a fairly common kite train; Dave Culp was one early pioneer who tugged boats with stacks of parafoil kites; one was a 5-stack of Flexifoil kites [7]. [8] Parafoil stacks have existed with over 200 kite units.[16]

Dominant application

Kites vary based on their dominant application. These include play, recreation, art, meditation, exercise, industrial use, fishing, mining, electricity generation, underwater military, sport, advertising, passenger transport, cargo transport, seeding vehicle, tug, weapon, fighting, night operations, fishing, mechanical power for running machines or performing tasks, sport or survival fishing, aerial photography, taxi, competitions of art or aerobatics, performance art, bridge building, air sampling, antenna acting, signaling, billboard, messaging, rescue, entertainment, teaching art, teaching crafts, teaching aerodynamics, beacon, attracting attention, gift, meditation, speed racing, fetching, dropping, artistic ballet, loudspeaker lofting, logging crane, and more).

Buoyancy

Kites vary based on relative buoyancy: lighter than air or heavier than air; lighter than the medium in which they interact for lift or heavier than the medium in which they interact. A kytoon is a kite that can be lighter than air (being filled with hydrogen or helium gas); in winds whose kite lifting qualities are otherwise insufficient for staying aloft, it will experience the necessary lift because of its lighter-than-air balloon qualities. There are also heavier-than-air balloon kites or kytoons; these are usually filled with air rather than helium or hydrogen and stay aloft only with a wind suitable for kiting.[17] There are similar devices for use in other media, like water, such as water buoys that "water kite" in a stream while anchored to the stream bed or a submerged anchor.[18] What is said of air is also true for other-than-air media, as referenced by Dave Culp, kite expert, in his 21st century KiteShip patent.[19]

Underwater kites or hydro kites have the same typing as to buoyancy. When the underwater kite is less dense than water, then when the kite is not flying down, the kite wing will float up; alternatively, controls may invert so that lift is up even while the lighter-than-water kite is also rising for buoyancy reasons. In cases where the kite is denser than water and it stops flying under control, the kite wing will sink. When the kite system has buoyancy controls, then—flying or not—the direction of the non-towed kite can be controlled. A tailing buoy that is a lighter-than-water water kite is an example of a water kite analogous to air kites which are lighter-than-air kytoons or helikites (helium kites).[20]

Control

Kites can be typed according to the method of controlling the motion of the kite's wing body (single-line, dual-line, three-line control, four-line control, n#-line control, radio-controlled, mixed-type control, fused-controls, laser control, torque-line control, part-breakage control, powered controls, aerodynamic controls). Is there a robot on board the kite's main body that alters the bridle or kite's surface or the kite's boundary layer flows in order to control the kite's flight? Is there a person on board the kite's main body to control the kite's motions? Dave Culp describes Kite Tugs with crews of people on the kite or kytoon who control the kite's tugging of commercial cargo ships in order to reduce fuel costs for shipping by making use of wind power. Is there animal or plant life on board the main kite body which is used to control the motion of the kite? Are there instruments on board that react with wind, tension, sun, temperature, moisture, ambient media density, or some other characteristics of the flowing medium (often air) in order to control the motion or shape of the kite for some special purpose? Hobby and science kiters have placed hundreds of devices on the kite line and kite body that are controllers of special actions (for example, turning on lights, making electricity, dropping objects, moving an aerodynamic flap to give motion to the kite, taking aerial photographs, collecting air samples). Are there real-time video cams and other sensors on board that feed data to a remote human or robot pilot for control purposes? Is there an expert program servomechanism on board that controls the kite's motion according to that expert program. Kite-based electricity-generating systems employ such expert programs. Thermodynamic kite Guy H. Kennedy, Jr.

There are controllable sport kites and stunt kites, and these may have different levels of precision. Stunt kits can be trick kites, and further along the line of control they can be precision kites. Four-line Rev kites are a type of kite that can be moved with very high precision.[21][22]

Stability

Will a kite return to a designed or desired flight mode or position after being disturbed by a gust or kite operator control action? How large of a gust can be tolerated? How large of a control disturbance can be experienced by the kite with the result that it nevertheless returns to the desired flight mode? These are questions of stability. Kites are frequently typed by the measures taken to assure or prevent stability. Why a kite needs a tail. Unstable kite wings do not return to their design modes after being disturbed to a given extent. Buffeting, bending, breaking, morphing are some of the occurrences resulting from a disturbance that may prevent a kite from returning to the desired flight mode. A kite might become locked into a crashing direction if the wing experiences a certain kind of disturbance; stability in the crashing mode is not usually helpful, unless one wants the crash to occur for some peaceful or military purpose; kited hang glider pilots learn to cut loose from being towed when a lock-out begins.Pitch & Lockout Limiter+ [23] + Kite Balance and Stability by NASA. And: Kite stability criteria. Kytooning for stability: Kite stability and weight Gerald Alexander Richard Allsopp

Fighter kites are unstable by choice and design; their high instability is an asset for the purpose; these kites are single-lined; the single-line and the high instability permit speed for chosen directions of flight, obtained by judicious pulling. By contrast, there are times, places, and purposes for which very high stability is desired; holding a camera Fundamentals of Kite Aerial Photography or defense communications antenna in a non-accelerating stable position are goals which cause kite system designers to choose a kite design that is very stable Box kites, a brief history. Between these extremes of stability there is a continuum which can be tapped for kiting in air, underwater, or in other flight media. Staying up in the air or in mid-river without deviating from the desired location may be favorable to some purposes; a parent giving a first kite to a child may want a very stable one.

A kite may have a mixed stability character; a kite that is unstable in the center of the media stream may be so designed that after going out, say to the left of center stream a certain distance, it will almost always return toward the center and over to the left of center—an example of cyclic stability—repeating the cycle over and over. In general, such a kite is stable for that kind of performance: back and forth without end, in a small wobble or a large cycling; unstable in a quiet center, but stable when in a certain predictable cyclic motion; such an unstably-stable kite has its set of purposes from entertainment to generating electricity. Stability in the rotating mode is used in rotating kites; the wings have a high probability of staying in the rotating mode. AutorotationThe kind of instability that will surely drive a kite into the ground or unwanted location no matter what the kite operator does is a self-defeating kind of instability.

