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definition - Kurdish_language

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Kurdish language

                   
Kurdish
كوردی, Kurdî, Kurdí, Кöрди[1]
Spoken in

Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Armenia, Azerbaijan

(see article for full list)
Region West Asia
Ethnicity 25–30 million Kurds
Native speakers (16 million cited 1980–2006)[2]
Language family
Writing system Perso-Arabic (Sorani alphabet) in Iraq and Iran, Latin (Hawar alphabet) in Turkey, Syria and Armenia
Official status
Official language in  Iraq: status as official language alongside Arabic.
 Iran: constitutional status as a regional language
 Armenia: minority language[3]
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ku
ISO 639-2 kur
ISO 639-3 kurinclusive code
Individual codes:
ckb – Sorani
kmr – Kurmanji
sdh – Southern Kurdish
lki – Laki
Linguasphere 58-AAA-a (North Kurdish incl. Kurmanji & Kurmanjiki) + 58-AAA-b (Central Kurdish incl. Dimli/Zaza & Gurani) + 58-AAA-c (South Kurdish incl. Kurdi)
  Geographic distribution of the Kurdish language (in turquoise)

Kurdish (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages.

The Kurdish language itself has about 16 million speakers today.[2] According to KONDA, 11.97% of the total population of Turkey speaks Kurdish as their native or second language.[4] According to the CIA World Factbook, 10% of the total population of Iran speaks Kurdish.[5] The actual number of ethnic Kurds is higher than speakers of Kurdish varieties, estimated to be between 25–30 million.[6][7][8][9]

Kurdish is not a unified standard language but a discursive construct of languages spoken by ethnic Kurds, referring to a group of speech varieties that are not necessarily mutually intelligible unless there has been considerable prior contact between their speakers.[10] The second official language of Iraq, referred to only as 'Kurdish' in political documents, is in fact an academic and standardized version of the Sorani dialect of a branch of languages spoken by Kurds.[11][12]

The written literary output in Kurdic languages was confined mostly to poetry until the early 20th century, when a general written literature began to be developed. In its written form today "Kurdish" has two regional standards, namely Kurmanji in the northern parts of the geographical region of Kurdistan, and Sorani further east and south. Another distinct language group called Zaza–Gorani is also spoken by several million ethnic Kurds[13][14][15][16] today and is generally also described and referred to as Kurdish, or as Kurdic languages, because of the ethnic association of the communities speaking the languages and dialects.[17][dubious ] Hewrami, a variation of Gorani, was an important literary language used by the Kurds but was steadily replaced by Sorani in the twentieth century.[18]

Contents

  Origin

The Kurdish languages belong to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. Systematic comparison of Kurdish with other Iranian languages shows that Kurdish is a northwestern Iranian language.[19] The present state of knowledge about Kurdish allows, at least roughly, drawing the approximate borders of the areas where the main ethnic core of the speakers of the contemporary Kurdish dialects was formed. The most argued hypothesis on the localisation of the ethnic territory of the Kurds remains D.N. Mackenzie’s theory, proposed in the early 1960s (Mackenzie 1961). Developing the ideas of P. Tedesco (1921: 255) and regarding the common phonetic isoglosses shared by Kurdish, Persian, and Baluchi, D.N. Mackenzie concluded that the speakers of these three languages may once have been in closer contact. He has tried to reconstruct the alleged Persian-Kurdish-Baluchi linguistic unity presumably in the central parts of Iran. According to Mackenzie's theory, the Persians (or Proto-Persians) occupied the province of Fars in the southwest (proceeding from the assumption that the Achaemenids spoke Persian), the Baluchis (Proto-Baluchis) inhabited the central areas of Western Iran, and the Kurds (Proto-Kurds), in the wording of G. Windfuhr (1975: 459), lived either in northwestern Luristan or in the province of Isfahan.[20] Windfuhr identified Kurdish dialects as Parthian, albeit with a Median substratum.[21]

  History

Although Kurdish has a long history, little is known about Kurdish in pre-Islamic times. Among the earliest Kurdish religious texts is the Yazidi Black Book, the sacred book of Yazidi faith. It is considered to have been authored by Hassan bin Adi (b. 1400 AD), the great-grandnephew of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir, the founder of the faith, sometime in the 13th century AD. It contains the Yazidi account of the creation of the world, the origin of man, the story of Adam and Eve and the major prohibitions of the faith.[22] From the 15th to 17th centuries, classical Kurdish poets and writers developed a literary language. The most notable classical Kurdish poets from this period were Ali Hariri, Ahmad Khani, Malaye Jaziri and Faqi Tayran.

