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definitions - Lake_Erie

Lake Erie (n.)

1.the 4th largest of the Great Lakes; it is linked to the Hudson River by the New York State Barge Canal

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synonyms - Lake_Erie

Lake Erie (n.)

Erie

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Lake Erie

                   
Lake Erie
From a high bluff near Leamington, Ontario
Lake Erie and the other Great Lakes.
Location North America
Group Great Lakes
Coordinates 42°12′N 81°12′W / 42.2°N 81.2°W / 42.2; -81.2Coordinates: 42°12′N 81°12′W / 42.2°N 81.2°W / 42.2; -81.2
Primary inflows Detroit River
Primary outflows Niagara River
Catchment area l
Basin countries Canada Canada
United States United States
Max. length 241 mi (388 km)
Max. width 57 mi (92 km)
Surface area 9,940 sq mi (25,744 km2)[1]
Average depth 62 ft (19 m)
Max. depth 210 ft (64 m)[1]
Water volume 116 cu mi (480 km3)
Residence time 2.6 years
Shore length1 850 mi (1,370 km)
Surface elevation 571 ft (174 m)[1]
Islands 24+ (see list)
Settlements Buffalo, New York
Erie, Pennsylvania
Toledo, Ohio
Cleveland, Ohio
References [1]
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Lake Erie[2] (play /ˈɪri/; French: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the tenth largest globally.[3] It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes[4][5] and therefore also has the shortest average water residence time. It is bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario, on the south by the U.S. states of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, and on the west by the state of Michigan. The lake is named after the Erie tribe of Native Americans who lived along its southern shore.[4] The outflow from the lake provides hydroelectric power to Canada and the U.S. as it spins huge turbines at Niagara Falls.[6]

Contents

  Geography

  Satellite image of Lake Erie in 2007

  Geographic features

Lake Erie (42.2° N, 81.2° W) has a mean elevation of 571 feet (174 m)[1] above sea level. It has a surface area of 9,940 square miles (25,745 km²)[1] with a length of 241 miles (388 km) and breadth of 57 miles (92 km) at its widest points.

It is the shallowest of the Great Lakes with an average depth of 62 feet (19 m) and a maximum depth of 210 feet (64 m).[1] For comparison, Lake Superior has an average depth of 483 feet (147 m), a volume of 2,900 cubic miles (12,100 km³) and shoreline of 2,726 miles (4,385 km). Because it is the shallowest, it is also the warmest of the Great Lakes,[7] and in 1999 this almost became a problem for two nuclear power plants which require cool lake water to keep their reactors cool.[8] The warm summer of 1999 caused lake temperatures to come close to the 85-degree-Fahrenheit (29°C) limit necessary to keep the plants cool.[8] The shallowest section of Lake Erie is the western basin where depths average only 25 to 30 feet (7.6 to 9.1 m); as a result, "the slightest breeze can kick up lively waves," according to a New York Times reporter in 2004.[9] The "waves build very quickly", according to other accounts.[10][11] Sometimes fierce waves springing up unexpectedly have led to dramatic rescues; in one instance, a Cleveland resident trying to measure the dock near his house became trapped but was rescued by a fire department diver from Avon Lake, Ohio:

In a tug of war against the waves, the two were finally hauled out by rope. After being trapped for an hour-and-a-half, Baker was back on dry land, exhausted and battered but alive.
—Tatiana Morales, CBS News, 2004[12]
  The Niagara River empties Lake Erie into Lake Ontario. This water has just passed over Niagara Falls.

This area is also known as the "thunderstorm capital of Canada" with "breathtaking" lightning displays.[11] Lake Erie is primarily fed by the Detroit River (from Lake Huron and Lake St. Clair) and drains via the Niagara River and Niagara Falls into Lake Ontario. Navigation downstream is provided by the Welland Canal, part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Other major contributors to Lake Erie include the Grand River, the Huron River, the Maumee River, the Sandusky River, the Buffalo River, and the Cuyahoga River.

Point Pelee National Park, the southernmost point of the Canadian mainland, is located on a peninsula extending into the lake. Several islands are found in the western end of the lake; these belong to Ohio except for Pelee Island and eight neighboring islands, which are part of Ontario. Major cities along the lake include Buffalo, New York; Erie, Pennsylvania; Toledo, Ohio; Port Stanley, Ontario; Monroe, Michigan; Sandusky, Ohio; and Cleveland, Ohio. The drainage basin covers 30,140 square miles (78,000 km2).

The lake is also an international boundary between the United States and Canada. The close proximity of both countries as well as the lake's flatness has caused occasional confusion with cell phone billing, since a call may be believed to have been made internationally, depending on the strength of the signal, and billed accordingly.[13]

  Partial map of the Lake Erie Islands

  Islands

Islands tend to be located in the western side of the lake and total thirty-one in number (13 in Canada, 18 in the U.S.). The island-village of Put-in-Bay on South Bass Island attracts young crowds who sometimes wear "red bucket hats" and are prone to "break off cartwheels in the park" and general merriment.[14] Kelleys Island was depicted by the Chicago Tribune as having charms that were "more subtle" than Put-in-Bay, and offers amenities such as beach lounging, hiking, biking, and "marveling at deep glacial grooves left in limestone."[14] Pelee Island is the largest of Erie's islands, accessible by ferry from Leamington, Ontario and Sandusky, Ohio. The island has a "fragile and unique ecosystem" with plants rarely found in Canada, such as wild hyacinth, yellow horse gentian (Triosteum angustifolium), and prickly pear cactus, as well as two endangered snakes, the blue racer and the Lake Erie water snake. Songbirds migrate to Pelee in spring, and monarch butterflies stop over during the fall.[15]

  Water levels

Lake Erie has a lake retention time of 2.6 years,[16] the shortest of all the Great Lakes.[17] This means that the lake water is renewed from upstream sources every three years. The lake's area is 470,000 acres (190,000 ha) of surface water.[18] Lake Erie's water level fluctuates with the seasons as in the other Great Lakes. Generally, the lowest levels are in January and February, and the highest in June or July, although there have been exceptions. The average yearly level varies depending on long-term precipitation. Short-term level changes are often caused by seiches that are particularly high when southwesterly winds blow across the length of the lake during storms. These cause water to pile up at the eastern end of the lake. Storm driven seiches can cause damage onshore. During one storm in November 2003, the water level at Buffalo rose by 7 feet (2.1 m) with waves of 10–15 feet (3–4.5 m) for a rise of 22 feet (6.7 m).[19] Meanwhile, at the western end of the lake, Toledo experienced a similar drop in water level. Lake water is used for drinking purposes.[20]

  • Historic High Water. The lake fluctuates from month to month with the highest lake levels in October and November. The normal highwater mark is 2.00 feet (0.61 m) above datum (569.2 ft or 173.5 m). In the summer of 1986, Lake Erie reached its highest level at 5.08 feet (1.55 m) above datum.[21] The high water records were set from 1986 (April) through January 1987. Levels ranged from 4.33 to 5.08 feet (1.32–1.55 m) above Chart Datum.[21]
  • Historic Low Water. Lake Erie experiences its lowest levels in the winter. The normal low-water mark is 1.50 feet (0.46 m) below datum (569.2 ft or 173.5 m). In the winter of 1934, Lake Erie reached its lowest level at 1.50 feet (0.46 m) below datum.[21] Monthly low water records were set from July 1934 through June 1935. During this twelve month period water levels ranged from 1.50 feet (0.46 m) to the Chart Datum.[21]

  Geology

  Sandy bluffs along Lake Erie in Erie County, Pennsylvania

Lake Erie in its current form is less than 4,000 years old, a short amount of time geologically speaking. Before this, the land on which the lake now sits has gone through several complex stages. A large lowland basin formed over two million years ago as a result of an eastern flowing river that existed well before the Pleistocene ice ages. This ancient drainage system was destroyed by the first major glacier in the area, while at the same time deepening and enlarging the lowland allowing water to settle and form a lake. The glaciers were able to carve away more land on the eastern side of the lowland because the bedrock is made of shale which is much softer than the carbonate rocks on the western side. Thus, the eastern side of the modern lake is much deeper than the western portion which averages only 25 feet (7.6 m) deep. Lake Erie is the shallowest of the Great Lakes because the ice was so thin and lacked erosion power when it reached that far south.