A kite can be designed to stay quiet in a smooth stream, at a specific point off stream center, or at a certain elevation. When the wind changes in direction or strength or gustiness, then stabilizing the kite's position by design is possible.

Kites with multiple control lines allow the position of the kite in the media stream (air, water, etc.) to be varied by changing the stability of the kite; at one moment the kite is stable for a certain action; in the next moment of control the kite becomes stable for a new and different action.

Different mechanisms are used to obtain various kinds of stability: tails, empennages, control lines, sweeps, dihedrals, billows, out-riggers, gyroscopes, radio-controlled aerodynamic surfaces, reacting onboard robots, skyhooking with lighter-than-media floats, shape, reaction shaping, morphing, tensioning, and de-tensioning.

Artistic quality

Kites are sometimes typed for their artistic quality. The artistic quality might be for the kite's artistic motions, artistic in-air appearance for shaped art or applied art. The art involved for non-flying art-use purposes attract people to decorate home walls and upper spaces in rooms with hung non-flying kite bodies...with or without the other kite part: the kiteline. Any level of visual art may be involved. Sound art made by the kite has been explored. Radiated sound art and artistic music coming from the kite body or kite line example a way to type kites.

Manufacturers

Kites are sometimes typed by who made the kite, such as whether it is a Hi-Flier kite, a one-of-a-kind William Eddy kite, a kite made by a hobbyist, and so on. Dealers and kites auctioners make special efforts to claim authenticity for Revolution type kites; that is, an extra statement is made to confirm the fact that the offered kite is made by the inventor's company or with his permission. Users of powerkites pride themselves on having kites made by certain kite makers, perhaps an individual (e.g., Jim Rowland large figure kites, author of Big Book of Kites (1988), and One-Hour Kites (1989)) or a corporation. Extreme sport kite fliers may favor a kite from one manufacturer over another; opinions and field talk will reveal pride, prejudice, and analysis; product reviews abound in kite forums; manufacturers gain reputations. Kite Trade Association International (KTAI) is not restricted to manufacturers, but also includes members that deal in products made by others. British Kite Surfing Association. Hang gliders that are true kites are made by members of the Hang Glider Manufacturers Association (HGMA) and others.

Ambient flow media

A kite reacts with an ambient media, usually earth air; however, NASA is planning kites for the atmosphere on Mars and other planets. The ambient flow media for space kites is plasma or photon streams like the streams from the sun. Water kites or hydro kites have water as the ambient flow media. Soil kites have soil as the ambient flow media. Kites towed through solids or semi-solids bring other media into focus. If a kite "flies" in a food or chemical vat or a husbandry tank of bacteria or algae, then the chemical soup is the ambient media. So, a kite can be typed by its media; air kites are very common; but air is certainly not the only important ambient flow media that humans use for kite systems and applications.

  • Soil kite
  • Water kite [24][25]
  • Plasma kite [26]
  • Air kite
  • Mars's atmosphere is less dense than Earth's. Kytoons which are kites are being considered for Mars. Other types of kites may also have uses on Mars. [9]

Price

Kites are frequently typed by price. Entry-level kites are often in the low-price category. Beginner make-your-own kites invite creativity at low cost[10]. Low-cost kites, medium priced kites, expensive kites. Minimalist hobby kitemakers have published on making kites for the right price, free, by using materials from the environment of natural materials and human discards and trash. Commercial tug kite systems costing over $100,000 are now fact. NASA prided themselves on making a Charles Richard Paresev manned kite-hanging-pilot kite glider for a little over $4,000 in 1961 and regarded it as a low-cost success compared to other NASA aircraft.

Size

Peter Lynn holds the world record for largest kite. He made three same-sized versions with different decorations: Mega Flag in the United States and Mega Moon in Japan, and the Mega Kuwait Flag. A world record has been established: all three were flown at the same time at the same field February 20, 2008 Hat Trick in Kuwait

A kite culture surrounds each size category. There are particular challenges, opportunities, applications, and solutions in each size sector. Some kite contests have events for the largest and smallest flying kites. There is a following for the world's largest kite. Kites may be nano-sized, microscopic, tiny, miniature, small, large, giant, and enormous. David A. Culp's recent U.S. patent [27] indicates his expertise as he filed for claims for his kite over all size ranges and in any fluid, including plasma.

Number of sticks

  • Zero or no-stick kites form a very special cateory of kites (Rogallo parawing, Jalbert parafoil, Barish sailwing, Culp KiteShip or KiteSail, single-sheet of paper kites, Playsail). The kite literature usually refers to kites in this category as flexible-wing kites. Gertrude and Francis M. Rogallo invented the fully flexible wing and applied it to kites, hang glider kites, parachute kites, and other aircraft types. No-stick inflated kites are included in the "no-stick" type of kite.
  • One-stick kites form a particularly interesting category of kites as they share flexible-wing kite properties as well as gain assets from some stiffening (keeled Flexikite, keeled flexwing, one-stick stiffened rotary Magnus-effect kite).
  • Two-stick kites [28]: regular hexagon kite, irregular hexagon kite.
  • Three-stick kites [29]
  • Four-stick kites [30]
  • Five-stick kites [31] Bermudian five-stick traditional kites. KITE CONTROL MECHANISM R. L. MAYNE has an invention for the five- or six-stick flat kites.
  • Six-stick kites, such as a single-cell tetrahedron kite.[32] The six-stick kite was the foundation of Alexander Graham Bell's tetrahedral kites. Hexagonal kites are made with three sticks or six spars [33].

Number of control lines

Kites are referenced or typed by the number of control lines that operate the kite. The number can be from one to a very high count. Fighter kite contests often allow only single-lined unpowered kites without radio control of the kite. Bridle lines are not intended. Two-line sport or stunt kites exist as rigid-framed and soft kites. A radio-controlled kite having a single kite line has the radio signals control servo-mechanisms at the kite wing, similar to free-flight radio-control scale aircraft. Smart on-board computers can read parameters of a high-flying kite and adjust the angle of attack and other parameters, although the kite system has only one kite line. Arch kites of the rainbow style (long rotary, segmented, collection of unit sub-kites) most often have two anchorings of the tether; however there is nothing to prevent having three or more tetherings to the same one long arch kite, or arch bow, or arch train, or arch chain. At times, the Wright brothers kited their would-be glider with two control lines. Three control lines have been used in kiting by hang-gliding kite students, but often there are just two or one line. KiteShip shows three control lines with computer and human-over-ride controlling of the lines.

