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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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1.joint between the femur and tibia in a quadruped; corresponds to the human knee
2.the part of a trouser leg that provides the cloth covering for the knee
3.hinge joint in the human leg connecting the tibia and fibula with the femur and protected in front by the patella
KneeKnee (nē), n. [OE. kne, cneo, As. cneó, cneów; akin to OS. knio, kneo, OFries. knī, G. & D. knie, OHG. chniu, chneo, Icel. knē, Sw. knä, Dan. knæ, Goth. kniu, L. genu, Gr. go`ny, Skr. jānu, √231. Cf. Genuflection.]
1. In man, the joint in the middle part of the leg.
2. (Anat.) (a) The joint, or region of the joint, between the thigh and leg. (b) In the horse and allied animals, the carpal joint, corresponding to the wrist in man.
3. (Mech. & Shipbuilding) A piece of timber or metal formed with an angle somewhat in the shape of the human knee when bent.
4. A bending of the knee, as in respect or courtesy.
Give them title, knee, and approbation. Shak.
Knee breeches. See under Breeches. -- Knee holly, Knee holm (Bot.), butcher's broom. -- Knee joint. See in the Vocabulary. -- Knee timber, timber with knees or angles in it. -- Knee tribute, or Knee worship, tribute paid by kneeling; worship by genuflection. [Obs.] “Knee tribute yet unpaid.” Milton.
KneeKnee (nē), v. t. To supplicate by kneeling. [Obs.]
Fall down, and knee
The way into his mercy. Shak
Anterior Knee Pain Syndrome • Arthroplasties, Knee Replacement • Arthroplasty, Knee Replacement • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee • Chronic instability of knee • Chronic instability of knee | anterior cruciate ligament or anterior horn of medial meniscus • Chronic instability of knee | capsular ligament • Chronic instability of knee | lateral collateral ligament or anterior horn of lateral meniscus • Chronic instability of knee | medial collateral ligament or other and unspecified medial meniscus • Chronic instability of knee | multiple sites • Chronic instability of knee | other and unspecified lateral meniscus • Chronic instability of knee | posterior cruciate ligament or posterior horn of medial meniscus • Chronic instability of knee | posterior horn of lateral meniscus • Chronic instability of knee | unspecified ligament or unspecified meniscus • Congenital deformity of knee • Congenital dislocation of knee • Contusion of knee • Crushing injury of knee • Dislocation of knee • Gonarthrosis [arthrosis of knee] • Injuries to the knee and lower leg • Injuries, Knee • Internal derangement of knee • Internal derangement of knee, unspecified • Internal derangement of knee, unspecified | anterior cruciate ligament or anterior horn of medial meniscus • Internal derangement of knee, unspecified | capsular ligament • Internal derangement of knee, unspecified | lateral collateral ligament or anterior horn of lateral meniscus • Internal derangement of knee, unspecified | medial collateral ligament or other and unspecified medial meniscus • Internal derangement of knee, unspecified | multiple sites • Internal derangement of knee, unspecified | other and unspecified lateral meniscus • Internal derangement of knee, unspecified | posterior cruciate ligament or posterior horn of medial meniscus • Internal derangement of knee, unspecified | posterior horn of lateral meniscus • Internal derangement of knee, unspecified | unspecified ligament or unspecified meniscus • Knee Dislocation • Knee Injuries • Knee Joint • Knee Medial Collateral Ligament • Knee Prosthesis • Knee Replacement Arthroplasties • Knee Replacement Arthroplasty • Knee Replacement, Total • Knee cap • Laxity of ligament of knee • Loose body in knee • Loose body in knee | anterior cruciate ligament or anterior horn of medial meniscus • Loose body in knee | capsular ligament • Loose body in knee | lateral collateral ligament or anterior horn of lateral meniscus • Loose body in knee | medial collateral ligament or other and unspecified medial meniscus • Loose body in knee | multiple sites • Loose body in knee | other and unspecified lateral meniscus • Loose body in knee | posterior cruciate ligament or posterior horn of medial meniscus • Loose body in knee | posterior horn of lateral meniscus • Loose body in knee | unspecified ligament or unspecified meniscus • Medial Ligament of Knee • Open wound of knee • Osteoarthritis, Knee • Other bursitis of knee • Other bursitis of knee | ankle and foot • Other