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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
|Languages of Mali|
|Official language||French (Standard)|
|National languages||Bambara, Bomu, Tieyaxo Bozo, Toro So Dogon, Maasina Fulfulde, Hasanya Arabic, Mamara Senoufo, Kita Maninkakan, Soninke, Koyraboro Senni Songhay, Syenara Senoufo, Tamasheq, Xaasongaxango|
|Lingua francas||Bambara, French, Fula (esp. in Mopti region), Songhai|
|Other important languages||Arabic (Classical), English|
Mali is a multilingual country. The languages spoken there reflect ancient settlement patterns, migrations, and its long history. Ethnologue counts 50 languages. Of these, French is the official language and Bambara is the most widely spoken. Altogether 13 of the indigenous languages of Mali have the legal status of national language.
French, which was introduced during the colonial period, was retained as the official language at independence and is used in government and formal education. However, estimates of the number of people who actually speak it are low. Figures estimated in 1986 give a number of 386,000 speakers of French in Mali, derived from the numbers of school attendees. This would mean roughly 21% of the population speak French, by 1986 figures, a number considerably lower than those who speak Bambara. Almost all people who speak French in Mali speak it as a second language. 1993 estimates are that there are only around 9,000 Malian speakers of French as a first language. French is more understood in urban centres, with 1976 figures showing a 36.7% "Francophone" rate in urban areas, but only an 8.2% rate in rural areas. French usage is gender weighted as well, with 1984 figures showing 17.5% percent of males speaking French, but only 4.9% of women.
Bambara, a Manding language (in the Mande family) is said to be spoken by 80% of the population as a first or second language. It is spoken mainly in central and Southern Mali. Bambara and two other very closely related Manding languages Malinke or Maninkakan in the southwest and Kassonke (in the region of Kayes in the west), are among the 13 national languages. Bambara is used as a trade language in Mali between language groups.
(Bambara is also very close to the Dioula or Jula language (Julakan), spoken mainly in Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso. The name "Jula" (Dioula in French translation) is actually a Manding word meaning "trader.")
Other Mande languages (not in the Manding group) include Soninke (in the region of Kayes in western Mali), Dogon languages (of Pays Dogon or Dogon country in central Mali), the Bozo languages (along the middle Niger).
Other languages include Senufo in the Sikasso region (south), Fulfulde (Peul in French) as a widespread trade language in the Mopti region and beyond, the Songhay languages along the Niger, Tamasheq in the eastern part of Mali's Sahara and Arabic in its western part.
Thirteen of the most widely spoken indigenous languages are considered "national languages."
Most formal education for the deaf in Mali uses American Sign Language, introduced to West Africa by the deaf American missionary Andrew Foster. There are two other sign languages in Mali. One, Tebul Sign Language, is found in a village with a high incidence of congenital deafness. Another, Bamako Sign Language, developed in the after-work tea circles of the cities; it is threatened by the educational use of ASL.
Most of the languages of Mali are part of the Mande language family, which is generally accepted as part of Niger–Congo, Africa's largest phylum. Other languages include the Dogon languages, perhaps another Niger–Congo branch, and the Senufo languages, which are unquestionably part of that family. Mande, Senufo, and Dogon stand out among Niger–Congo because of their deviant SOV basic word order. The Gur languages are represented by Bomu on the Bani River of Mali and Burkina Faso. Fulfulde, spoken throughout West Africa, is a member of the Senegambian branch.
Other language families include Afro-Asiatic, represented by the Berber language Tamasheq and by Arabic, and the Songhay languages, which have traditionally been classified as Nilo-Saharan but may constitute an independent language family.
The following table gives a summary of the 49 spoken languages reported by Ethnologue (NB- the sort by numbers of speakers does not work optimally):
|Language (Ethnologue)||Cluster||Language family||Legal status||L1 speakers in Mali*||L2 speakers in Mali**||Main region|
|French||Indo-European||Official||9,000||1,500,001||All (esp. urban)|
|Arabic, Hasanya||Arabic||Afro-Asiatic: Semitic||National||106,100||?||NW|
|Bambara, Bamanankan||Manding||Mande||National||2,700,000||8,000,000 ??||South, most of country|
|Bomu||Niger–Congo / Gur||National||102,000||?||SE|
|Dogon, Toro So||Dogon||National||50,000||?||Central-east|
|Fulfulde, Maasina||Fula||Niger–Congo / Senegambian||National||911,200||? (some L2 speakers)||Central|
|Senoufo, Mamara (Miniyanka)||Senufo||Niger–Congo||National||737,802||?||S|
|Songhay, Koyraboro Senni||Songhay (Southern)||National||400,000||? (a trade language)||N|
|Soninke (& Marka/Maraka)||Mande||National||700,000||?||NW|
|Tamasheq||Tamashek||Afro-Asiatic / Berber||National||250,000||?||N|
|Bobo Madaré, Northern||Mande||None?||18,400||?||SE|
|Bozo, Tièma Cièwè||Bozo||Mande||None?||2,500||?||Central|
|Dogon, Bangeri Me||Dogon||None?||1,200||?||Central-east|
|Dogon, Bondum Dom||Dogon||None?||24,700||?||Central-east|
|Dogon, Dogul Dom||Dogon||None?||15,700||?||Central-east|
|Dogon, Donno So||Dogon||None?||45,300||?||Central-east|
|Dogon, Kolum So||Dogon||None?||24,000||?||Central-east|
|Dogon, Tene Kan||Dogon||None?||127,000||?||Central-east|
|Dogon, Tomo Kan||Dogon||None?||132,800||?||Central-east|
|Dogon, Toro Tegu||Dogon||None?||2,900||?||Central-east|
|Jula, Dioula||Manding||Mande||None?||50,000||? (very close to Bambara)||SE, all?|
|Koromfé||Niger–Congo / Gur||None?||100||?||SE|
|Mòoré||Niger–Congo / Gur||None?||17,000||?||SE|
|Pana||Niger–Congo / Gur||None?||2,800||?||Central-east|
|Pulaar||Fula||Niger–Congo / Senegambian||None?||175,000||?||W|
|Pular||Fula||Niger–Congo / Senegambian||None?||50,000||?||SW|
|Sàmòmá||Niger–Congo / Gur||None?||6 villages||?||SE|
|Senoufo, Sìcìté||Senufo||Niger–Congo||None?||4 villages||?||SE|
|Songhay, Humburi Senni||Songhay (Southern)||None?||15,000||?||N|
|Songhay, Koyra Chiini||Songhay (Southern)||None?||200,000||?||N|
|Tamajaq||Tamashek||Afro-Asiatic / Berber||None?||190,000||?||N|
|Zarmaci||Songhay (Southern)||None?||2 villages||?||NE|
* First language / mother tongue speakers. Figures from Ethnologue. ** Second or additional language speakers. It is difficult to get accurate figures for this category.
might be similar in Mali:
In the Sahara:
French is part of the standard school curriculum. There is a new policy to use Malian languages in the first grades and transition to French.