Mooring typing (or towed-by typing or anchor type)

Main article: Kite mooring
Here are some of the common mooring types: Towed (moored to or anchored in) by a powered airplane, microlight aircraft, humans, ships, boats, power boats, horses, bicycled humans, skateboarded humans, buggys, landboarded humans, kitesurfing boarded humans, snowboarded humans, ground staked, tree staked, earth-anchored, pole-attached, high-bar attached, wind tunnel holder, balloon, falling human, falling payload, towed human, towed payload, catapult.Each kite that is flying has at least one tether; tethers are moored to something that is fixed or mobile relative to the ambient stream of air (or other media in which a kite flies, like water, gas, plasma, soil, gel, aggregate). Depending on the flying media, purpose, and mooring situation, changes are made in kite design and operation. The mooring could be another kite flying in a media stream distinct-enough to provide coupling with the first kite so that the double-kite system operates up to designed purposes; kite-surfing is of this type where the lower kite is a water-kiting board; Richard Miller in Without Visible Means of Support (Los Angeles, printed by Parker, 1967) described a double-kite system where the upper kite flew in the jet stream and the lower kite flew outside the jet stream. A hydrofoil water kite is being employed, coupled with power air kites as a new extreme sport activity; the kite-skier has the lower kite as a water kite—the ski board; kite-sailing involves a double kite system with the lower kite being a water-kite of some sort: boat, board, hydrofoil, ski. Kitesailing International, December, 1988.

Wing loading or sail loading

A kite may fly with a loading on its wing of so many ounces or pounds per unit of area. Small toy kites or indoor kites are low-sail-loaded kites. Cargo-tug kites are highly sail-loaded. Kites being flown in water are highly wing-loaded kites. Depending on the application, designers will select kite types according to the wing loading needed to fulfill some purpose. Manufacturers frequently specify the range of wing loading for which a kite will maintain the integrity of its structure. Sail loading can be computed from other parameters. Sail loading changes when airspeed and angle of attack change.

Typing by named category

File:Kircher-drachen.weiss.png.gif
Control bar? Figure kite.
Festival flying
Specialized arch ribbon kite (of the non-rotating type) or wind bow or wide stiffened ribbon kite [34]
[35]

A

  • Advertising kites. Ad kites. These kites hold advertisements, logos of organizations, slogans for causes. Huge orders of mass-produced kites imprinted with an advertisement forms a significant part of kite commerce.[36][37][38]
  • Aerial photography platform kites WindMueller Aerology Lab
  • Airplane mimic kite [11];[12];[13];[14];[15] The kiteplane or kite plane in large size as a kite is finding application in renewable energy generation. Ref needed
  • ARC kites. Peter Lynn kites. PeterLynn ARC set-up FAQ
  • Arch kite-multiple-kite arch where one or more lines holds many kites in one sky arch: rotary two-anchor rainbow arch or/and static two-anchor rainbow arch. If the kites making up the arch kite rotate using the Magnus effect then the term also applied is rainbow kite or just bow kite or kite bow or "sky bow" or SkyBow; one form of the rotaing arch or rainbow kite is the ribbon kite in one segment or multiple segments; swivers in the line are important. Distinguish between a long arching collection of kites in a bow or rainbow pattern from the power kite called bow kite.[39][40][41]

[16];

  • Aquaglider or Aqua-glider: These various-formed manned kites were kited behind tow boats over water.[42]) Air Force Lt. Col. Bill Skliar in 1959 designed a biplane kite glider nicknamed Bayou Bird Sailplane Directory. Biplane manned kite towed over water in 1959.+[43]. In 1961 Tom H.Purcell designed and flew an aluminum-framed Fleep-like Rogallo hang glider kite over land; in 1962 he kited the same wing but pontooned while over water; his effort was imaged and noted in Skysurfer Magazine in its May/June issue of 1973, published by EAA inductee Michael Markowski, author of Hang Glider's Bible. The 1962 Mike Burns SkiPlane and 1963 Dickenson wings highly matched the Purcell, Barry Hill Palmer, and the Charles Richard NASA Paresev 1B wing; minor control sticks derived from the triangle control frame were used in each of these kites which sometimes glided. These kites towed high could stop their kiting and release into glides. See list "B" for boats that have a major operating sector as a kite (for one, a 1930 Peel Glider Boat)
  • Arch kite -single kite with arch form: [17]; [18]; Concave parabolic arch kite Peter J. Pearce et al.; [19]; and Monocoque arched kite Peter J. Pearce; multiple arch:Kite; (arch top) Peg Top
  • Art kites as images-only: Video kites, kites on photographs, fine-art illustrations holding kite images, paintings, sculptures, flight-simulator images of kites. engineering drawings, sewing plans, drawings on kite plans, story illustrations in children's books, patent drawings. Kites in Art A Genevieve Lytton graphic card showed fancy dress ball costume involving hexagon kite with tail and string reel: Genevieve Lytton as "The Kite"
  • Art-holding kites: These kites carry art either on their wing or wing's tail, or as kite line laundry. * Artistic flying kites: These kites are artistic in their totality as flying sculpture. These kites win kite festival events that focus on artistic qualities.
  • Asymmetrical kites. The common practice of kite designing and making includes an aim to have the left and right sides of the kite's wing be mirror images of each other for symmetrical balance. A collection of builders are exploring designs that are without that left-right symmetry, but are asymmetrical. Special challenges are involved in producing successful asymmetrical kites.[44]