As many as three glaciers advanced and retreated over the land causing temporary lakes to form in the time periods in between each of them. Because each lake had a different volume of water their shorelines rested at differing elevations. The last of these lakes to form, Lake Warren, existed between about 13,000 and 12,000 years ago. It was deeper than the current Lake Erie, so its shoreline existed about eight miles (13 km) inland from the modern one. The shorelines of these lakes left behind high ground sand ridges that cut through swamps and were used as trails for Indians and later, pioneers. These trails became primitive roads which were eventually paved. U.S. Route 30 west of Delphos and U.S. Route 20 west of Norwalk and east of Cleveland were formed in this manner. One can still see some of these ancient sand dunes that formed in the Oak Openings Region in Northwestern Ohio. There, the sandy dry lake bed soil was not enough to support large trees with the exception of a few species of oaks, forming a rare oak savanna.[22]

  History

  Native Americans

At the time of European contact, there were several groups of Iroquoian cultures living around the shores of the eastern end of the lake. The Erie tribe (from whom the lake takes its name) lived along the southern edge, while the Neutrals (also known as Attawandaron) lived along the northern shore. Near Port Stanley, there is an Indian village dating from the 16th century known as the Southwold Earthworks where as many as 800 Neutral Indians once lived; the archaeological remains include double earth walls winding around the grass–covered perimeter.[15] Europeans named the tribe the Neutral Indians since these people refused to fight with other tribes.[15] Both tribes were conquered and assimilated by their hostile eastern neighbors, the Iroquois Confederacy between A.D. 1651 and 1657, in what is referred to as part of the Beaver Wars.[23]

For decades after those wars, the land around eastern Lake Erie was claimed and utilized by the Iroquois as a hunting ground. As the power of the Iroquois waned during the last quarter of the 17th century, several other, mainly Anishinaabe Native American tribes, displaced them from the territories they claimed on the north shore of the lake.[24] There was a legend of an Indian woman named Huldah who, despairing over her lost British lover, hurled herself from a high rock from Pelee Island.[10]

  European exploration and settlement

  The steamship Walk in Water, built in Buffalo, was the first steamship on Lake Erie. Picture circa 1816.

In 1669, the Frenchman Louis Jolliet was the first documented European to sight Lake Erie, although there is speculation that Étienne Brûlé may have come across it in 1615.[25] Lake Erie was the last of the Great Lakes to be explored by Europeans, since the Iroquois who occupied the Niagara River area were in conflict with the French, and they did not allow explorers or traders to pass through. Explorers followed rivers out of Lake Ontario and portaged directly into Lake Huron. British authorities in Canada were nervous about possible expansion by American settlers across Lake Erie, so Colonel Talbot developed the Talbot Trail in 1809 as a way to stimulate settlement to the area; Talbot recruited settlers from Ireland and Scotland and there are numerous places named after him, such as Port Talbot and the Talbot River and Talbotville in southern Ontario.[15]

  Commander Perry's message after the Battle of Lake Erie: "We have met the enemy and they are ours." This 1865 painting by William H. Powell shows Perry transferring to a different ship during the battle.

During the War of 1812, Oliver Hazard Perry captured an entire British fleet in 1813[26] near Put-in-Bay, Ohio, despite having inferior numbers.[27] American soldiers swept through the Ontario area around Port Rowan burning towns and villages, but spared a gristmill owned by a Canadian mason named John Backhouse, according to one report.[15] Generally, however, despite the two exceptions being the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 which involved conflicts between the U.S. and Great Britain, relations between the U.S. and Canada have been remarkably friendly with an "unfortified boundary" and an agreement "that has kept all fleets of war off the Great Lakes."[28]

In 1837, rebellions broke about between Canadian settlers and the British Colonial government, primarily over political reforms and land allocation issues. Some of the rebels stationed themselves in the U.S. and crossed the ice from Sandusky Bay to Pelee Island wearing "tattered overcoats and worn-out boots", and carrying muskets, pitchforks, and swords,[10] but the islanders had already fled.[10] Later, there was a battle on the ice with the Royal 32nd regiment, with the rebels being driven to retreat.[10]

Settlers established commercial fisheries on the north coast of the lake around the 1850s.[29] An important business was fishing.[16] In the pre-Civil War years, railways sprouted everywhere, and around 1852 there were railways circling the lake.[30] Maritime traffic picked up, although the lake was usually closed because of ice from December to early April, and ships had to wait for the ice to clear before proceeding.[31] Since slavery had been abolished in Canada in 1833, but was still legal in southern states of the U.S., a Lake Erie crossing was sometimes required for fugitive slaves seeking freedom:

When Kentucky fugitive Lewis Clarke arrived in Cleveland, he had no idea how to find Canada. "I went out to the shore of the lake again and again, to try and see the other side, but I could see no hill, mountain, nor city of the asylum I sought," he once told an interviewer. "I was afraid to inquire where (Canada) was, lest it would betray such a degree of ignorance as to excite suspicion at once." Many fugitives also had to overcome fears instilled by their former masters...
—Chris Lackner in the Ottawa Citizen, 2006[32]

Merchant shippers lacked modern radar and weather forecasting, so vessels were often caught up in intense gales:

A violent gale is blowing on Lake Erie ... The schooner Stranger came in this morning and reports seeing a vessel about 12 miles [19 km] up, 2 miles [3.2 km] from the Canada shore, with three men clinging to the masts, which alone were visible above the water–heard their cries and screams...
The New York Times, October 1853[33]

There were reports of disasters usually from sea captains passing information to reporters; in 1868, the captain of the Grace Whitney saw a sunken vessel "three men clinging to the masthead" but he could not help because of the gale and high seas.[34]

A balloonist named John Steiner of Philadelphia made an ambitious trip across the lake in 1857.[35] He was described in the New York Times as an eronaut or aeronaut; powered boats were called propellers; and fast was deemed railroad speed. Here's an account of the day-long voyage over the lake:

He arose to the height of about three miles, and started off at a slow but steady rate ... The lake could be seen from one end to the other nearly ... At one time Mr. Steiner counted 38 sail vessels, all in sight, and far below him. The hands on board several of the vessels saw him, and rightly apprehending that he was an aeronaut, cheered him heartily ... He neared the Canada shore a little below Long Point ... he was accordingly driven towards Buffalo ... Night was drawing on and it became apparent that he could not, with this current, get away from the water before dark, and after nightfall it would not be safe to come down. Seeing a propeller ... the Mary Stewart ... He first struck the water about 25 miles below Long Point ... During this time Mr. Steiner says he thinks his balloon bounded from the water at least twenty times. It would strike and then rebound, like a ball, going into the air from twenty to fifty feet, and still rushing down the lake at railroad speed ... Mr. Steiner then abandoned the balloon, leaping into the water and swimming towards the boat, which speedily reached him...
New York Times, July 23, 1857[35]

In 1885, lake winds were so strong that water levels dropped substantially, sometimes by as much as two feet, so that at ports such as Toledo, watercraft could not load coal or depart the port.[36]

During the history of the lake as a fishery, there has been marked battling by opposing interest groups. Here's an 1895 newspaper account in which critics of commercial fishing issued dire predictions and calling for government action to solve the problem:

The preservation of the fisheries of Lake Erie has become a serious problem to all who have given it close attention ... the fisheries are being exhausted by the wasteful methods which are now in vogue ... it is still the custom of the pound fishermen about Sandusky to take fish of all sizes, and if they are too small to be marketable they are turned over to a fertilizer factory. If left undisturbed for two or three years more, these little fish would be a very valuable product ...
  View from the Peace Memorial at Put-in-Bay, Ohio

Predictions of the lake being over-fished in 1895 were premature, since the fishery has survived commercial and sport fishing, pollution in the middle of the 20th century, invasive species and other ailments, but state and provincial governments, as well as national governments, have played a greater role as time went by. Business boomed; in 1901, the Carnegie Company proposed building a new harbor near Erie in Elk Creek to accommodate shipments from its tube-plant site nearby.[38] In 1913, a memorial to Commodore Perry was built on Put-in-Bay island featuring a Doric column.[28]

During the Prohibition years from 1919 to 1933, a "great deal of alcohol crossed Erie"[10] along with "mobster corpses" dumped into the Detroit River which sometimes washed up on the beaches of Pelee Island.[39] According to one account, Al Capone hid a "fortune" in the walls of the Middle Island luxury club, but no money was found in it until 2007 when the building no longer stood.[10] The club had a basement casino with poker tables and slot machines.[10]

During the 20th century, commercial fishing was prevalent, but so was the boom in manufacturing industry around the lake, and often rivers and streams were used as sewers to flush untreated sewage which ended up in the lake.[40] Sometimes poorly constructed sanitary systems meant that when old mains broke, raw sewage would spill directly into the Cuyahoga and into the lake.[40] A report in Time Magazine in 1969 described the lake as a "gigantic cesspool" since only 3 of 62 beaches were rated "completely safe for swimming".[40]

By 1975 the popular commercial fish blue pike had been declared extinct, although the declaration may have been premature.[41] By the 1980s, there were about 130 fishing vessels with about 3,000 workers,[29] but commercial fishing was declining rapidly, particularly from the American side.