bursitis of knee | forearm • Other bursitis of knee | hand • Other bursitis of knee | lower leg • Other bursitis of knee | multiple sites • Other bursitis of knee | other • Other bursitis of knee | pelvic region and thigh • Other bursitis of knee | shoulder region • Other bursitis of knee | site unspecified • Other bursitis of knee | upper arm • Reflex, Knee, Abnormal • Reflex, Knee, Decreased • Replacement Arthroplasty, Knee • Replacement, Total Knee • Snapping knee • Superficial frostbite of knee and lower leg • Total Knee Replacement • Traumatic amputation at knee level • Tuberculosis of knee • back of the knee • bilateral involvement of knee and lower leg • congenital dislocation of knee • deformity of knee • derangement of knee, internal • dislocation of knee old • dislocation of knee pathological • dislocation of knee recurrent • hill-knee • hill-to-knee test • hollow of the knee • housemaid's knee • human knee • knee bandage • knee bend • knee brace • knee breeches • knee high to a grasshopper • knee jerk • knee jerk reflex • knee joint • knee pad • knee pants • knee piece • knee reflex • knee sock • knee socks • knee-deep • knee-hi • knee-high • knee-jerk • knee-jerk reflex • knee-length • knock-knee • loose body in knee • snapping knee • thick-knee • water on the knee
(Not Just) Knee Deep • (Not Just) Knee Deep, Pt. 1 • Allan Knee • Ankle knee step • Articular capsule of the knee joint • Beach Thick-knee • Bending of the knee • Bursae of the knee joint • Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee • Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (film) • Cape Thick-knee • Carling knee • Claire's Knee • Collateral ligament of knee • Coronary ligament of the knee • Cowards Bend the Knee • Cypress knee • Dizz Knee Land • Double-striped Thick-knee • Fred Knee • Great Thick-knee • KNEE-LP • Knee (construction) • Knee (disambiguation) • Knee (strike) • Knee Deep In The North Sea • Knee Deep Records • Knee Deep in Paradise • Knee Deep in the Hoopla • Knee Dipper • Knee High Media Japan • Knee Jerk • Knee Knackering North Shore Trail Run • Knee Lake Airport • Knee Lake Water Aerodrome • Knee arthritis • Knee arthroscopy • Knee baby • Knee cartilage replacement therapy • Knee exam • Knee examination • Knee high boot • Knee high by the 4th of July • Knee high by the fourth of July • Knee highs • Knee injury • Knee osteoarthritis • Knee pad • Knee pads • Knee pain • Knee reconstruction • Knee replacement • Knee scooter • Knee splitter • Knee taping • Knee wall • Knee-Knock Rise • Knee-capping • Knee-deep • Knee-high boot • Knee-high boots • Knee-high by the 4th of July • Knee-high by the fourth of July • Knee-on-stomach • Knee-wall • Knock knee • Knock-knee • Meniscus (knee) • Miriam Knee • Near knee guard pass • On Bended Knee • Peruvian Thick-knee • Rhine knee • Ron Knee • Senegal Thick-knee • Sit On My Knee • Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee • Spotted Thick-knee • Swelling of the knee • The Knee Diaries • The Knee Plays • Transverse ligament of knee • Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty • Water Thick-knee • Wounded Knee • Wounded Knee (disambiguation) • Wounded Knee Creek • Wounded Knee Massacre • Wounded Knee incident • Wounded Knee, South Dakota
joint; articulation; articulatio[ClasseHyper.]
élément du squelette humain (fr)[Classe]
morphologie du cheval (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
anatomy, general anatomy[Domaine]
leggy, long-legged, long-shanked[Dérivé]
joint; articulation; articulatio[Classe]
élément du squelette humain (fr)[Classe]
organe de locomotion (fr)[Classe]
chose allant habituellement par paire (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
articulation du corps (fr)[Thème]
anatomie de la jambe (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
extérieur du corps humain (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
anatomy, general anatomy[Domaine]
|Gray's||subject #93 839|
|Nerve||femoral, obturator, sciatic|
The knee joint joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two articulations: one between the femur and tibia, and one between the femur and patella. It is the largest joint in the human body and is very complicated. The knee is a mobile trocho-ginglymus (a pivotal hinge joint), which permits flexion and extension as well as a slight medial and lateral rotation. Since in humans the knee supports nearly the whole weight of the body, it is vulnerable to both acute injury and the development of osteoarthritis.