The Joy of Making Both Art and Kites

B

  • Balloon kite heavier-than-air, full kite wing is balloon, but shaped for kiting.
  • Balloon kite heavier-than-air, major element of kite wing is balloon, but not all.
  • Balloon kite light-than-air with kite wing all balloon.
  • Balloon kite light-than-air with kite wing with major element balloon, but with large non-balloon wing parts. KITE BALLOON Domina C. Jalbert, filed 1944.
  • Balloon kite of the ballooning spiderlings; this kite is not a mechanical balloon but s collection of spider silk threads that are used for dispersal of spiders.[45][46][47] Richard Miller in 1967 in book Without Visible Means of Support [48] described the mechanics of the double kite system where the upper kite lifts and drags in coupling with the lower kite that lifts downwards and drags; the common kite line results in a net kiting system in free-flight. In the 1800s Hiram Stevens Maxim in his chapter on Flying Kites observed the kiting of spiders; biologists used the misleading "ballooning" term which has stuck through time. Bug hunter Darrell Ubick correctly recognized that ballooning spiders actually are kiting as noted by author Pamela S. Turner in Super-powered spiders[49]. In Tales with Tails: Storytelling the Wonders of the Natural World by Kevin Strauss at three places (pages 184, and 185 and 187), shows correct understanding of the kiting of the ballooning spider (as no true balloon is ever made)[50]. Three staffers of Straight Dope Science Advisory Board in Are cobwebs made by spiders? recognized the kiting of the ballooning spiders[51]. Pest control company details spiders and they recognize that it is kiting that is done by instars (spiderlings) even though the historical term is ballooning[52]. The Rare Species Conservatory affirm that ballooning spiders actually do not balloon but kite[53].
  • Bow kite This term has several uses: class of parafoil kites, early British bowing top edge sparred kite, and also the rotating-ribbon rainbow-like two-anchor one-line arch kite.
  • Bow kite This is to be distinguished from Sky Bow or rotating ribbon kite and also from the arch bow stick kites.
  • Box kite. Box-like kite.
  • Box Delta kites
  • Butterfly kites This type occurs at several levels: art, applique, and realistic motion.[63][64]

C

  • C-KITE
  • Cambodian kites The Kleng Ek kite [65], a Cambodian musical kite is often flown at night. Cambodian pocket kite. Bamboo is very common for Cambodian kites.[66] To recapture the early Cambodian kites, a focused web site has launched to introduced the kite book Khmer Kiteshas been launched.
  • Candle kites
  • Cantonese kites
  • Cayley kite reproductions Sir George Cayley [67][68]
  • Cellular kites
  • Chapi-chapi A type of kite popular in the Philippines, usually constructed from old broom sticks and newspapers.
File:Girlflyingchapichapi.JPG
Flying a chapi-chapi at Rizal Park.

D

  • Delta kites or Delta-wing kites. Single line deltas. Dual-line stunt delta kites.[74] Deltas with a triangular box is a popular variant. Single Box Delta Plan
  • Diamond kites (see Eddy kites, but distinguish) [20]. Diamonds types appear from mini to very large, from low-cost beginner utility (El'Cheapo Diamond) to high quality state-of-the art large target control diamonds. MBK 2-Skewer Diamond Kite plan.
  • Display kites. (or show kites) A genre of kites for display has been growing (for festivals, shows, library exhibitions, museum exhibitions, event leaders).[75][76][77][78]
  • Disposable kite. In kite fishing there are distinct uses for disposable kites.[79] In Philippine kite fighting, the object is to destroy the other's kite body directly; new games of fighting displace the disposable kite.[80]
  • Duryea kite reproductions (Charles Duryea) [67]
  • Double-kite systems (two coupled kites, but confined; or two coupled kites in free-flight—and hazardous) in same media (air only or water only, e.g.) or distinct media (air and water, e.g.). [21] (kitesurfing with board as a hybrid water kite kite coupled with a power air kite, e.g.); Without Visible Means of Support by Richard Miller, 1965? for two coupled air kites with one in jet stream flows and the lower kite in non-jet-stream flows). Two (or more) kites kite lined to one anchor or one mooring or one kite operator are included here. Two kites (or more) that communicate with each other for a purpose are coupled.
  • Dragon kites. A couple of categories of dragon kites persist; those that mimic the figure of a dragon in decoration or figure kite and those of a series of kites in a train or stack.[81][82][83][84][85]

E

  • Eddy kite or Diamond kite. [22];[23]; [24][25];
  • Edo kite Rectangular traditional Tokyo kite. Edo is old name for Tokyo. Japanese Kite History 2 Meet the Kite Maker Mikio Toki
  • Electricity-generating kites. There are hydro kites and air kites specifically designed to generate electricity as their dominant purpose. Also, there are kites that have electricity generation as a secondary arrangement.[24][86][87][88]
  • Exotic kites do not fit other types.

F

  • Fast kites. Two species: a) kites that move fast or high-speed kites, and b) kites that can be made from scratch in a fast or quick manner (see "Q" for Quick kites). Some fighter kites and some sport kites are built so that they can move very fast under control. Speed records are reported. Kitesurfers have an appetite for power kites that have high speed. Kites in other media like water, soil, or plasma has speeds specific to their conditions. Speed is relative to the activity and purpose. High-speed kite fishing involves speed: High-Speed Kite Fishing No Form of Tuna Fishing Provides More Visual Excitement.

G

  • Gallaudet kite. Gallaudet Hydrokite. Yale professor was told not to experiment with aeronautics. However his biplane kite with tail involved wing warping prior to the Wright brothers use of such control means. Edson Fessenden Gallaudet (1871–1945); detail drawings are available at Gallaudet Hydrokite. Edson Gallaudet formed the Gallaudet Engineering company with his brother and then Gallaudet Aircraft Company (GAC), earliest precursor to the company General Dynamics. The Gallaudet Hydrokite was the beginning of a seaplane interest of the GAC.
  • Geometric kite.[91][92]
  • Genki kite.[93][94][95]
  • Giant kite. Cody Specials;__Introducing the Giant Kites of Guatemala;__Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival, Shiga, Japan
  • Gibson Girl was a type of cellular kite for radio antena raising from rescue raft.Gibson Girl
  • Glider kites. Manned and unmanned aircraft intended primarily for gliding are frequently tested and flown as kites under tow from ground or water vehicles or animals, machines, or other people. Some glider kites released to free-flight gliding may or may not be free-flight kites depending on how payload may or may not be tugging the glider's wing through a tow line set or not. Primary manned gliders kited are glider kites when so being kited; when released to glide, these are not kites. Differently, the hang-lined hang glider pilot may be kited up in his or her aircraft, but when released to free-flight, such aircraft remains a gliding kite or kite glider. See the Martin Glider that was kited by very many different means.
  • Gyrocopter or helicopter kite (see autogyro)