  Great Lakes Compact

In 2005, the Great Lakes States of Ohio, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota and the Canadian Province of Ontario endorsed the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Compact (Compact). The Compact was signed into law by President George W. Bush in September 2008. An international water rights policy overseen by the Great Lakes Commission, the Compact aims to prevent diversion of water from Great Lakes to distant states, as well as to set standards for use and conservation. It has support from both political parties, including United States Senator George Voinovich (R-OH) and Governor Jennifer Granholm (D-MI), but is not popular in the southwestern states due to frequent drought conditions and water scarcity.

  Lake environment

  Weather

  Lake Erie in winter

  Cold air travels over warm lake water. The air becomes warmer, moister, less dense, so that it rises; when it passes over land, the reduced airspace causes the air to "pile up" resulting in "frictional convergence." This lifts the air even further to where it cools, turning into droplets or snowflakes. The result is enhanced snowfall.[42]
  Tornadoes rarely happen around the immediate Great Lakes region, although this one happened in 1953 in Erie, Michigan near Lake Erie.
  Lake Erie in winter

Like the other Great Lakes, Erie produces lake effect snow when the first cold winds of winter pass over the warm waters. When the difference in temperature between the relatively warm surface water and the colder air reaches a threshold value of 18 to 23 degrees Fahrenheit (10 to 12.8°C), then "lake-effect snow becomes possible:"[42]

As cold air flows over the warm water, the lake warms and moistens the air. Since warm, moist air is less dense than cold air, the heated air rises. Rising air cools and water vapor condenses into cloud droplets ... the efficiency of snow production increases when the wind pushes the clouds over land. Friction with the ground causes air to pile up. This frictional convergence creates lift and enhances snowfall.
—Bob Swanson and Adrienne Lewis of USA Today, 2008[42]

What causes heavy lake-effect snow is when cold air travels 60 miles (97 km) or longer over a large unfrozen lake.[42] Lake-effect snow makes Buffalo and Erie the eleventh and thirteenth snowiest places in the entire United States respectively, according to data collected from the National Climatic Data Center.[43] Since winds blow primarily west–to–east along the main axis of the lake, lake effect snow effects are more pronounced on the eastern parts of the lake such as cities such as Buffalo and Erie. Buffalo typically gets 95 inches (240 cm) of snow each winter, and sometimes ten feet (3 m) of snow;[44] the snowiest city is Syracuse, New York, which gets lake effect precipitation from Lake Ontario as well as Lake Erie.[45] A storm around Christmas in 2001 pounded Buffalo with seven feet of snow.[45]

  Lake Erie in winter.

The lake effect ends or its effect is reduced, however, when the lake freezes over. In January 2011, for example, residents of Cleveland were glad when Lake Erie was "90 percent frozen" since it meant that the area had "made it over the hump" in terms of enduring repeated snowfalls which required much shoveling.[46] Being the shallowest of the Great Lakes, it is the most likely to freeze and frequently does.[47] On February 16, 2010, meteorologists reported that the lake had frozen over marking the first time the lake had completely frozen over since the winter of 1995–1996.[48] In contrast, Lake Michigan has never completely frozen over since the warmer and deeper portion is in the south, although it came close to being totally frozen during three harsh winters over the past century.[49] When the lake freezes over, this usually shuts down the lake effect snowfall.[50] In past years, lake ice was so thick that it was possible to drive over it or go sailing on iceboats; but in the first decade of the 21st century, the ice has not been thick enough for such activities.[39] Many lake residents take advantage of the ice and travel; some drive to Canada and back.[51] Here's one account of ice life around Put-in-Bay:

The first ice usually forms in late November, and by January it locks into place. For islanders, it is the equivalent of summer vacation ... Once the lake freezes, islanders organize impromptu ice rallies. Families gather to drink hot wine and race all-terrain vehicles across the lake. They also race iceboats, which resemble sailboats on skates ... Many people drive to other islands for dinner with friends. They ride in cars with the roofs and doors chopped off so they can escape if the vehicles fall through the ice. Islanders stab evergreen trees into the ice every 50 yards to mark a route ... Even in the coldest winters, there are dangerous patches of thin ice. The cracks are so predictable that the Put-in-Bay Ice Yacht Club prints them on a map ... On a normal winter day, the ice is dotted with 2,000 fishing shanties.
—Christopher Maag in The New York Times, 2004[51]

  Windy conditions

Strong winds have caused lake currents to shift sediment on the bottom, leading to "wickedly shifting sandbars" which have been a source of shipwrecks.[39] But winds can have a peaceful purpose as well; there have been proposals to place electricity–producing wind turbines in windy and shallow points in the lake and along the coast, both in the United States and Canada. In 2010, there were plans for GE to develop five wind turbines to generate 20 megawatts of power by 2012 with plans to generate 1,000 megawatts by 2020; one proposal called for "gearless turbines" with 176-long blades helped along with magnets.[52][53] A nonprofit development group near Cleveland was developing plans to construct hundreds of turbines in the lake.[54] A plan by Samsung to build an offshore wind farm on the north shore of the lake, from Port Maitland to Nanticoke for a distance of 15.5 miles (25 km),[55] but the plan has been met with opposition from residents for a number of reasons. Canadians near Leamington and Kingsville have organized protest groups to thwart attempts to bring wind turbines to the lake; reasons against the turbines include spoiling lake views as well as the NIMBY phenomenon, as well as possible adverse effects regarding drinking water and commercial fishing.[56] Plans to install turbines in Pigeon Bay, south of Leamington were met with opposition as well.[57][58] The notion that bird and bat migration may be hurt by the wind turbines has been used to argue against the wind turbines: a reporter in The Globe and Mail wrote "Given the tendency of turbines to make mincemeat of things airborne, it doesn’t require great imagination to figure out what would happen."[56] There were descriptions of wind turbines built in a farm near the lake shore:

They loom like gigantic aliens invading the farmers’ fields. There are 66 of these creatures, each about as tall as a 25-storey building with a face comprised of three enormous whiskers rotating 11 to 20 times per minute. Standing amidst the wind turbines of Erie Shore Wind Farm, one feels like a doomed character in a sci-fi movie caught in the deathly still moment just before disaster strikes.
—reporter Rebecca Field Jager in the Weekend Post, 2010[59]

  Microclimates

The lake is also responsible for microclimates that are important to agriculture. Along its north shore is one of the richest areas of Canada's fruit and vegetable production; this southernmost tip, particularly in the area around Leamington, is known as Canada's "tomato capital".[56] The area around Port Rowan in Ontario has special trees which grow because of the "tempering effect of the lake", and species include tulip trees, flowering dogwood, sassafras and sour gum.[15] In this area there are many greenhouses which produce a "variety of tropical plants rarely cultivated so far north", including some species of cacti, because of the lake's tempering effect.[15] Along the southeastern shore in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York is an important grape growing region, as are the islands in the lake. Apple orchards are abundant in northeast Ohio to western New York.

  Long term weather patterns

There are conflicting reports about the overall effect of global warming on the Great Lakes region, including Lake Erie. One account suggests that climate change is causing greater evaporation of lake water, leading to warmer temperatures as well as ice in winter which is less thick or nonexistent, fueling concerns that "Erie appears to be shrinking" and is the most likely candidate among the five Great Lakes to "turn into a festering mud puddle."[39] In 2010, the Windsor Star reported that the lake experienced "record-breaking temperatures" reaching 81 degrees Fahrenheit (27°C) in mid-August and compared the lake to a "bath tub".[60] But the long term weather patterns are subject to controversy.