The knee is a hinge type synovial joint, which is composed of three functional compartments: the femoropatellar articulation consists of the patella, or "kneecap", and the patellar groove on the front of the femur through which it slides; and the medial and lateral femorotibial articulations linking the femur, or thigh bone, with the tibia, the main bone of the lower leg. The joint is bathed in synovial fluid which is contained inside the synovial membrane called the joint capsule. The posterolateral corner of the knee is an area that has recently been the subject of renewed scrutiny and research.
The knee is one of the most important joints of our body. It plays an essential role in movement related to carrying the body weight in horizontal (running and walking) and vertical (jumps) directions.
Upon birth, a baby will not have a conventional knee cap, but a growth formed of cartilage. In females this turns to a normal bone knee cap by the age of 3, in males the age of 5.
The articular bodies of the femur are its lateral and medial condyles. These diverge slightly distally and posteriorly, with the lateral condyle being wider in front than at the back while the medial condyle is of more constant width. The radius of the condyles' curvature in the sagittal plane becomes smaller toward the back. This diminishing radius produces a series of involute midpoints (i.e. located on a spiral). The resulting series of transverse axes permit the sliding and rolling motion in the flexing knee while ensuring the collateral ligaments are sufficiently lax to permit the rotation associated with the curvature of the medial condyle about a vertical axis.
The patella is inserted into the thin anterior wall of the joint capsule. On its posterior surface is a lateral and a medial articular surface, both of which communicate with the patellar surface which unites the two femoral condyles on the anterior side of the bone's distal end.
The articular capsule has a synovial and a fibrous membrane separated by fatty deposits. Anteriorly, the synovial membrane is attached on the margin of the cartilage both on the femur and the tibia, but on the femur, the suprapatellar bursa or recess extends the joint space proximally. The suprapatellar bursa is prevented from being pinched during extension by the articularis genu muscle. Behind, the synovial membrane is attached to the margins of the two femoral condyles which produces two extensions similar to the anterior recess. Between these two extensions, the synovial membrane passes in front of the two cruciate ligaments at the center of the joint, thus forming a pocket direct inward.
Numerous bursae surround the knee joint. The largest communicative bursa is the suprapatellar bursa described above. Four considerably smaller bursae are located on the back of the knee. Two non-communicative bursae are located in front of the patella and below the patellar tendon, and others are sometimes present. 
Cartilage is a thin, elastic tissue that protects the bone and makes certain that the joint surfaces can slide easily over each other. Cartilage ensures supple knee movement. There are two types of joint cartilage in the knees: fibrous cartilage (the meniscus) and hyaline cartilage. Fibrous cartilage has tensile strength and can resist pressure. Hyaline cartilage covers the surface along which the joints move. Cartilage will wear over the years. Cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-restoration. The newly formed tissue will generally consist for a large part of fibrous cartilage of lesser quality than the original hyaline cartilage. As a result, new cracks and tears will form in the cartilage over time.
The articular disks of the knee-joint are called menisci because they only partly divide the joint space. These two disks, the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus, consist of connective tissue with extensive collagen fibers containing cartilage-like cells. Strong fibers run along the menisci from one attachment to the other, while weaker radial fibers are interlaced with the former. The menisci are flattened at the center of the knee joint, fused with the synovial membrane laterally, and can move over the tibial surface. 
The menisci serve to protect the ends of the bones from rubbing on each other and to effectively deepen the tibial sockets into which the femur attaches. They also play a role in shock absorption, and may be cracked, or torn, when the knee is forcefully rotated and/or bent.
The ligaments surrounding the knee joint offer stability by limiting movements and, together with several menisci and bursae, protect the articular capsule.
The knee is stabilized by a pair of cruciate ligaments. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) stretches from the lateral condyle of femur to the anterior intercondylar area. The ACL is critically important because it prevents the tibia from being pushed too far anterior relative to the femur. It is often torn during twisting or bending of the knee. The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) stretches from medial condyle of femur to the posterior intercondylar area. Injury to this ligament is uncommon but can occur as a direct result of forced trauma to the ligament. This ligament prevents posterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur.
The transverse ligament stretches from the lateral meniscus to the medial meniscus. It passes in front of the menisci. Is divided into several strips in 10% of cases. The two menisci are attached to each others anteriorly by the ligament. The posterior and anterior meniscofemoral ligaments stretch from posterior horn of lateral meniscus to the medial femoral condyle. They pass posteriorly behind the posterior cruciate ligament. The posterior meniscofemoral ligament is more commonly present (30%); both ligaments are present less often. The meniscotibial ligaments (or "coronary") stretches from inferior edges of the mensici to the periphery of the tibial plateaus.