H

  • Helikite. A type of kytoon filled with helium. Heliktie is a true kite yet is also lighter-than air for staying aloft when kiting is insufficient for keeping the helikite aloft. One major use of the Helikite is bird control [97]. Another is antenna lifting. KAP also.
  • Hexagonal kite [33][98][99][100][101] US 51860 patent was for a hexagonal kite by T. Perrins granted on January 2, 1866. A Birt kite may have preempted in fact the same kite. Ed Grauel opines that the Birt kite at the Kew Observatory preempted the Perrins kite; he noted that the same kite later became known as the barndoor or house kite. [102].
  • High aspect ratio kites. Tow-launched hobby unmanned sailplanes are true kites during hi-start kited launches [103]; they may hold the record for single-line single-anchor high aspect ratio kites made by humans. However, the rotating ribbon single-line double-anchored Skybow kite (rotating ribbon arch kite of two anchors) that sits in the sky nearly as a rainbow is a kite with extreme aspect ratio.[104] A different non-rotating ribbon kite by Anders Ansar follows the Barish sailwing concept to the extreme; Ansar suggests more than two anchor points. He also explains how two sailors holding a ribbon kite, e g on ice wearing ice skates, can sail straight upwind or straight down wind, the latter faster than the wind. A concept for the world's biggest, longest, widest kite?.
  • Hydro kite Water kites. Kites that fly in water or on the surface of water.

I

  • Inflatable single-line kite Inflatable delta wing kite; [31];[32]; [33] Distinguish between closed-bladder inflated kites (sausage balloon kite, other-form balloon kites) from open-bladder ram-air inflation (Jalbert parafoil and its derivatives) and the single-surface flexible-sail dynamic inflation (Rogallo and Barish wings). A kite can two or three types of inflation parts (Jalbert's 1944 patent claimed a kite that had the closed-cell inflation as well as a sailwing part)[108]. Over water flying applications have invited air kites having light-than-water flotation capability; power-kiting for kitesurfing with leading-edge-inflated (LEI) bladder held inside textile pocket is one such use; another are some fishing kites Inflatable Fishing Kite Instructions . Gomberg has shown a great variety of "Unique Inflatable Kites.
  • Invisible kites (radar invisible, very-low visibility translucents, out-of-sights, non-lighted night kites, imagined kites, kites flown by the blind as they feel the tension changes) [109][110]

J

  • Java kites (pre-Malay kite, pre-Eddy kite)[114]
  • Jesus kites This type of kite is found in both art and flying kites.[115]. Aquilone di Gesù These kites use art on standard kite forms or specialized figure kites. In the Philippines a noted kite maker Eulogio Catahan [116] is a leader in Jesus kites.

K

  • Kid kites. This type of kite is fit for young kids. Both hobby authors and commercial suppliers pay attention to this type of kite. Easy Kites for Kids; Best Kite For Kids; Kid's Kites
  • Kirby kite (aka bird kite, but a variant of the Malay kite) (Not to be confused with the manned glider called Kirby Kite which was a kite upon being kite launched into a gliding or soaring session.) (Also, not to be confused with the radio-controlled Airworld Kirby Kite scale glider which has a kite life when being given a kited launch[117].
  • KiteSail by Maurice GRENIER [34]
  • KiteShip by Dave Culp. [35]
  • Korean kites
  • Kytoon--shaped balloon that kites (Two general types: 1.Lighter-than-medium in which it moves within a gravity field. 2. Heavier-than-air kytoon or heavier-than the medium in which it flies. Density is intended when saying heavier-than-the-ambient medium.). For air, some kytoons are less dense than air (using hydrogen, helium, heated air); other kytoons filled with say unheated air are not buoyant in still air, but are kited still. Helikite. Notice that these are not helicopter kites; the heli stands for helium. Include barrage kites of the kytoon type that Domina Jalbert worked for military defense purposes and peace time antenna lifting by ham radio operators; car dealers raise advertisements with kytoons.Observation balloon [118][119] The kytoon is a true kite when in flight in an appropriate moving stream of material, fluid, gas, or air; the kytoon is also a true balloon.
* KITE BALLOON BALPH H. UPSON. 1916.(A)
* Kite Balloon. Upson. 1916.(B)
* KITE BALLOON HERBERT GRAY GIBBS. 1924
* Allsopp helikites limited - Manufacturer of aerostats
* Kite Balloon by H. Upson, 1916 patent
* KITE BALLOON Domina C. Jalbert (A)
* KITE BALLOON Jalbert (B)
* Kite Ballon. Domina C. Jalbert. (C)
* Balloon kite Robert O. Talamo
* Aircraft. Aircraft uses kite balloon in concert with a kite train and a powered aircraft.
*Thermodynamic kite Guy H. Kennedy, Jr.

L

M

N

O

P

  • Parachute kites (see below paraglider) Parachutes that have a directioning venting small (parasail, directional parachutes) or massive (Jalbert parafoil, Rogallo parawing) are kites moored to free-falling body or payload. Symmetrical non-directionable zero-lift/drag ratio parachutes are streamers and not kites; no net deflection from the stream occurs in a true parachute.
  • Parafoil
  • Parafoil stunt kites. [131]
  • Paraglider manned (these are kites both in free-fall as well as when being kited either by the pilot or secondarily by a towing or moored device or even powered harness system).
  • Parasail and Parasailing These are parachutes modified to have a positive lift/drag ratio so that the wing can be kited to carry humans or other payload.
  • Paravane (weapon)
  • Paravane ...water kite
  • Pentagonal kites. Penta kites. Five-sided polygonal kite. Penta Kites+ Japanese Kite collection The five points gives ample opportunity for head, two hands and two legs. Distinguish pentagonal kites from the five-point star kites that are ten sided (unless art is simply showing the five-point star). Five recalls the shapes, humans, and animals.
  • Picnic plate kites. See Plate kites.
  • Plasma kite Notice the Dave Culp, kite expert professional, patent-mentioned plasma kite [132] while distinguish the ambient flying media: blood plasma or space plasma or confined scientific-laboratory or industrially used plasma streams. Plasma is the most common phase of matter in the universe [133].
  • Plate kites: paper or plastic or EPS foam picnic plate kites. This type of kite includes figure, artistic, dragon, and rotary kites. The most simple kite here is the single plate uncut and left as a circular kite, else complexity is up to makers.[134] (p. 4)PAPER PLATE FLYER
  • Powered-harness hang glider kites.