  Ecosystems

  A coal-fired power plant in Avon Lake, Ohio located on Lake Erie.

Lake Erie has a complex ecosystem with many species in constant interaction. Human activity, such as pollution and maritime ship traffic, can affect this environment in numerous ways. The interactions between the new species can sometimes have beneficial effects, as well as harmful effects. Some introductions have been seen as beneficial such as the introduction of Pacific salmon.[39] Occasionally there have been mass die-offs of certain species of fish, sometimes for reasons unknown, such as many numbers of rainbow smelt in May 2010.[61]

  Invasive species

The lake has been plagued with a number of invasive species, including Zebra[39] and quagga mussels, the goby and the grass carp. One estimate was that there have been 180 invasive species in the Great Lakes, some having traveled in ballast water in international ships.[62] Zebra mussels and gobies have been credited with the increased population and size of smallmouth bass in Lake Erie.[63] In 2008 there were concerns that the "newest invader swarming in the Great Lakes", which was the "bloody-red shrimp", might harm fish populations and promote algae blooms.[64]

Environmentalists and biologists study lake conditions, such as the Franz Theodore Stone Laboratory on Gibraltar Island near Put-in-Bay which is the oldest "freshwater biological field station" and campus of Ohio State University.[62] In addition, the Great Lakes Institute of the University of Windsor has experts who study issues such as lake sediment pollution and the flow of contaminants such as phosphorus.[62]

  Eutrophication and the infamous dead zone

  The green scum shown in this image taken in October 2011 is the worst algae bloom Lake Erie has experienced in decades.

An ongoing concern is that "nutrient overloading from fertilizers, human and animal waste", known as eutrophication, in which additional nitrogen and phosphorus enter the lake, will cause plant life to "run wild and multiply like crazy".[65] Since there are fewer wetlands, which are like "Nature's kidneys" by filtering nutrients, as well as greater "channelization of waterways", nutrients in water can cause algal blooms to sprout as well as "low-oxygen dead zones" in a complex interaction of natural forces.[65]

There is a dead zone within the middle of the lake although its exact location varies. Scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have been studying the lake's blue-green algae blooms, and trying to find ways to predict when they are spreading or where they might hit landfall; typically the blooms arrive late each summer.[66] One account suggests that the seasonal algae blooms in Lake Erie were possibly caused by "runoff from cities, fertilizers, zebra mussels, and livestock near water."[66] A second report focuses on the zebra mussels as being the cause of "big oxygen-poor dead zones" since they filter so much sediment that they have resulted in the growth of algae.[39] One report suggests the oxygen-poor zone began about 1993 in the lake's central basin and becomes more pronounced during summer months, but it is somewhat of a mystery why this happens.[67] Some scientists speculate that the dead zone is a naturally occurring phenomenon.[62] Another report cited Ohio's Maumee River as the main source of polluted runoff of phosphorus from industries, municipalities, tributaries and agriculture, and in 2008, satellite images showed the algal bloom heading towards Pelee Island, and possibly heading to Lake Erie's central basin.[62] There have been two-year $2 million studies trying to understand the "growing zone" which was described as a "10-foot-thick layer of cold water at the bottom", 55 feet (17 m) in one area, which stretches "100 miles across the lake's center".[67] It kills fish and microscopic creatures of the lake's food chain and fouls the water, and may cause further problems in later years for sport and commercial fishing.[67]

  Snakes

  Northern Watersnake, Nerodia sipedon, is nonvenomous.

The Lake Erie water snake, a subspecies of the northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon), lives in the vicinity of Ohio's Put-in-Bay Harbor, and had been put on the threatened species list.[68] A threatened species is one which may soon become an endangered species.[69] By 2010, the water snake population was over 12,000 snakes.[68] While they have a non-venomous bite, they are a key predator in the lake's aquatic ecosystem since they feed on mudpuppies and walleye and smallmouth bass.[68] The snake was helpful in keeping the population of goby fish in check.[68] They mate from late May through early June and can be found in large mating balls with one female bunched with several males.[69]

  Asian carp

There was concern that Asian carp might enter the Great Lakes region and alter the ecosystem negatively.[29] They have been described as "greedy giants that suck plankton from the water with the brutal efficiency of vacuum cleaners" and scientists worry that they may unravel the "aquatic food web" by crowding out other species.[29]

  Snakehead fish

There was concern in 2007 that Snakehead fish could get into the Great Lakes area.[70] A YouTube video mentioned in a newspaper account has a man claiming that the fish could "bite your entire hand off", and officials warn that if the fish invades, it could "decimate the aquatic food chain".[70] The fish can reach 5 feet 11 inches (1.8 m) in length and "survive out of water for four days" and "has a mouth full of teeth that can sheer fish in half" and can "eat ducks and small mammals."[70]

  Snakehead fish.
It gets such huge sizes. It moves over land and it breathes air and it will eat anything it comes into contact with. That's what freaks people out about it, to see a fish moving across land gulping air.
—about the Snakehead fish, 2007, CanWest News Service[70]

  Agriculture and life around the lake

In 1999, Doppler radar weather sensors detected millions of mayflies heading for Presque Isle in blue and green splotches on the radar in clouds measuring ten miles (16 km) long.[71] These insects were a sign of Lake Erie's move back to health, since the mayflies require clean water to thrive.[71] Biologist Masteller of Penn State Erie declared the bugs to be a "nice nuisance" since they signified the lake's return to health after forty years of absence.[71] Each is an inch and a half long; the three main species of mayflies are Ephemera simulans, Hexagenia rigida and Hexagenia limbata.[71] The insects mate over a 72-hour period from June through September; they fly in masses up to the shore, mate in the air, then females lay up to 8,000 eggs each over the water; the eggs sink back down and the cycle repeats.[71] Sometimes the clouds of mayflies have caused power outages[72] as well as causing roads to become slippery with squashed insects.[71] Since zebra mussels filter extra nutrients from the lake, it allows the mayfly larve to thrive.[72]

  The Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) on Lake Erie.

There have been incidents of birds being poisoned by a nerve toxin named botulism, apparently ingested after eating fish infected with type E botulism, in 2000,[73] and in 2002.[74] Birds affected included grebes, common and red-breasted mergansers, loons, diving ducks, ring-billed gulls and herring gulls.[73] One account suggests that bird populations are in trouble, notably the woodland warbler, which had population declines around 60 percent in 2008.[39] Possible causes for declines in bird populations are farming practices, loss of habitats, soil depletion and erosion, and toxic chemicals.[39] In 2006, there were concerns of possible bird flu after two wild swans on the lake were found diseased, but it was learned that they did not contain the deadly H5N1 virus.[75] There were sightings of a magnificent frigatebird, a tropical bird with a two-metre wingspan, over the lake in 2008.[76]

  Water quality issues and restoration

Lake Erie infamously became very polluted in the 1960s and 1970s as a result of the quantity of heavy industry situated in cities on its shores, with reports of bacteria-laden beaches and fish contaminated by industrial waste.[77] In the 1970s, patches of the lake were declared dead because of industrial waste as well as sewage from runoffs; as New York Times reporter Denny Lee wrote in 2004, "The lake, after all, is where the Rust Belt meets the water."[9]

The water quality deteriorated partially due to increasing levels of the nutrient phosphorus[62] in both the water and lake bottom sediments. The resultant high nitrogen levels in the water caused eutrophication, which resulted in algal blooms and Algae masses[78] and fish kills increasingly fouled the shoreline during this period. There were incidents of the oily surfaces of tributary rivers emptying into Lake Erie catching fire: in 1969, Cleveland's Cuyahoga River erupted in flames,[78] chronicled in a Time Magazine article which lamented a tendency to use rivers flowing through major cities as "convenient, free sewers";[40] the Detroit River caught fire on another occasion.[39] The outlook was gloomy:

Each day, Detroit, Cleveland and 120 other municipalities fill Erie with 1.5 billion gallons of "inaequately treated wastes, including nitrates and phosphates ... These chemicals act as fertilizer for growths of algae that suck oxygen from the lower depths and rise to the surface as odoriferous green scum ... Commercial and game fish—blue pike, whitefish, sturgeon, northern pike—have nearly vanished, yielding the waters to trash fish that need less oxygen. Weeds proliferate, turning water frontage into swamp. In short, Lake Erie is in danger of dying by suffocation.
Time Magazine, August 1969[40]

These events embarrassed officials and spurred local officials, including Cleveland's director of public utilities, Ben Stefanski, to pursue a massive effort to "scrub the Cuyahoga"; the effort cost $100 billion in bonds, according to one estimate.[40] New sewer lines were built.[40] Clevelanders approved a bond issue by 2 to 1 to seriously upgrade Cleveland's sewage system.[40] Federal officials acted as well; the United States Congress passed the Clean Water Act of 1972.[78][79] In that year, the United States and Canada established water pollution limits in an International Water Quality Agreement. The controls were effective, but it took several decades to take effect; by 1999, there were signs that large numbers of mayflies were spotted on the lake after a forty-year absence signalling a return to health.[9][71] The clearing of the water column is also partly due to the introduction and rapid spread of zebra mussels from Europe, which had the effect of covering "the basin floor like shag carpeting" with each creature filtering "a liter of fresh water a day," helping to restore the lake to a cleaner state.[9] The 1972 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement also significantly reduced the dumping and runoff of phosphorus into the lake. The lake has since become clean enough to allow sunlight to infiltrate its water and produce algae and sea weed, but a dead zone persists in the central Lake Erie Basin during the late summer. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has studied this cyclic phenomenon since 2005.[80] There have been instances of beach closings at Presque Isle off the coast of northwestern Pennsylvania because of unexplained E. Coli contaminations,[81] possibly caused by storm water overflows after heavy downpours, but overall the lake's water quality has improved substantially since the late 1950s.

  Sunset from Cleveland pier.

Since the 1970s environmental regulation has led to a great increase in water quality and the return of economically important fish species such as walleye and other biological life.[82] There was substantial evidence that the new controls had substantially reduced levels of DDT in the water by 1979.[20] Cleanup efforts were described in 1979 as a notable environmental success story, suggesting that the cumulative effect of legislation, studies, and bans had reversed the effects of pollution:[20]

The globs of oil, the multicolored industrial discharges, the flotsam from shoreline cities, the fecal and bacterial wastes are no longer dumped in the lakes in vast quantities.

Joint U.S.-Canadian agreements pushed 600 of 864 major industrial dischargers to meet requirements for keeping the water clean.[20] One estimate was that $5 billion was spent to upgrade plants to treat sewage.[20] The change towards cleaner water has been in a positive direction since the 1970s.

  Other ecosystem related issues

There was a tentative exploratory plan to capture CO2, compress it to a liquid form, and pump it a half-mile (800 m) beneath Lake Erie's surface underneath the porous rock structure.[83] According to chemical engineer Peter Douglas, there is sufficient storage space beneath Lake Erie to hold between 15 to 50 years of liquid CO2 emissions from the 4,000 megawatt Nanticoke coal plant.[83] But there has been no substantial progress on this issue since 2007.

  Economy

  Fishing

  Species of fish

  Summer morning west of Cleveland

Lake Erie is home to one of the world's largest freshwater commercial fisheries. Lake Erie's fish populations are the most abundant of the Great Lakes, partially because of the lake's relatively mild temperatures and plentiful supply of plankton, which is the basic building block of the food chain.[29] The lake is "loaded with superstars" such as steelhead,[84] walleye (American usage) or pickerel (Canadian usage),[29][84] smallmouth bass,[84] perch,[84] as well as bass, trout, salmon, whitefesh, smelt, and many others.[29] The lake consists of a long list of well established introduced species. Common non-indigenous fish species include the rainbow smelt, alewife, white perch and common carp. Non-native sport fish such as rainbow trout and brown trout are stocked specifically for anglers to catch. Attempts failed to stock coho salmon and its numbers are once again dwindling. Commercial landings are dominated by yellow perch and walleye, with substantial quantities of rainbow smelt and white bass also taken. Anglers target walleye and yellow perch, with some effort directed at rainbow trout. A variety of other species are taken in smaller quantities by both commercial and sport fleets.

Up until the end of the 1950s, the most commonly caught commercial fish (more than 50% of the commercial catch) was a subspecies of the walleye known as the Blue Walleye (sander vitreus glaucus) sometimes erroneously called "blue pike". In the 1970s and 1980s, as pollution in the lake declined, counts of Walleyes which were caught grew from 112,000 in 1975 to 4.1 million in 1985, with estimates of the numbers of Walleyes in the lake at around 33 million in the basin, with many of 8 pounds or more.[85] Not all Walleyes thrived. The combination of overfishing and the eutrophication of the lake by pollution caused the population to collapse, and in the mid 1980s, one species of Walleye called the Blue Walleye was declared extinct. But the Lake Erie Walleye was reportedly having record numbers, even in 1989, according to one report.[86] There have been concerns about rising levels of mercury in Walleye fish; a study by the Canadian Ministry of the Environment noted an "increasing concentration trend" but that limits were within acceptable established by authorities in Pennsylvania.[87] It was recommended, because of PCBs, that persons eat no more than one walleye meal per month.[87] Because of these and other concerns, in 1990, the National Wildlife Federation was on the verge of having a "negative fish consumption advisory" for walleyes and smallmouth bass, which had been the bread-and-butter catch of an $800 million commercial fishing industry.[88]

The longest fish in Lake Erie is reportedly the sturgeon which can grow to ten feet long and weight 300 pounds, but it is an endangered species and mostly lives on the bottom of the lake.[89] In 2009, there was a confirmed instance of a sturgeon being caught, which was returned to the lake alive, and there are hopes that the population of sturgeons is resurging.[90]

  Commercial fishing

  Sunset on Lake Erie seen through a fishing net.

Estimates vary about the fishing market for the Great Lakes region. One estimate of the total market for fishing, including commercial as well as sport or recreational fishing, for all of the Great Lakes, was $4 billion annually, in 2007.[66] A second estimate was that the fishing industry was valued at more than $7 billion.[29]

But since high levels of pollution were discovered in the 1960s and 1970s, there has been continued debate over the desired intensity of commercial fishing. Commercial fishing in Lake Erie has been hurt by the bad economy as well as government regulations which limit the size of their catch; one report suggested that the numbers of fishing boats and employees had declined by two-thirds in recent decades.[29] Another concern had been that pollution in the lake, as well as toxins found inside fish, were working against commercial fishing interests.[78] U.S. fishermen based along Lake Erie "lost their livelihood" over the past few decades described as being "caught in a net of laws and bans", according to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, and no longer catch fish such as whitefish for markets in New York.[16] Pennsylvania had a special $3 stamp on fishing licenses to help "compensate commercial fishermen for their losses", but this program ended after five years turning Erie's commercial fishing industry into an "artifact."[16] One blamed the commercial fishing ban after a "test of wills" between commercial and recreational fishermen: "One side needed large hauls. The other feared the lake was being emptied."[16]

Commercial fishing is now predominantly based in Canadian communities, with a much smaller fishery—largely restricted to yellow perch—in Ohio. One account suggested that Canadian fishermen are "still at it and making money" and they "know how to fish" by "using the old nets."[16] The Ontario fishery is one of the most intensively managed in the world. However, there are reports that some Canadian commercial fishermen are dissatisfied with fishing quotas, and have sued their government about this matter, and there have been complaints that the legislative body writing the quotas is "dominated by the U.S." and that sport fishing interests are favored at the expense of commercial fishing interests.[91] Cuts of 30 to 45 percent for certain fish were made in 2007.[91] The Lake Erie fishery was one of the first fisheries in the world managed on individual transferable quotas and features mandatory daily catch reporting and intensive auditing of the catch reporting system. Still, the commercial fishery is the target of critics who would like to see the lake managed for the exclusive benefit of sport fishing and the various industries serving the sport fishery. In November 2010, Ontario's oldest and largest fish processor known as Great Lakes Fish Corporation was shut down after operating for a hundred years; 130 workers were laid off and numerous spinoff jobs disappeared, such as jobs at local restaurants and net repair shops.[92] According to one report, the Canadian town of Port Dover is the home of the lake's largest fishing fleet, and the town features miniature golf, dairy bars, French-fry stands, and restaurants serving perch.[15]

  Government regulation of fishing

The lake can be thought of as a common asset with multiple purposes including being a fishery. There was direct competition between commercial fishermen and sport fishermen (including charter boats and sales of fishing licenses) throughout the lake's history, with both sides seeking government assistance from either Washington or Ottawa, and trying to make their case in the "court" of public opinion through newspaper reporting.[37] But other groups have entered the political process as well, including environmentalists, lakefront property owners, industry owners and workers seeking cost-effective solutions for sewage, ferry boat operators, even corporations making electric-generating wind turbines.