The patellar ligament connects the patella to the tuberosity of the tibia. It is also occasionally called the patellar tendon because there is no definite separation between the quadriceps tendon (which surrounds the patella) and the area connecting the patella to the tibia. This very strong ligament helps give the patella its mechanical leverage and also functions as a cap for the condyles of the femur. Laterally and medially to the patellar ligament the lateral and medial patellar retinacula connect fibers from the vasti lateralis and medialis muscles to the tibia. Some fibers from the iliotibial tract radiate into the lateral retinaculum and the medial retinaculum receives some transverse fibers arising on the medial femoral epicondyle. 
The medial collateral ligament (MCL a.k.a. "tibial") stretches from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial tibial condyle. It is composed of three groups of fibers, one stretching between the two bones, and two fused with the medial meniscus. The MCL is partly covered by the pes anserinus and the tendon of the semimembranosus passes under it. It protects the medial side of the knee from being bent open by a stress applied to the lateral side of the knee (a valgus force). The lateral collateral ligament (LCL a.k.a. "fibular") stretches from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of fibula. It is separate from both the joint capsule and the lateral meniscus. It protects the lateral side from an inside bending force (a varus force).
Lastly, there are two ligaments on the dorsal side of the knee. The oblique popliteal ligament is a radiation of the tendon of the semimembranosus on the medial side, from where it is direct laterally and proximally. The arcuate popliteal ligament originates on the apex of the head of the fibula to stretch proximally, crosses the tendon of the popliteus muscle, and passes into the capsule.
|Extension 5-10°||Flexion 120-150°|
some assistance from
the Tensor fasciae latae)
|(In order of importance)
|Internal rotation* 10°||External rotation* 30-40°|
|(In order of importance)
|*(knee flexed 90°)|
The knee permits flexion and extension about a virtual transverse axis, as well as a slight medial and lateral rotation about the axis of the lower leg in the flexed position. The knee joint is called "mobile" because the femur and lateral meniscus move over the tibia during rotation, while the femur rolls and glides over both menisci during extension-flexion.
The center of the transverse axis of the extension/flexion movements is located where both collateral ligaments and both cruciate ligaments intersect. This center moves upward and backward during flexion, while the distance between the center and the articular surfaces of the femur changes dynamically with the decreasing curvature of the femoral condyles. The total range of motion is dependent on several parameters such as soft-tissue restraints, active insufficiency, and hamstring tightness.
With the knee extended both the lateral and medial collateral ligaments, as well as the anterior part of the anterior cruciate ligament, are taut. During extension, the femoral condyles glide into a position which causes the complete unfolding of the tibial collateral ligament. During the last 10° of extension, an obligatory terminal rotation is triggered in which the knee is rotated medially 5°. The final rotation is produced by a lateral rotation of the tibia in the non-weight-bearing leg, and by a medial rotation of the femur in the weight-bearing leg. This terminal rotation is made possible by the shape of the medial femoral condyle, assisted by contraction of the popliteus muscle and the iliotibial tract and is caused by the stretching of the anterior cruciate ligament. Both cruciate ligaments are slightly unwinded and both lateral ligaments become taut.
In the flexed position, the collateral ligaments are relaxed while the cruciate ligaments are taut. Rotation is controlled by the twisted cruciate ligaments; the two ligaments get twisted around each other during medial rotation of the tibia — which reduces the amount of rotation possible — while they become unwound during lateral rotation of the tibia. Because of the oblique position of the cruciate ligaments at least a part of one of them is always tense and these ligaments control the joint as the collateral ligaments are relaxed. Furthermore, the dorsal fibers of the tibial collateral ligament become tensed during extreme medial rotation and the ligament also reduces the lateral rotation to 45-60°.
The medial genicular arteries penetrate the knee joint.
Knee pain is caused by trauma, misalignment, and degeneration as well as by conditions like arthritis. The most common knee disorder is generally known as patellofemoral syndrome.The majority of minor cases of knee pain can be treated at home with rest and ice but more serious injuries do require surgical care.