Q

R

  • Radio-controlled kite, unpowered. Both for sport and commercial purposes, the complexity of more than one line is bringing forward attention on controlling power, position, angle of attack. One line simplifies reeling and line control. One project in the power kite sport field is the "Slarc."Peter Lynn Newsletter August 2007. Radio-control de-powering and release systems are being developed. Instead of the drag of two, three, four, or five lines, the single-line radio-controlled kite has the drag of just one line.[135] United States Application US20080108273 instructs RC kites.
  • Radio-controlled kite, powered scale and manned. Distinguish a product that is not a kite called RC Kite from true kites that have radio controls on a kite-lined kite wing.
  • Ram-air kite
  • Revolution kite or Rev kite (four-line Revolution stunt kites by Joe Hadzicki)[67][136][137][138][139]
  • Ribbon kite. Several sorts: large non-rotating ribbon arch kite (windbow), rotating ribbon kite, and kite with main sails made up of grids and meshes of ribbons (latticework kites). German kite designer Willi Koch Kites made by Willi Koch, from Nettetal, Germany specialized in mesh or ribbon-set kites. Premier Mesh Delta - 11 Foot - Rainbow.
  • Rigid kite (no flexible sail part)
  • Rogallo Corner kite (patented and first intended use: radar reflector for rescue)[140]
  • Rogallo Parawing kite
  • Roller kite. The Roller kite
  • Rolloplan kite Roloplan (German origin)
  • Rotary kites--vertical axis rotary, spanwise rotary (aerodynamic basis), mixed rotary, streamwise axially rotary UFO and Rotor Kite Information; Classic Rotor (Meat Tray); Koool Kites. EPS, Styrofoam, and balsa special Magnus-effect rotary kites can be made with several construction methods for two-line control kites for heavier breezes: Interesting circular and rotary kite designs. Modern UFO Rotor Kites Many of the spanwise rotary kites are two-line control kites. However, UFO-SAM is a single-line rotary Magnus-effect kite; one of the leading makers of the kite Kenneth Sams died in 2003 at age 80, but a manufacturer has continued offering the kite. A two-line rotary kite using a special control bar is instructed in the patent by J. R. Carnwath filed in Mar 29, 1948.[141][142].[143][144] Kites that revolve but do not obtain lift from the revolving motion are distinct from Magnus-effect lifters or gyrocopting lifting rotating kites; Thomas Ansboro of Scotland in 1891 instructed in a US patent 464412 about a revolving hexagonal kite where the bridling is critical [145].

A ringed UFO rotary kite patent indicated a special bridling ring and a central rotating ring. US Patent 4779825. Especially full of information about the type of rotary kite of spanwise top-over-back rotation is the US Patent 5598988. The very high aspect ratio rotating spanwise ribbon kites are continuing to gain interest—Skybow; these require at least two swivels. Also, a species of rotary kites that are nearly streamers rotate nearly windward; some are vaned and some are not vaned. Vaneless rotary kite Carl E. Knight et al. And:US patent:3086738 "Rotating kite", Lubash, John J., 1963,April In 1995 Carl E. Knight and Jo Ann F. Knight well instructed a rotary kite that rotates near windward for its axis (not like autogyro and not like spanwise magnus)Kite.

  • Rokkaku Often: Rokaku. [47];__[48];__[49];__[50];__[51]__;[52];
  • Rotating Ribbon Kite: One version has been called Skybow. The long ribbon is at least a two-anchored system with at least two swivels, but may be segmented to allow segments of ribbon to rotate at different speeds. Autorotation giving lift via the Magnus effect allows a rainbow arch kite to fly. A human operator at one end with a fixed ground anchor at the other is one format; a separate human operator at each of two anchors is another format. More than two tethers can be used. Rotating Kites

S

  • Sail kites. Sails that are fully tethered and give a net positive lift are sails that are kites. Sailing vessels on water and land use sail kites. The kiting tethers can be short or long.[146] Power kites are frequently sail kites as the power kite is used to sail a skier, landsailing buggy, wakeboarder, ground wheeled vehicle, boats, etc.[147][148][149][150][151]

T

Corner reflector, part of Rogallo's target kite.
  • Toy kites
  • Traction kites for relaunching from water differ from dedicated land traction kites[162]
  • Train. Or "kite train". Connect many kite-body units onto one line in various ways and have a kite that is a kite train or train of kites. Dragon kites, centipede kites, and some arches are trains. A train of mini kites is a mini-kite train. Mini Kite Train. FANO 1997, Kitetrains
  • Trainer kites. Kites of lower power that are used to practice maneuvers before higher powered kites are used.[163][164][165]
  • Tukkal kite (special four-stick kite) (var: tukal)[166]

U

V

  • Ventilated kite. Flying kites in high speed winds and even stormy winds is achieved in several ways; one way is to have high porosity or ventilated kites Effective sail area is reduced while shape and appearance can follow known kite shapes of non-ventilated kites. My Kite Bag.
  • Victory kite. One series of noted kites: the Victory kites of Stormy Weathers (yes that is his name) include Star Victory, Swift Victory, and Winged Victory. Mr. Weathers was respected for building fine-flying kites from common materials. DF Archive - Weathers Collection

W

X

  • X-treme kites. Extreme sport kites.[174]
  • X flat two-stick kite; the frame is "X" format with two spars; rectangular or square or cut to form X. Flat kites made of two sticks. Artistic alphabet character "X" kite.
  • X-kite, a program holding virtual kite hang gliders in software program. X-kite
  • X-Kite and X-Gliders, a company; their line of kite offers are X-kites (many styles). Eric Duvauchelle, Art Director, is proud of their new launching in 2008.X-Kites Shop online

Y

  • Yacht kites Leslie Hunt's book's 25 kites included a plan for a yacht kite.
  • Youth kites. Kites for the very young children is a kite type category in the commercial sphere. Also: Beginner kites. Kid kites. Kiddie kites. Kites suitable for the very young children are alsomst always small single-line kites using cotton kite line.[175] Festivals sometimes have a category of called youth kites.[176]