Management of the fishery is by consensus of all management agencies with an interest in the resource and include the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan and the province of Ontario, and work under the mandate of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. The commission makes assessments using sophisticated mathematical modeling systems. The Commission has been the focus of considerable recrimination, primarily from angler and charter fishing groups in the U.S. which have had a historical antipathy to commercial fishing interests. This conflict is complex, dating from the 1960s and earlier, with the result in the United States that, in 2011, commercial fishing was mostly eliminated from Great Lakes states. One report suggests that battling between diverse fishing interests began around Lake Michigan and evolved to cover the entire Great Lakes region.[93] The analysis suggests that in the Lake Erie context, the competition between sport and commercial fishing involves universals and that these conflicts are cultural, not scientific, and therefore not resolvable by reference to ecological data.[94]

  Sport fishing

The lake also supports a strong sport fishery. While commercial fishing declined, sport fishing has remained, although one hitch for Americans seeking to fish in the lake is the problem that the "deeper and cooler waters" that spawn the best fishing is in the Canadian side of the lake.[95] As a result, a fishing boat that crosses the international border triggers the security concerns of border crossings; one article in USA Today advised fishermen to "pack your passport".[95] If their boat crosses the invisible border line in the lake, upon returning to the American shore, passengers will have to "drive to a local government reporting station and pose for pictures" to Customs officers by videophone.[95] There are cumbersome rules for fishing boat operators as well, who will have to fax passenger personal information to a government agency an hour before leaving; officers will be watching and doing spot checks from patrol boats and government aircraft".[95] Authorities in 2008 from the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission have tried stocking the lake with brown trout in an effort to build what's called a put-grow-and-take fishery.[96] There was a report that charter boat fishing increased substantially on the American side, from 46 to 638 charter boats in operation in Ohio alone, during a period from 1975 to 1985 as pollution levels declined, and after populations of Walleye increased substantially in the lake.[85] In 1984, Ohio sold 27,000 nonresident fishing permits, and sport fishing was described as "big, big business."[85] In 1992, there were accounts of fishermen catching 8, 10, and 12 pound Walleyes and that the "runt of a five-man daily limit of 25 walleye might be a nuisance of 5 pounds."[97] It is possible to fish off piers in winter although it can get "pretty darned cold on those piers" for a fish called the burbot, also known by pseudonyms such as eelpout, mudblow, lawyer fish, cusk, or freshwater cod, which looks "ugly" but tastes great; the burbot make a midwinter spawning run and is reportedly one of "Erie's glacial relics."[84]

  A drill used to bore hole for ice fishing.

  Ice fishing

In winter when the lake freezes, many fisherman go out on the ice, cut holes, and fish. It is possible to even build bonfires on the ice.[51]

But venturing on Lake Erie ice can be dangerous. In a freak incident in 2009, warming temperatures and winds of 35 miles per hour and currents pushing eastward dislodged a miles-wide ice floe which broke away from the shore, trapping more than 130 fishermen offshore; one man died while the rest were rescued by helicopters or boats.[98]

The day began with fishermen setting down wooden pallets to create a bridge over a crack in the ice so they could roam farther out on the lake. But the planks fell into the water when the ice shifted, stranding the fishermen about 1,000 yards offshore. ... Leslie Love, 65, of New Albany, Ohio, died of an apparent heart attack after his snowmobile broke through the ice while he was searching for a safe place to cross back to shore ... Ice on western sections of Lake Erie was up to 2 feet thick Saturday ... When fishermen realized late Saturday morning that the ice had broken away, they began to debate the best way off. Some chose to sit and wait for authorities, while others headed east in search of an ice bridge. ... Fishermen closer to the ice break used their cell phones to warn those farther from shore. ... Others managed to get to land on their own by riding their all-terrain vehicles about five miles east to where ice hadn't broken away. ... When the rescued fishermen made it to shore, authorities had them line up single-file to take down their names.
—John Seewer, February 2009[98]
  Sour cherry orchard on shoreline
at Leamington, Ontario

  Agriculture

  Winery on Middle Bass Island.

The lake's formerly more extensive lakebed creates a favorable environment for agriculture in the bordering areas of Ontario, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and New York. The Lake Erie sections of western New York State have a suitable climate for growing grapes, and in Chautauqua County there have been many vineyards and wineries in the area as well as in Erie County in northwestern Pennsylvania.[99] Much grape juice is produced in this region.[99] The Canadian region of Lake Erie's north shore is becoming a more prominent wine region as well; it has been dubbed the Lake Erie North Shore, or LENS region, and includes Pelee Island,[100] and since it is farther north than comparable wine-growing areas in the world, the season is longer in terms of light.[101] "Spring comes to LENS at least two weeks earlier and winter arrives a minimum of two weeks later than the rest of Ontario's wine regions", and the lake-moderated temperatures make the risk of early frosts less likely.[101]

The drainage basin has led to well fertilized soil. Ohio's north coast is widely referred to as the nursery capital.[102]

  Tourism

  Diving for shipwrecks

Lake Erie is a favorite for divers since there are many shipwrecks, perhaps 1,400 to 8,000 according to one estimate,[26] of which about 270 are "confirmed shipwreck locations."[26] Most wrecks are undiscovered but believed to be well preserved and in good condition and at most only 200 feet (61 m) below the water surface.[103] One report suggests there are more "wrecks per square mile" than any other freshwater location, including wrecks from Native American watercraft.[104] There are efforts to identify shipwreck sites and survey the lake floor to map the location of underwater sites, possibly for further study or exploration.[104] While the lake is relatively warmer than the other Great Lakes, there is a thermocline, meaning that as a diver descends, the water temperature drops about 30 degrees Fahrenheit (16.7 °C), requiring a wetsuit.[103] One estimate is that Lake Erie has a quarter of all 8,000 estimated shipwrecks in the Great Lakes.[103] They are preserved because the water is cold and salt-free creating "intact time capsules down there".[103] Divers have a policy of not removing or touching anything at the wreck else the "next person won't be able to see it"; when artifacts were removed on occasion, it was met by "outrage" by the diving community.[103] The cold conditions make diving difficult and "strenuous" requiring divers with skill and experience.[103] One charter firm from western New York State takes about 1,500 divers to Lake Erie shipwrecks in a typical season from April through October.[103]

Among the diving community, they are considered world class, offering opportunities to visit an underwater museum that most people will never see.
—reporter Shannon M. Nass of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2010[103]
  The Anthony Wayne side-wheel passenger and cargo steamship sank in 1850 but was rediscovered in 2006 by diver Tom Kowalczk about six miles (10 km) north of Vermilion, Ohio. It is believed to be the oldest archaeological steamship wreck in Lake Erie, according to the Great Lakes Historical Society.