The Italian priest Maurizio Garzoni published the first Kurdish grammar titled Grammatica e Vocabolario della Lingua Kurda in Rome in 1787 after eighteen years of missionary work among the Kurds of Amadiya.[23] This work is very important in Kurdish history as it is the first acknowledgment of the originality of the Kurdish language on a scientific base. Garzoni was given the title Father of Kurdology by later scholars.[24] The Kurdish language was banned in a large portion of Kurdistan for some time. After the 1980 Turkish coup d'état until 1991 the use of the Kurdish language was illegal in Turkey.[25]

  Current status

Today, Kurdish is an official language in Iraq. In Syria, on the other hand, publishing material in Kurdish is forbidden.[26] Before August 2002, the Turkish government placed severe restrictions on the use of Kurdish, prohibiting the language in education and broadcast media.[27][28] The Kurdish alphabet is still not recognized in Turkey, and the use of Kurdish names containing the letters X, W, and Q, which do not exist in the Turkish alphabet, is not allowed. Kurdish education in private institutions is allowed in Turkey, but not in public basic education.

In Iran, though it is used in some local media and newspapers, it is not used in public schools.[29][30] In 2005, 80 Iranian Kurds took part in an experiment and gained scholarships to study in Kurdish in Iraqi Kurdistan.[31]

In March 2006, Turkey allowed private television channels to begin airing programming in the Kurdish language. However, the Turkish government said that they must avoid showing children's cartoons, or educational programs that teach the Kurdish language, and could broadcast only for 45 minutes a day or four hours a week.[32] However, most of these restrictions on private Kurdish television channels were relaxed in September 2009.[33] In 2010 Kurdish municipalities in the southeast decided to begin printing water bills, marriage certificates and construction and road signs, as well as emergency, social and cultural notices in Kurdish alongside Turkish. Friday sermons by Imams began to be delivered in Kurdish, and Esnaf provided Kurdish price tags.

The state-run Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) started its 24-hour Kurdish television station on 1 January 2009 with the motto “we live under the same sky.”[34] The Turkish Prime Minister sent a video message in Kurdish to the opening ceremony, which was attended by Minister of Culture and other state officials. The channel uses the X, W, Q letters during broadcasting.

Other Kurdish satellite televisions are available in the Middle East and Europe.

Kurdish blogs have emerged in recent years as virtual fora where Kurdish-speaking Internet users can express themselves in their native Kurdish or in other languages.

  Kurmanji Kurdish versus Sorani Kurdish and Kermanshahi Kurdish

Kurdish has three standardized versions, which have been labelled 'Northern', 'Central' and 'Southern'. The northern version, commonly called Kurmanji, is spoken in Turkey, Syria, and the northern part of the Kurdish-speaking areas of Iraq and Iran,[35] and it accounts for a little over three-quarters of all Kurdish speakers. The central version, commonly called Sorani, is spoken in west Iran and much of Iraqi Kurdistan.[36] The southern version, commonly called Kermanshahi, is spoken in Kermanshah province of Iran.[37] In historical evolution terms, Kurmanji is less modified than Sorani and Kermanshahi in both phonetic and morphological structure. The Sorani group has been influenced by among other things its closer cultural proximity to the other languages spoken by Kurds in the region including the Gorani language in parts of Iranian Kurdistan and Iraqi Kurdistan.[36][38] The Kermanshahi group has been influenced by among other things its closer cultural proximity to Persian.[37]

Philip G. Kreyenbroek, an expert writing in 1992, says:

Since 1932 most Kurds have used the Roman script to write Kurmanji.... Sorani is normally written in an adapted form of the Arabic script.... Reasons for describing Kurmanji and Sorani as 'dialects' of one language are their common origin and the fact that this usage reflects the sense of ethnic identity and unity among the Kurds. From a linguistic or at least a grammatical point of view, however, Kurmanji and Sorani differ as much from each other as English and German, and it would seem appropriate to refer to them as languages. For example, Sorani has neither gender nor case-endings, whereas Kurmanji has both.... Differences in vocabulary and pronunciation are not as great as between German and English, but they are still considerable.
[36]

According to Encyclopaedia of Islam, although Kurdish is not a unified language, its many dialects are interrelated and at the same time distinguishable from other western Iranian languages. The same source classifies different Kurdish dialects as two main groups, northern and central.[38] The reality is that the average Kurmanji speaker does not find it easy to communicate with the inhabitants of Suleymania or Halabja.[39]

Sorani differs on six grammatical points from Kurmanji. This appears to be a result of Gorani (Haurami) influence.[citation needed]

  • The passive conjugation: the Sorani passive morpheme -r-/-ra- corresponds to -y-/-ya- in Gorani and Zazaki, while Kurmanji employs the auxiliary verb, come;
  • a definite suffix -eke, also occurring in Zazaki;
  • an intensifying postverb -ewe, corresponding to Kurmanji preverbal ve-;
  • an 'open compound' construction with a suffix -e, for definite noun phrases with an epithet;
  • the preservation of enclitic personal pronouns, which have disappeared in Kurmanji and in Zazaki;
  • a simplified izāfa system.

Some linguistic scholars assert that the term "Kurdish" has been applied extrinsically in describing the language the Kurds speak, while Kurds have used the word "Kurdish" to simply describe their ethnic or national identity and refer to their language as Kurmanji, Sorani, Hewrami, Kermanshahi, Kalhery or whatever other dialect or language they speak. Some historians have noted that it is only recently that the Kurds who speak the Sorani dialect have begun referring to their language as Kurdî, in addition to their identity, which is translated to simply mean Kurdish.[40]

  Gorani Kurds, Zazaki, and Shabaki

Gorani is a language that appears to be distinct from Kurmanji and Sorani, but that shares vocabulary with both of the latter mentioned and some grammatical similarities with Sorani.[41] Despite the differences, the Gorani language has been classified as part of the Kurdish language.[42] This is probably due to the fact that Gorani-speakers, who are spread out across the southern and southeastern parts of Kurdistan, identify themselves as Kurds and the Gorani language is not spoken by other ethnic groups.[43] European scholars have maintained that Gorani is separate from Kurdish and that Kurdish is synonymous with the Kurmanji-language group, while ethnic Kurds maintain that Kurdish encompasses any of the unique languages or dialects spoken by Kurds and that are not spoken by neighboring ethnic groups.[44]

The Gorani language (which includes Horami) is often classified as part of the Zaza–Gorani branch of Indo-Iranian languages.[45] The Zazaki language, spoken in the northernmost parts of Kurdistan differs both grammatically and in vocabulary and is generally not understandable by Gorani speakers but it is considered related to Gorani. Almost all Zaza-speaking communities,[46] as well as speakers of another closely related language spoken in parts of Iraqi Kurdistan called Shabaki, identify themselves as ethnic Kurds.[47][48][49][50][51][52]

  Phonology

According to the Kurdish Academy of Language, Kurdish has the following phonemes:

  Consonants

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Apical Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn-
geal
Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p   b t   d k   ɡ q ʔ
Affricate t͡ʃ   d͡ʒ
Fricative f   v s   z ʃ   ʒ ç x   ɣ ħ   ʕ h
Lateral l   ɫ 1
Flap ɾ
Trill r
Approximant ʋ j
  • ^1 Just as in many English dialects, the velarized lateral does not appear in the onset of a syllable. Additionally, in some dialects, the velarized lateral /ɫ/ changes to a [ɾ] in women's speech.[53]
  • ^2 /k/ and /ɡ/ are strongly palatalized before the close and mid front vowels (/i/ and /e/) as well as the rounded high front allophone [ɥ] of the phoneme /w/, closing on /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/.[54]

  Vowels

According to the Kurdish Academy of Language, vowel phonemes of Kurdish are as follows:[55][56]