Z

See also

References

  1. ^ The Flying Circus Kite-Plan Page!
  2. ^ Some Kiting Basics
  3. ^ Interview with Anna Rubin. She made a kite wing of just grass.
  4. ^ Paper Kites.
  5. ^ Focke Achgelis Fa 330
  6. ^ Rotating Kites
  7. ^ FLYING MACHINE ADAPTED TO LAND ON WATER Sayer http://www.google.com/patents?id=e4VhAAAAEBAJ - Patent number: 2131528 Filing date: Jul 28, 1937 Issue date: Sep 1938
  8. ^ http://www.google.com/patents?id=GMw5AAAAEBAJ Inflatable wing: Patent number: 4725021 - Filing date: Oct 17, 1986 Issue date: Feb 16, 1988
  9. ^ http://www.google.com/patents?id=sqN7AAAAEBAJ Inflatable wing Patent number: 3957232; Filing date: Feb 3, 1975; Issue date: May 18, 1976; Inventor: Wayne A. Sebrell.
  10. ^ Bug Plan. Low-aspect-ratio kite.
  11. ^ Mini-Kite Train
  12. ^ Tapping High Altitude Wind ‘Ladder’ of Kites Viewed as Energy Source
  13. ^ 'No Secrets' Trains.
  14. ^ Team Spectrum Kite Display, 2007. Bird train, Mylar fighter-kite train, and more.
  15. ^ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6oHZQU1YTE Sky Symphony kites at Barnoldswick , The Sky Symphony kite display team display at the Festival of Flight, Victory Park, Barnoldswick, Pendle, Lancashire, UK on Saturday 8th September 2007]
  16. ^ More lines, more fun.
  17. ^ Balloon kite.
  18. ^ Hooper et al. "Lidar Measurements of Wind in the Planetary Boundary Layer: The Method, Accuracy and Results from Joint Measurements with Radiosonde and Kytoon," J. of climate and Applied Meteorology, vol. 25, pp 990–1001 (Jul. 1986).
  19. ^ Apparatus and method for aerodynamic wing David A. Culp
  20. ^ Towable underwater kite Brian Frank Arthur
  21. ^ [http://www.my-best-kite.com/trick-kites.html Flying Trick KitesHow's That Different From Stunt Flying?]
  22. ^ [http://www.windpowersports.com/guides/stunt-kite.html Getting Started with Stunt KitesWritten by David Gomberg]
  23. ^ Hang Glider Tow Manual
  24. ^ a b Underwater Electric Kite
  25. ^ Trawl-board and paravane innovator
  26. ^ U.S. Patent 7093803 by Dave Culp
  27. ^ Apparatus and method for aerodynamic wing David A. Culp
  28. ^ 2 Stick Frames
  29. ^ Three-stick kite.
  30. ^ Kite-flying to fame.By Kamal Preet Kaur. Four-stick kite specialist. Punjab Jaswant Singh specializes in the tukal or tukkal kite.
  31. ^ THE TISSUE PAPER KITE - UNIQUELY BERMUDIAN
  32. ^ Tet kite: 6 drinking straws
  33. ^ a b Hexagonal Kite. Patent application in process.
  34. ^ Windbow
  35. ^ Windbow
  36. ^ WEIFANG WING KITE MANUFACTURE CO., lTD
  37. ^ Imagine Inflatables.
  38. ^ Hi Fly Kites
  39. ^ WindMueller Aerology Lag. SkyBow ribbon arch or rainbow kite; photograph.
  40. ^ Rotating kites; skybow.
  41. ^ Skybow kite. Jim Mallous text.
  42. ^ Air Force Lt. Col. Bill Skliar (William L. Skliar’s Explorer PG-1 Aqua Glider
  43. ^ SKLIAR AQUA GLIDER “Explorer” – N6498D
  44. ^ Profound Issues Posed by Asymmetry
  45. ^ Spiders By Ann R. Heinrichs. Google Books. She observes that the so called ballooning is like a kite or balloon; she is mechanically correct about the kite part, as no true balloon is ever formed by the spider as told in the other references.
  46. ^ Flying Spiders over Texas! Coast to Coast. Chad B., Texas State University Undergrad: He correctly describes the mechanical kiting of spider "ballooning".
  47. ^ Artificial and Natural Flight By Hiram Stevens Maxim. Chapter on "Flying Kites", the "Balloon Spider" is correctly seen as mechanical kiting.
  48. ^ Richard Miller. His book Without Visible Means of Support describes the mechanical foundation for the mechanics used for the spiders kiting when doing so-called ballooning: free-flight two kite system.
  49. ^ Super-powered spiders. Bug specialist describes the kiting of ballooning spiders, in interview by author Pamela S. Turner.
  50. ^ Tales with Tails: Storytelling the Wonders of the Natural World by Kevin Strauss
  51. ^ Are cobwebs made by spiders? wherein three staffers recognize that ballooning spiders actually are kiting.
  52. ^ Pest Control Solutions, the ultimate source for Pest Control Products. The company signed to their understanding that the ballooning spiders actually are kiting.
  53. ^ Rare Species Conservatory. Wildly Weird Facts. They carefully distinguish that the spiderlings actually kite even though the term "ballooning" is sometimes used.
  54. ^ The Day the Balloon went up
  55. ^ His name is Domina Jalbert. Worked on the large kytoon barrage balloons.
  56. ^ Harry C, Sauls Barrage Kite
  57. ^ The MK VII Series I Kite Balloon - Its construction and make up.
  58. ^ Kite Balloons
  59. ^ German barrage balloon (kytoon type of kite)
  60. ^ G-kites Catalog
  61. ^ Beginner Kites
  62. ^ Beginner Stunt Kites
  63. ^ Tiger Swallowtail Butterfly Kite 43x26
  64. ^ Butterly Kites
  65. ^ Drachen Foundation Kite Journal
  66. ^ Kono Design
  67. ^ a b c Kites at the Smithsonian
  68. ^ Sir George Cayley
  69. ^ Cheap kites
  70. ^ Cheap kites.
  71. ^ Cheap kites.
  72. ^ Chemiluminescent kite John J. Kinn et al.
  73. ^ Genres of Chinese Kites
  74. ^ Delta Sport Kite Design by Dave Salmon
  75. ^ Kite Collective
  76. ^ Andrew and Kathleen - Display Kites
  77. ^ Peter Lynn, a pioneer in large display kites.