In 1991, the 19th-century sidewheeler Atlantic was discovered.[105] It had sunk in a collision with the Ogdensburg, a steamship sometimes referred to as a propeller according to 19th century parlance, in 1852 six miles (10 km) west of Long Point, Ontario and survivors from the Atlantic were saved by the Ogdensburg.[105][106] One account suggests 130 people drowned[105] while another suggests about 20 drowned.[106] The aftermath of the disaster led to calls for authorities to seize captains of both ships so "that the cause of the collision may be correctly ascertained" as well as calls for more lifeboats and improved life preservers since the earlier ones proved to be "totally useless."[106] There was speculation that the sunken vessel had been a gambling ship, and therefore there might have been money aboard, but most historians were skeptical.[105] In 1998, the shipwreck of the vessel Adventure was the first shipwreck registered with the state of Ohio as an "underwater archaeological site"; when it was discovered that the Adventure's propeller had been removed and given to a junkyard, the propeller was rescued days before being converted to scrap metal and brought back to the dive site and back to its underwater home.[26] In 2003, divers discovered the steamer Canobie near Presque Isle, which sunk in 1921.[104] Other wrecks include the fish tub Neal H. Dow (1910), the Elderado "steamer-cum-barge" (1880),[104] the W. R. Hanna,[26] the Dundee which sank north of Cleveland in 1900,[26] the F. H. Prince,[26] and The Craftsman.[26] In 2007, the wreck of the steamship named after Mad Anthony Wayne was found near Vermilion, Ohio in 50 feet (15 m) of water; the vessel sank in 1850 after its boilers exploded, and 38 people died.[107] The wreck belongs to the state of Ohio and "salvaging it is illegal" but divers can visit it after it is surveyed.[107] Incidentally, the SS Edmund Fitzgerald sank in 1975 in Lake Superior and the disaster was chronicled in Gordon Lightfoot's The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald. In addition, there are wrecks of smaller vessels, with occasional drownings of fishermen.[108]

  The Canadian-built brig warship Caledonia sunk in Lake Erie in the War of 1812 and was described as a "stunningly well-preserved shipwreck" in the Canadian newspaper National Post. It sparked a legal battle about resurfacing it and using it as a tourist attraction.

The finding of the well-preserved wreck of the Canadian-built British troop transport warship Caledonia, sunk during the War of 1812, has led to accusations about plundering of the site and legal wrangling about whether the vessel should be resurfaced in time for the 2013 war's bicentennial.[109]

Research into shipwrecks has been organized by the Peachman Lake Erie Shipwreck Research Center, or PLESRC, located on the grounds of the Great Lakes Historical Society.[26] In 2008, the Great Lakes Historical Society announced plans to survey the underwater battle site of the Battle of Lake Erie in preparation for the bicentennial celebration of the battle in 2013.[26]

  Public parks

There are numerous public parks around the lake. In western Pennsylvania, a wildlife reserve was established in 1991 in Springfield Township for hiking, fishing, cross-country skiing and walking along the beach.[110] In Ontario, Long Point is a peninsula on the northwest shore near Port Rowan that extends 20 miles (32 km) into Lake Erie which is a stopover for birds migrating as well as turtles; one reporter found a "turtle-crossing" sign along the road; Long Point Provincial Park is located there and has been designated as a UNESCO Biosphere reserve.[15] In Ontario's Sand Hill Park, east of Port Burwell, there is a 450-foot (140 m) high dune which is so steep it requires people to "crawl like crabs to the summit" but they are rewarded with spectacular lake views.[59] In southern Michigan, Sterling State Park offers campgrounds, 1,300 acres (530 ha) for hiking, biking, fishing, boating, with a "white sandy beach" for sunbathing, swimming, and picnicking.[111]

  Biking

The New York Times reporter Donna Marchetti took a bike tour around the Lake Erie perimeter in 1997, traveling 40 miles (64 km) per day and staying at bed and breakfasts.[15] They went through the cities of Cleveland, Erie, Windsor, Detroit and Toledo as well as resort towns, vineyards, and cornfields.[15] The trip highlights were the "small port towns and rural farmlands of southern Ontario".[15] There are few bike repair shops in Ontario on the route.[15]

  Islands

  Lichen, moss and grasses on karstic limestone surface on Kelley's Island

Lake Erie islands tend to be in the westernmost part of the lake and have different characters. Some of them include:

  • Kelleys Island. One account in the Chicago Tribune depicted the charms of Kelleys Island to be "more subtle" than Put-in-Bay with activities such as beach lounging, hiking, biking, and "marveling at deep glacial grooves left in limestone."[14]
  • Pelee Island. There is a ferry from Leamington in Ontario to this largest of the Lake Erie islands.[15] According to one report, the island has a "fragile and unique ecosystem" with plants rarely found in Canada such as wild hyacinth, yellow horse gentian, and prickly pear cactus.[15] There are two endangered snakes including the blue racer and the Lake Erie water snake. Songbirds migrate there in spring, and monarch butterflies stop over during the fall.[15]
  • South Bass Island The island-village of Put-in-Bay, Ohio attracts young crowds who sometimes wear "red bucket hats" prone to "break off cartwheels in the park" and general merriment.[14] It was described in one account as the "party island" with "lovely, rocky cliffs" with a year-round population in the hundreds that "explodes during the gentle Midwestern summer."[14]
  Kite surfing is increasingly popular on the lake.

  Water sports

Kayaking has become more popular along the lake, particularly in places such as Put-in-Bay, Ohio.[9] There are spectacular views with steep cliffs with exotic wildlife and "100 miles of paddle-friendly shoreline."[9] Long distance swimmers have swum across the lake to set records; for example, a 15-year-old amputee swam the 12-mile (19 km) stretch across the lake in 2001.[112] In 2008, 14-year-old Jade Scognamillo swam from New York's Sturgeon Point to Ontario's Crystal Beach and completed the 11.9-mile (19.2-km) swim in five hours, 40 minutes and 35 seconds, and also became the youngest swimmer to make the crossing.[113] It is illegal for swimmers younger than 14 to attempt such a crossing.[113] In Port Dover, Ontario, brave swimmers do high-dives at the annual Polar Bear Swim on the beach; in 2011, the water was 32 °F (0 °C), although the air was warmer, which did not deter 14-year-old youth Austin Merrell.[114] Currents can pose a problem, and there have been occasional incidents of drownings.[115][116]

  Lighthouses

  Lighthouse on Mohawk Island, Ontario

The lake is dotted by distinct lighthouses. A lighthouse off the coast of Cleveland, beset with cold lake winter spray, has an unusual artistic icy shape, although sometimes ice prevents the light from being seen by maritime vessels.[117]

  Towns along the lake

A New York Times reporter, biking through the region in 1997, found the Ontario town of Port Stanley to be the "prettiest of the port towns" with a lively "holiday air" but no "ticky-tacky commercialism".[15]

  Vineyards

There are numerous vineyards around the lake, including ones on Pelee Island which makes wines including pinot noir, riesling and chardonnay.[15]

  Summer rentals

People can rent summer houses and cabins near the lake to enjoy the beaches, swimming, as well as be close to activities such as wine tours and fishing and water parks.[118] Presque Isle is a peninsula jutting out into the lake in northwestern Pennsylvania which has nice beaches, although there were incidents in 2006 when beaches had to be closed because of unexplained unhealthy water conditions with E. Coli bacteria.[81] It was described as a "spit of sand, trees and swamp that arcs off the shore" with seafood restaurants and beautiful sunsets.[16] Pelee Island, Canada's southernmost point and only three miles away from Ohio, is a place that "forces you to do nothing":

I spent the next couple of hours riding that guy's creaky, brown three-speed across the flat, open island in a flawless summer breeze. I saw kilometres of gentle, swaying soybean fields. Occasional dense stands of trees. A red-brick schoolhouse attended by 10 children. A dozen cars – most of the drivers offering a wave. And ... that's about it. No stoplights. Few businesses other than a bakery, a few B&Bs, a small grocery and a gift store. Certainly no chains or corporations. And that's the point ... excitement comes in the form of a pilgrimage to the old stone lighthouse.
—Josh Noel of the Nanaimo Daily News in 2010[119]

  Pleasure cruises

Pleasure boat operators offer dinner cruises in the Cleveland area on the Cuyahoga River as well as Lake Erie.[120]

  Folklore

  • Lake Erie Monster. There have been reports of persons spotting a creature akin to the Loch Ness Monster, but there have been no confirmed reports.[89] There were reports in 1990 of people seeing a "large creature moving in the water about 1,000 feet (300 m) from their boat" described as black in color, about 35 feet (11 m) long, with a "snakelike head", and moved as fast as a boat.[89] Five other people reported seeing something similar on three separate occasions but there is no scientific evidence of such a creature.[89] There is a beer named after the Lake Erie Monster as well as a hockey team.[121] There were reports of people spotting a sea creature in the 19th century which was sometimes called Bessie or South Bay Bessie.[121]
  Navigating the locks in the Welland Canal
  • Lake Erie Mirage Effect. There have been sporadic reports of people in Cleveland being able to see the Canadian shoreline as if it were immediately offshore, even though Canada is 50 miles (80 km) from Cleveland. It has been speculated that this is a weather-related phenomenon, working on similar principles to a mirage.[122]