Front Central Back
Close i ʉ u
Near-close ɪ̈
Mid o
Open-mid ɛ
Near-open æ
Open a

As in most modern Iranian languages, Kurdish vowels contrast in quality; they often carry a secondary length distinction that does not affect syllabic weight.[57] This distinction appears in the writing systems developed for Kurdish. The five "short" vowels are /ɛ/, /æ/, /ɪ̈/, /o/, and /u/, and the four long vowels are //, //, /ʉː/, and //.[55]

  Historical phonology

[citation needed]
OP MP Persian Kurdish Parthian Avestan Proto-Iranian
θ h h s s s
d d d z z z
j z z ž ž j *j, *Vč
ç z z ž ž ç
-š- -š- -š- -h-/nil -š- -š- *-š-
x- x- x- k- x- x- *x-
w- w- b- b- w- w- *w-
y- j- j- j- y- y- *y-
b, d, g w, y, (') w, y, (/nil) w, y, (nil) β, ð, ɣ b, d, g *b, *d, *g
p, t, k b, d, g, b, d, g w, h, y, (/nil) β, ð, ɣ p, t, k *p, *t, *k
Vm -m -m -v (-w) -m -m -*m
fr- fr- (hr-) for- etc. fr- fr- fr- *fr-
ç s s s? hr θr ('s'?) *θr
θw h h h? or w/v? f θw *θw
duv- d- d- d- b- duu- *dw-
s/z s/z s/z sp?/zw? sp/zw sp/zw *św/ *źw
(h)uv- xw- x(w)- x(w)- wx- xv-, huu- *hw-
rd l, r l unclear (maybe: l, ł, r) rð & rz rd & rz *rd & *rź
nd nd/nn nd n nd nd *nd
šn šn šn žn zn sn *śn
Všm, Vhm -šm, -hm -šm, -xm -v (-w) -šm, -hm -šm, -hm *šm?
ft ft ft (w)t, (ft?) ft ft *ft
xt xt xt t xt xt *xt
pasā pas pas pāš paš pas-ča *pas-ča
šiyav- šaw- šaw- č- šaw- šiiu- *čyau-
a- a- a- ha- a- a- *a-
d- -d- -d- -l- -d- -d- -*d-

  Indo-European linguistic comparison

Because Kurdish is an Indo-European language, there are many words that are cognates in Kurdish and other Indo-European languages such as Avestan, Persian, Sanskrit, German, English, Norwegian, Latin and Greek. (Source: Altiranisches Wörterbuch (1904) for the first two and last six.)

Kurdish Avestan Persian Sanskrit Greek English German Swedish Latin Lithuanian Russian PIE
ez "I" äzəm [ezìm] adam [Old Persian] aham egō I (< OE ) ich jag ego ja (related to OCS azŭ) *h₁eĝh₂om
lep "hand" (OE lōf "fillet, band") (OHG lappo "palm (of the hand)") lṓpa "paw, claw" lápa "paw" *tlāp-
žin "woman" ghenãnãmca [ghenâ] "woman" zan janay- gynē queen (OHG quena) kvinna (OPruss. genna) žená "wife" *gʷenh₂-
leystin(bileyzim) "to play(I play)" ley ley kardan(to jump with one foot) réjati (OE lācan "to play") leich leka láigyti *(e)leig'- "to jump, to spring, to play"
mezin,gewre "great" maz-, mazant masan (middle Persian), gošn "numerous" mah(ī)-/mahānt- megas much (< OE mićil, myćil) (OHG mihhil) mycket "much" magnus *meĝh₂- "big, great"
mêzer "headband/turban" Miθra "binding", "god name" *Miça "god name"(Old Persian) mitrah mitra "headband, turban", mir "world, peace" *mei- "to tie"
pez "sheep" pasu- "sheep, goat" paśu "animal" fee (< OE feoh "cattle") Vieh "cattle" "cattle" pecus "cattle" pekus "ox" *pek̂-u- "sheep"
çiya,kash "mountain" kūh, chakād "peak/summit" kakúd-, kakúbh- "peak/summit" kinn "steep mountain side" cacūmen *kak-, *kakud- "top"
žîyar "alive" žiyan "to live" gaêm [gaya] zend[e] "alive", zî[stan] "to live", zaideh "child" jīvati zoi "life", "live" quick quick "bright" kvick "quick" vīvus "alive", vīvō "live", vīta "life" gývas žyzn' "life", žyvój "living, alive" *gʷih₃(u̯)-
[di][a]zan[im] "I know" zan[în] "to know" zan- [mi]dān[am] "I know", dān[estan] "to know" jān[āti] [gi]gnō[skō] know kennen kunna "to be able to", "to know" nō[scō], [co]gn[itus] žin[au]"I know" žin[oti] "to know" znat' "to know" *ĝneh₃-