  78. ^ Display kites.
  79. ^ Fishy Kites
  80. ^ A New Game In Town
  81. ^ Dragon kite. Patent by Don Tabor
  82. ^ Dragon Chinese (plan) by Dan Beard.
  83. ^ Sund Photograph. China. Dragon kite.(sometimes called centipede kite)
  84. ^ The Dragon Cave
  85. ^ Chinese Dragons
  86. ^ Makani Power, Inc.
  87. ^ KiteLab
  88. ^ Allister Furey
  89. ^ Sunset Kite Fishing
  90. ^ Flexikite Francis Rogallo’s Breakthrough Idea The Toy Kite That Led to the Hang Glider
  91. ^ Geometric cubes Delta Kite
  92. ^ Different Types of Kites
  93. ^ My Kite Plans. Genki kite also.
  94. ^ Genki Kites
  95. ^ Dieppe Mermaids Genki Kite
  96. ^ Essays on Kite Word Origin and Patents by Ed Grauel.
  97. ^ Allsopp Vigilante Helikite
  98. ^ ASSEMBLING FRAME FOR COVERED STRUCTURES Pantsos
  99. ^ KITE CONTROL APPARATUS Fermin T. Sada
  100. ^ KITE CONSTRUCTION P. SNIBBE
  101. ^ Hexagonal Kite (how to make one sort)
  102. ^ http://www.drachen.org/journals/a09/Ed-Grauel.pdf Essays on Kite Word Origin and Patents by Ed Grauel.
  103. ^ Hi-start Revisited
  104. ^ Rotating Kites
  105. ^ Kites in India.
  106. ^ Synergetic Kites
  107. ^ Indoor Inspirations. (indoor kiting)
  108. ^ Kite Balloon
  109. ^ Dryden Daily Kaz
  110. ^ The Pocket Kite.(invisible to radar).
  111. ^ Lesson plan-Japan. Japanese kites.
  112. ^ Japanese kites
  113. ^ http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~ET3M-TKKW/kiteplan.html Japanese Kite Collection.
  114. ^ kite :: Kite structure - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  115. ^ Jesus kites
  116. ^ [What's Doing in the Philippines http://www.drachen.org/journals/a07/Philippines.pdf]
  117. ^ Airworld Kirby Kite
  118. ^ Kite+Balloon=Kytoon
  119. ^ AV-1 Wright
  120. ^ [1]
  121. ^ http://www.kiteman.co.uk/LeaveKites1.html Leaf Kites.
  122. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=qVLPjEj08voC&pg=PA12&lpg=PA12&dq=kite+line+made+from+spider+silk&source=web&ots=p-WkoJirnf&sig=7xtAYsKOITNIj1tYzTrYLijXqyE&hl=en Raising Your Reading Test Scores, Book 2 By Stuart Margulies
  123. ^ [2] Kite Journal, Drachen Foundation, Issue: Spring 2002, page 9, Judith Johnson, Garden City, New York, describes leaf kites made from the chataigne.
  124. ^ Rotor Kites Move From Toy Novelty to High Tech Power Generation
  125. ^ Magenn Power's MARS is a Wind Power Anywhere
  126. ^ Malay kite.
  127. ^ [3] AKA Miniature Kite Art Gallery Tour. Many photographs.
  128. ^ Cambodian Musical Kite
  129. ^ The Cambodian "Khlèn Phnorng" Musical Kite
  130. ^ Octagon Box Kite
  131. ^ WindDance Kites
  132. ^ Apparatus and method for aerodynamic wing David A. Culp
  133. ^ STATES OF MATTER. Plasma is the most common state of matter.
  134. ^ The Virtual Kite Zoo Kites in the Classroom. Picnic Plate Kites.
  135. ^ Peter Lynn Newsletter May 2007
  136. ^ How I Met Joe Hadzicki. Photograph of the Revolution kite that introduce a new realm of control kites.
  137. ^ Kite Personalities - Joe Hadzicki & Brothers
  138. ^ The shape that started a revolution...
  139. ^ Flight demonstration video of the Revolution kite
  140. ^ http://www.vientocero.com/kpb/ and http://www.vientocero.com/kpb/planos/corner/corner.html
  141. ^ KITE CONTROL ASSEMBLY E. V. KINSEY
  142. ^ CARNWATH ROTATING KITE J. R. CARNWATH
  143. ^ Types of Rotor Kites
  144. ^ Rolloplane Balsa Rotor Kite
  145. ^ Kite. Patent regards a revoling kite by Thomas Ansboro in 1891.
  146. ^ KiteShip
  147. ^ Kite Sails For America’s Cup
  148. ^ Kite for Sail
  149. ^ Kit-Cats. New option: kite sails for sailing.
  150. ^ Go Sail A Kite! By Tom Holtey
  151. ^ Kite Sailing Yacht
  152. ^ [4] Kite. Plans for sled kite with maple leaf vent.
  153. ^ How to make a Sled Kite ...
  154. ^ Kiterus
  155. ^ Kites and Their Shapes
  156. ^ The Sode Kite, Some Background
  157. ^ IMPROVEMENT IN PHOTOGRAPHIC SCREENS OR REFLECTORS Charles E. Myers. Four-corner kite archetypes for a reflector in photography.
  158. ^ StyraFoam Kites
  159. ^ Sparless Styrafoam Kites
  160. ^ Cup kites --Styrofoam cup kites
  161. ^ Meet the Kite Maker. Alexander Gramham Bell.
  162. ^ .Air Apparent: The Windborne Legacy Continues As Kite "Engines" Power Exploration, New Sports by Eden Maxwell
  163. ^ Trainer Kite
  164. ^ starting thairapy: the trainer kite myth
  165. ^ UNDERSTANDING KITE DYNAMICS
  166. ^ The Elusive Tukkal Fighter
  167. ^ Water kite
  168. ^ Water kite and method of using the same Kenneth D. Anderson
  169. ^ Page 42 of Drachen Foundation Journal Fall 2002 The pioneer kite inventor Domina Jalbert spoke emphatically about the water kite.
  170. ^ Kitesurfing Terminology
  171. ^ PICTURES FROM THE AIR. William Eddy and also Gilbert T. Woglum fly kites over parage in 1896. NYT article.
  172. ^ Kinds of Kites
  173. ^ Energy Kite Systems
  174. ^ Level One distributes X-treme kites for X-treme flyers.
  175. ^ Young childrens single line kitesl.
  176. ^ Giant Kites of Guatemal
  177. ^ A Light Kite.

External links

 

All translations of Kite_types


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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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