  Shipping traffic

The lake has been a "bustling thoroughfare" for maritime vessels for centuries.[103][104] Ships headed eastwards can take the Welland Canal[123] and a series of eight locks descending 326 feet (99 m) to Lake Ontario which takes about 12 hours, according to one source.[15] Thousands of ships make this journey each year.[15] During the 19th century, ships could enter the Buffalo River and travel the Erie Canal eastwards to Albany then south to New York City along the Hudson River. Generally there is heavy traffic on the lake except during the winter months from January through March when ice prevents vessels from traveling safely.[123] In 2007, there was a protest against Ontario's energy policy which allows the shipping of coal in the lake; GreenPeace activists climbed a ladder on a freighter and "locked themselves to the conveyer belt device that helps to unload the ship's cargo"; three activists were arrested and the ship was delayed for more than four hours, and anti-coal messages were painted on the ship.[124]

The ship traffic in Lake Erie being the highest among the Great Lakes[125] and roughest of the lakes has led to it having the highest number of known shipwrecks in the Great Lakes. There have been other accidents as well; for example, in 2010 according to The Star, crewmen from the freighter Hermann Schoening were sickened by phosphine gas which had been used to fumigate or control pests; rescuers took them by tugboat to receive medical attention.[126]

  Ports

  Cleveland skyline in winter.

The Port of Cleveland generated over $350 million and over 15 million tons of cargo in a recent year. The port will begin work on a new set of docks with more efficient railway, road, and crane access. The current port facility is unable to handle larger cargo ships, and the cranes needed to lift goods such as steel to truck trailers are insufficient to meet current shipping standards. This project is planned to start in 2010 and will be completed by 2020.

  Ferryboats

Ferryboats operate in numerous places. But plans to operate a ferryboat between the U.S. port of Erie and the Ontario port of Port Dover ran into a slew of political problems, including security restrictions on both sides as well as additional fees required to hire border inspectors.[16] In particular, Canada was described as having a "sticky set of laws"; the project was abandoned.[16]

The Great Lakes Circle Tour is a designated scenic road system connecting all of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.[127] One reporter thought the roads on the Canadian side were narrower, sometimes without shoulders, but were less trafficked except for the roads around the Ontario towns of Fort Erie and Port Colborne.[15] Drivers can cross from the United States to the Canadian town of Fort Erie by going over the Peace Bridge.[15]

  Lake Erie airspace

In 2004, debris from a plane carrying 9 people was found off Lake Erie isle.[128]

  Border crossings

Since the border between the two nations is largely unpatrolled, it is possible for people to cross undetected from one country to the other, in either direction, by boat. In 2010, Canadian police arrested persons crossing the border illegally from the United States to Canada, near the Ontario town of Amherstburg.[129]

  See also

  Great Lakes in general

  Panoramic view of Lake Erie from Beach 7 (Waterworks Beach) in Presque Isle State Park in Erie County, Pennsylvania

  References

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  107. ^ a b "1850 shipwreck found in Lake Erie". Associated Press. The Star. Jun 21 2007. http://www.thestar.com/article/227944. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  108. ^ Art Barnum (April 19, 1994). "Lake Erie Search Ends For Missing Fisherman". Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1994-04-19/news/9404190247_1_lake-erie-toledo-and-cleveland-capsized. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  109. ^ Randy Boswell, Postmedia News (Sept. 12, 2010). "Fate of War of 1812 shipwreck playing out in U.S. courts". The National Post. http://www.nationalpost.com/news/Fate+1812+shipwreck+playing+courts/3514394/story.html. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  110. ^ Anya Sostek (December 25, 2010). "Western Pa. Conservancy secures 113 acres along Lake Erie". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/10359/1113491-454.stm. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  111. ^ Lee Grayson, Demand Media (2011-01-26). "Campgrounds in Southern Michigan". USA Today: Travel. http://traveltips.usatoday.com/campgrounds-southern-michigan-4805.html. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  112. ^ Tribune news services (September 9, 2001). "Disabled athlete swims 12 miles across Lake Erie". Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2001-09-09/news/0109090206_1_lake-erie-swim-miles. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  113. ^ a b Sunny Freeman (Jul 13 2008). "Girl, 14, smashes week-old record for Lake Erie swim". The Star. http://www.thestar.com/article/459375. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  114. ^ Dave Chidley (Jan. 02, 2011). "In Pictures: Revellers from coast to coast greet the New Year with a traditional cold-water swim". The Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/revellers-from-coast-to-coast-greet-the-new-year-with-a-traditional-cold-water-swim/article1855470/. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  115. ^ "Remains of Calgary rescuer recovered from Lake Erie: Woman, 53, missing since Monday". CBC News. August 25, 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/windsor/story/2010/08/25/windsor-pelee-recovery-missing-calgary.html. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  116. ^ Teri Pecoskie (Aug 19 2010). "Burlington man drowns in Lake Erie". The Star. http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/article/850325--burlington-man-drowns-in-lake-erie. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  117. ^ Dean Praetorius (December 16, 2010). "Frozen Lighthouse: Nature's Artwork On Lake Erie (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/12/16/frozen-lighthouse_n_797750.html. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  118. ^ Travis DeLingua, Demand Media (2011-01-24). "Cabins on the Beach on Lake Erie in Ohio". USA Today. http://traveltips.usatoday.com/cabins-beach-lake-erie-ohio-14696.html. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  119. ^ Josh Noel (April 21, 2010). "Lake Erie’s Pelee Island is the best place to do nothing". Nanaimo Daily News. http://www2.canada.com/nanaimodailynews/news/story.html?id=2924405. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 
  120. ^ Raechel Donahue, Demand Media (2011-01-26). "Dinner Cruises in Cleveland, Ohio". USA Today: Travel. http://traveltips.usatoday.com/dinner-cruises-cleveland-ohio-17645.html. Retrieved 2011-01-26. "Cleveland, Ohio, might not be the first destination that springs to mind when you think of dinner cruises, but Lake Erie – the smallest of the Great Lakes – accommodates several cruise operations, as does the Cuyahoga River. Ranging from romantic to raucous, Cleveland dinner cruises are affordable, entertaining and informative." 
  121. ^ a b Bob Batz Jr. (June 3, 2010). "The Lake Erie Monster is coming!". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/10154/1062551-389.stm?cmpid=news.xml. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  122. ^ Associated Press. "Erie Mirage May Be Real". Discovery.com. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2006/07/31/erie_pla.html?category=travel&guid=20060731110030. 
  123. ^ a b Staff writer (January 6, 1991). "Last Ship Clears Great Lakes". Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1991-01-06/travel/9101020283_1_lake-erie-st-lawrence-seaway-lake-ontario. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  124. ^ Peter Gorrie (Aug 31 2007). "3 Greenpeace members held in Lake Erie stunt". The Star. http://www.thestar.com/article/251941. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  125. ^ John Flesher, Associated Press (November 26, 2010). "Asian carp create nagging fear in Lake Erie towns". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/environment/2010-11-26-asian-carp_N.htm. Retrieved 2011-01-24. "Although the shallowest of the five lakes" 
  126. ^ Canadian Press (Dec 22 2010). "Fumes sicken Lake Erie freighter crew". The Star. http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/article/910804--fumes-sicken-lake-erie-freighter-crew. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  127. ^ Great Lakes Circle Tour. Great-lakes.net (2005-07-05). Retrieved on 2011-06-23.
  128. ^ Tribune news services (January 18, 2004). "Debris from plane carrying 9 found off Lake Erie isle". Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2004-01-18/news/0401180321_1_lake-erie-coast-guard-plane. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  129. ^ Trevor Wilhelm (August 19, 2010). "5 nabbed on Lake Erie beach for entering Canada illegally". The Windsor Star. http://www.vancouversun.com/news/Ontario+police+five+human+smuggling/3417695/story.html. Retrieved 2011-01-26. 

  Further reading

  • Assel, R.A. (1983). Lake Erie regional ice cover analysis: preliminary results [NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL 48]. Ann Arbor, MI: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.
  • Saylor, J.H. and G.S. Miller. (1983). Investigation of the currents and density structure of Lake Erie [NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL 49]. Ann Arbor, MI: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.

  External links

   
               

 

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