  Grammar

  Vocabulary

The bulk of the vocabulary in Kurdish is of Iranian origin, especially of northwestern Iranian. There are also Persian loanwords in Kurdish, entered mainly through poetry[citation needed]. A considerable number of loanwords come from Semitic, mainly Arabic, which entered through Islam and historical relations with Arab tribes. Yet, a smaller group of loanwords which are of Armenian, Caucasian, and Turkic origins are used in Kurdish, besides some European words. There are also Kurdish words with no clear etymology.

  Writing system

  Kurdish restaurant sign written in Arabic script

The Kurdish language uses three different writing systems. In Iran and Iraq it is written using a modified version of the Arabic alphabet (and more recently, sometimes with the Latin alphabet in Iraqi Kurdistan). In Turkey, Syria and Armenia, it is written using the Latin alphabet. Kurdish in the former USSR is written with a modified Cyrillic script. There is also a proposal for a unified international recognized Kurdish alphabet based on ISO-8859-1[58] called Yekgirtú.

  Dictionaries

  Kurdish-only dictionaries

  • Wîkîferheng (Kurdish Wiktionary)
  • Husein Muhammed: Soranî Kurdish – Kurmancî Kurdish dictionary (2005)
  • Khal, Sheikh Muhammad, Ferhengî Xal (Khal Dictionary), Kamarani Press, Sulaymaniya, 3 Volumes (1960, 1964, 1976)