One form of patellofemoral syndrome involves a tissue-related problem that creates pressure and irritation in the knee between the patella and the trochlea (patellar compression syndrome), which causes pain. The second major class of knee disorder involves a tear, slippage, or dislocation that impairs the structural ability of the knee to balance the leg (patellofemoral instability syndrome). Patellofemoral instability syndrome may cause either pain, a sense of poor balance, or both.
Age also contributes to disorders of the knee. Particularly in older people, knee pain frequently arises due to osteoarthritis. In addition, weakening of tissues around the knee may contribute to the problem. Patellofemoral instability may relate to hip abnormalities or to tightness of surrounding ligaments.
Cartilage lesions can be caused by:
Any kind of work during which the knees undergo heavy stress may also be detrimental to cartilage. This is especially the case in professions in which people frequently have to walk, lift, or squat. Other causes of pain may be excessive on, and wear of, the knees, in combination with such things as muscle weakness and overweight.
Physical fitness is related integrally to the development of knee problems. The same activity such as climbing stairs may cause pain from patellofemoral compression for someone who is physically unfit, but not for someone else (or even for that person at a different time). Obesity is another major contributor to knee pain. For instance, a 30-year-old woman who weighed 120 lb at age 18 years, before her three pregnancies, and now weighs 285 lb, had added 660 lb of force across her patellofemoral joint with each step.
In sports that place great pressure on the knees, especially with twisting forces, it is common to tear one or more ligaments or cartilages. Some of the most common knee injuries are those to the medial side: medial knee injuries.
ACL is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee. The injury is common during sports. Twisting of the knee is a common cause of over-stretching or tearing the ACL. When the ACL is injured one may hear a popping sound and the leg may suddenly give out. Besides swelling and pain, walking may be painful and the knee will feel unstable. Minor tears of the anterior cruciate ligament may heal over time, but a torn ACL requires surgery. After surgery, recovery is prolonged and low impact exercises are recommended to strengthen the joint.
The menisci act as shock absorbers and separate the two ends of bone in the knee joint. There are two menisci in the knee, the medial (inner) and the lateral (outer). When there is torn cartilage, it means that the meniscus has been injured. Meniscus tears occur during sports often when the knee is twisted. Menisci injury may be innocuous and one may be able to walk after a tear, but soon swelling and pain set in. Sometimes the knee will lock while bending. Pain often occurs when one squats. Small meniscus tears are treated conservatively but most large tears require surgery.
Knee fractures are rare but do occur, especially as a result of motor vehicle accidents. There is usually immediate pain; swelling and one may not be able to stand on the leg. The muscles go into spasm and even the slightest movements are painful. X-rays can easily confirm the injury and surgery depends on the degree of displacement and type of fracture.
Tendons usually attach muscle to bone. In the knee the quadriceps and patellar tendon can sometimes tear. The injuries to these tendons occur when there is forceful contraction of the knee. If the tendon is completely torn, bending or extending the leg is impossible. A completely torn tendon requires surgery but a partially torn tendon can be treated with leg immobilization followed by physical therapy.
Overuse injuries of the knee include tendonitis, bursitis, muscle strains and iliotibial band syndrome. These injuries often develop slowly over weeks or months. Activities that induce pain usually delay healing. Rest, ice and compression do help in most cases. Once the swelling has diminished, heat packs can increase blood supply and promote healing. Most overuse injuries subside with time but can flare up if the activities are quickly resumed. To prevent overuse injuries, warm up prior to exercise, limit high impact activities and keep your weight under control.
Before the advent of arthroscopy and arthroscopic surgery, patients having surgery for a torn ACL required at least nine months of rehabilitation, having initially spent several weeks in a full-length plaster cast. With current techniques, such patients may be walking without crutches in two weeks, and playing some sports in a few months.
In addition to developing new surgical procedures, ongoing research is looking into underlying problems which may increase the likelihood of an athlete suffering a severe knee injury. These findings may lead to effective preventive measures, especially in female athletes, who have been shown to be especially vulnerable to ACL tears from relatively minor trauma.
Articular cartilage repair treatment :
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In humans the knee refers to the joints between the femur, tibia and patella. In quadrupeds, particularly horses and ungulates the laymans term "knee" is commonly used to refer to the carpus. The joints between the femur, tibia and patella are known as the stifle in quadrupeds. In insects and other animals the term knee is used widely to refer to any ginglymus joint.
|Look up knee in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Knees|
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