  Kurdish–English dictionaries

  • Dictio, English–Kurdish Dictionary
  • Rashid Karadaghi, The Azadi English–Kurdish Dictionary[dead link]
  • Chyet, Michael L., Kurdish Dictionary: Kurmanji–English, Yale Language Series, U.S., 2003 (896 pages) (see[59])
  • Abdullah, S. and Alam, K., English–Kurdish (Sorani) and Kurdish (Sorani)–English Dictionary, Star Publications / Languages of the World Publications, India, 2004[60]
  • Awde, Nicholas, Kurdish–English/English–Kurdish Dictionary and Phrasebook, Hippocrene Books Inc., U.S., 2004[61]
  • Raman: English–Kurdish (Sorani) Dictionary, Pen Press Publishers Ltd, UK, 2003, (800 pages)[62]
  • Saadallah, Salah, English–Kurdish Dictionary, Avesta/Paris Kurdish Institute, Istanbul, 2000, (1477 pages)
  • Amindarov, Aziz, Kurdish–English/English–Kurdish Dictionary, Hippocrene Books Inc., U.S., 1994[63]
  • Rizgar, Baran (M. F. Onen), Kurdish–English/English–Kurdish (Kurmancî Dictionary) UK, 1993, 400 p. + 70 illustrations[64]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ "Kurdish Language – Kurdish Academy of Language". Kurdishacademy.org. http://www.kurdishacademy.org/?q=node/41. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Ethnologue figure for Kurdish". Ethnologue.com. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kur. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  3. ^ European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
  4. ^ "55 milyon kişi 'etnik olarak' Türk", Milliyet, March 22, 2007. (Turkish)
  5. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  6. ^ CIA: 14 million in Turkey, 4.5–6.0 million in Iraq, 5.4 million in Iran (all for 2011), plus several million in Syria, neighboring countries, and the diaspora
  7. ^ The Kurds: culture and language rights (Kerim Yildiz, Georgina Fryer, Kurdish Human Rights Project; 2004): 23% of Turkey, 23% of Iraq, 10% of Iran, 6%+ of Syria; plus 1–2 million in neighboring countries and the diaspora
  8. ^ Sandra Mackey , “The reckoning: Iraq and the legacy of Saddam”, W.W. Norton and Company, 2002. Excerpt from pg 350: “As much as 25% of Turkey is Kurdish.”
  9. ^ ^ John L. Henriques , "Syria: issues and historical background", Nova Science Publishers
  10. ^ Hassanpour, A. (1992). Nationalism and language in Kurdistan. San Francisco: Mellon Press. Also mentioned in: kurdishacademy.org
  11. ^ Allison, Christine. The Yezidi oral tradition in Iraqi Kurdistan. 2001. "However, it was the southern dialect of Kurdish, Sorani, the majority language of the Iraqi Kurds, which received sanction as an official language of Iraq."
  12. ^ Kurdish language issue and a divisive approach. http://www.kurdishacademy.org/?q=node/194
  13. ^ * Kaya, Mehmet. The Zaza Kurds of Turkey: A Middle Eastern Minority in a Globalised Society. ISBN 1-84511-875-8
  14. ^ http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/Dargin_-_Working_Paper_-_FINAL.pdf
  15. ^ http://gulf2000.columbia.edu/images/maps/Mid_East_Linguistic_lg.jpg
  16. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=dgDi9qFT41oC&printsec=frontcover&hl=de#v=onepage&q&f=false
  17. ^ "Kurdish language – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9046467/Kurdish-language. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  18. ^ Meri, Josef W. Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. p444
  19. ^ Bruinessen, M.M. van. (1994). Kurdish nationalism and competing ethnic loyalties
  20. ^ Professor Garnik Asatrian (Yerevan University) (2009)."Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds", Iran and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp. 1–58, 2009 Published in 2009, Iran and the Caucasus, 13, pp.1-58.
  21. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot (1975), “Isoglosses: A Sketch on Persians and Parthians, Kurds and Medes”, Monumentum H.S. Nyberg II (Acta Iranica-5), Leiden: 457-471
  22. ^ Jonh S. Guest, The Yazidis: A Study In Survival, Routledge Publishers, 1987, ISBN 0-7103-0115-4, ISBN 978-0-7103-0115-4, 299 pp. (see pages 18, 32)
  23. ^ Ernest R. McCarus, Kurdish Language Studies, The Middle East Journal, Published by Middle East Institute, Washington, 1960, p.325
  24. ^ Kurdistan and Its Christians, Mirella Galetti, World Congress of Kurdish Studies, 6–9 September 2006
  25. ^ Ross, Michael. The Volunteer (chapter: The Road to Ankara)
  26. ^ Repression of Kurds in Syria is widespread, Amnesty International Report, March 2005.
  27. ^ "Special Focus Cases: Leyla Zana, Prisoner of Conscience". Amnestyusa.org. http://www.amnestyusa.org/action/special/zana.html. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  28. ^ "Kurdish performers banned, Appeal from International PEN". Freemuse.org. http://www.freemuse.org/sw6195.asp. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  29. ^ The Kurdish Language and Literature, by Joyce Blau, Professor of Kurdish language and civilization at the National Institute of Oriental Language and Civilization of the University of Paris (INALCO)
  30. ^ The language policy of Iran from State policy on the Kurdish language: the politics of status planning by Amir Hassanpour, University of Toronto
  31. ^ "Neighboring Kurds Travel to Study in Iraq". Npr.org. 9 March 2005. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4528599. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  32. ^ Turkey to get Kurdish television
  33. ^ "TRT HABER - Özel Kürtçe Kanala Yeşil Işık". Trt.net.tr. 28 November 2011. http://www.trt.net.tr/Haber/HaberDetay.aspx?HaberKodu=139bfcf2-18ef-46b2-937b-010ad9411f0f. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  34. ^ "Kurdish TV starts broadcasting in Turkey". Kurdmedia.com. http://www.kurdmedia.com/article.aspx?id=15316. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  35. ^ Additionally, Kurmanji Kurdish is spoken in North Khorasan (in northeastern Iran), and small numbers of Kurdish speakers also live in the Caucasus.
  36. ^ a b c Philip G. Kreyenbroek, "On the Kurdish Language", a chapter in the book The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. The book is previewable at Google Book Search.
  37. ^ a b Ranjbar, Vahid. Dastur-e Zaban-e Kurdi-ye Kermanshahi. Kermanshah: Taq-Bostan. 1388
  38. ^ a b D.N. MacKenzie, Language in Kurds & Kurdistan, Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  39. ^ Postgate, J.N., Languages of Iraq, ancient and modern, [Iraq]: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 2007, ISBN 978-0-903472-21-0, p.139
  40. ^ Keo: History[dead link]
  41. ^ Philip G. Kreyenbroek, "On the Kurdish Language", a chapter in the book The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview.
  42. ^ "Kurdish language." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 23 November 2010
  43. ^ Edmonds, Cecil. Kurds, Turks, and Arabs: politics, travel, and research in north-eastern Iraq, 1919-1925. Oxford University Press, 1957.
  44. ^ Edmonds, Cecil. Kurds, Turks, and Arabs: politics, travel, and research in north-eastern Iraq, 1919-1925. Oxford University Press, 1957. Oxford University Press, 1957
  45. ^ J. N. Postgate, Languages of Iraq, ancient and modern, British School of Archaeology in Iraq, [Iraq]: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 2007, p. 138.
  46. ^ http://www.let.uu.nl/~martin.vanbruinessen/personal/publications/Bruinessen_Ethnic_identity_Kurds.pdf
  47. ^ Abd al-Jabbar, Falih. Ayatollahs, sufis and ideologues: state, religion and social movements in Iraq. University of Virginia 2008.
  48. ^ Sykes, Mark. The Caliphs' last heritage: a short history of the Turkish Empire
  49. ^ Kaya, Mehmet. The Zaza Kurds of Turkey: A Middle Eastern Minority in a Globalised Society. ISBN 1-84511-875-8
  50. ^ O'Shea, Maria. Trapped between the map and reality: geography and perceptions of Kurdistan. ISBN 0-415-94766-9.
  51. ^ Library Information and Research Service. The Middle East, abstracts and index
  52. ^ Meiselas, Susan. Kurdistan: in the shadow of history. Random House, 1997.
  53. ^ McCarus, Ernest N. (1997), "Kurdish Phonology", written at Winona Lake, Indiana, in Kaye, Alan S.; Daniels, Peter T., Phonologies of Asia & Africa (Including the Caucasus), 2, EISENBRAUNS, p. 694, ISBN 1-57506-017-5 
  54. ^ McCarus, Ernest N. (1997), "Kurdish Phonology", written at Winona Lake, Indiana, in Kaye, Alan S.; Daniels, Peter T., Phonologies of Asia & Africa (Including the Caucasus), 2, EISENBRAUNS, p. 693, ISBN 1-57506-017-5 
  55. ^ a b "The Kurdish Academy of Language - Unified Kurdish Alphabet - IPA". http://www.kurdishacademy.org/?q=node/3. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  56. ^ "The Kurdish Academy of Language - Unified Kurdish Vowel Phonemes". http://www.kurdishacademy.org/?q=node/164. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  57. ^ McCarus, Ernest N. (1997), "Kurdish Phonology", written at Winona Lake, Indiana, in Kaye, Alan S.; Daniels, Peter T., Phonologies of Asia & Africa (Including the Caucasus), 2, EISENBRAUNS, p. 696, ISBN 1-57506-017-5 
  58. ^ "The Kurdish Unified Alphabet". Kurdishacademy.org. http://www.kurdishacademy.org/?q=node/2. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  59. ^ Michael L. Chyet; With selected etymologies by Martin Schwartz (23 June 2003). "''Kurdish–English Dictionary''. Chyet, Michael L. Yale University Press". Yalepress.yale.edu. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=0300091524. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  60. ^ [1]
  61. ^ ISBN 0-7818-1071-X
  62. ^ ISBN 1-904018-83-1
  63. ^ ISBN 0-7818-0246-6
  64. ^ ISBN 1-873722-05-2

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