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Leander class frigate

                   
HMS Apollo 1976 SMB-2008.jpg
HMS Apollo, 1976
Class overview
Name: Leander class
Operators:  Royal Navy
 Royal New Zealand Navy
 Chilean Navy
 Royal Netherlands Navy
Naval Jack of Pakistan.svg Pakistan Navy
 Ecuadorian Navy
Preceded by: Rothesay-class
Salisbury-class
Leopard-class
Tribal-class
Succeeded by: Type 21 frigate
In commission: 1963 - early 1990s
Completed: 26
Active: 0
Lost: 3 as artificial reefs and 2 as targets
Retired: 26
General characteristics
Type: Frigate
Displacement:

2,500 tons (later 2,790 tons) standard

2,962 tons (later 3,300 tons) full load
Length: 113.4 metres (372 ft)
Beam: 13.1 metres (43 ft)
Draught: 4.5 metres (15 ft)
Propulsion: 2 Babcock & Wilcox oil-fired boilers, geared steam turbines, 22,370 kilowatts (30,000 hp), 2 shafts
Speed: 27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph)
Range: 7,400 kilometres (4,600 mi; 4,000 nmi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)
Complement: 260
Sensors and
processing systems:

Radar:

  • Type 965 (air warning radar removed in batch 1 ships), Type 992 Q, Type 903, Type 974/978

Sonar:

  • Type 162, 184, 199, & later type 2031 towed array sonar
Armament:

Initial:

Batch 1:

  • 1 × Ikara Anti submarine missile Launcher
  • 2 × Seacat surface to air missile Launchers
  • 2 × 40mm guns - single mountings
  • 2 × triple 324 mm (12.75) STWS-1 tubes for Mk 46 and Stingray ASW torpedoes
  • 1 × Limbo ASW Mortar

Batch 2:

  • 4 × MM.38 Exocet anti ship missile launchers
  • 3 × Seacat surface to air missile Launchers
  • 2 × 40mm guns - single mountings
  • 2 × triple 324 mm (12.75 inch) STWS-1 tubes for Mk 46 and Stingray ASW torpedoes

Batch 3:

  • 4 × MM.38 Exocet anti ship missile launchers
  • 1 × sextuple GWS.25 launcher with 30 sea wolf SAMS
  • 2 × 20mm AA guns
  • 2 × triple 324 mm (12.75) STWS-1 tubes for Mk 46 and Stingray ASW torpedoes
Aircraft carried:

Initial and Batch 1:

Batch 2 and Batch 3:

The Leander-class, or Type 12I frigates,[1] comprising twenty-six vessels, was among the most numerous and long-lived classes of frigate in the Royal Navy's modern history.[citation needed] The class was built in three batches between 1959 and 1973. It had an unusually high public profile, due to the popular and acclaimed Warship BBC television drama series.[citation needed]

The Leander design or derivatives of it were built for other navies:

Contents

  Design

On 7 March 1960, the Civil Lord of the Admiralty C. Ian Orr-Ewing stated that the "Type 12 Whitby-class anti-submarine frigates are proving particularly successful... and we have decided to exploit their good qualities in an improved and more versatile ship. This improved Type 12 will be known as the Leander class. The hull and steam turbine machinery will be substantially the same as for the Whitbys. The main new features planned are a long-range air warning radar, the Seacat anti-aircraft guided missile, improved anti-submarine detection equipment and a light-weight helicopter armed with homing torpedoes. We shall also introduce air conditioning and better living conditions."[2] The 1963 edition of Jane's Fighting Ships described it as a "mainly anti-submarine but flexible and all purpose type".[3]

"The Leander class have the same hull and substantially the same steam turbine machinery as the Whitby class, but are a revised and advanced design and will fulfil a composite anti-submarine, anti-aircraft and air direction role. The 40mm guns will eventually be replaced by Seacat ship-to-air launchers. The ships are equipped with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar), formerly known as dipping asdic."[3]

The Y160 boiler variant used on the Batch 3 Leanders (such as Jupiter) also incorporated steam atomisation equipment on the fuel supply so the diesel fuel entering the boilers via the three main burners was atomised into a fine spray for better flame efficiency. Some Y100 Boilers were also converted to steam atomisation, HMS Cleopatra being one of them. The superheat temperature of the Y160 was controlled manually by the boiler room petty officer of the watch between 750–850 °F (399–454 °C) and the steam supplied to the main turbines was at a pressure of 550 psi (3,800 kPa). The Leander-class frigates did have Babcock and Wilcox boilers but of a more conventional two-drum design, one water drum and one steam drum, much like a Yarrow boiler without the second water drum. The water drum was offset to one side and below the furnace and steam drum. The two boilers fitted were 'handed' with the water drum inboard on both. Many Leanders had six burner furnaces (known as Five and a Half Boilers) and the output was varied by altering the number of burners in use.

  Construction programme

Royal Navy
Pennant Name (a) Hull builder
(b) Main machinery manufacturers
Laid down Launched Accepted into service Commissioned Estimated building cost[4]
First 10, Y-100 machinery [5]
F109 Leander (a) & (b) Harland & Wolff Ltd, Belfast.[6] 10 April 1959 [3] 28 June 1961 [3] March 1963 [6] 27 March 1963 [3] £4,630,000 [6]
F104 Dido (a) & (b) Yarrow & Co Ltd, Glasgow.[7] 2 December 1959 [3] 22 December 1961 [3] September 1963 [7] 18 September 1963 [3] £4,600,000 [7]
F127 Penelope (a) Vickers-Armstrongs (Shipbuilders) Ltd, Newcastle
(b) Vickers-Armstrongs (Engineers) Ltd, Barrow-in-Furness [7]
14 March 1961 [3] 17 August 1962 [3] November 1963 [7] 31 October 1963 [3] £4,600,000 [7]
F114 Ajax (a) & (b) Cammell Laird & Co (Shipbuilders and Engineers) Ltd, Birkenhead.[7] 19 October 1959 [3] 16 August 1962 [3] December 1963 [7] 10 December 1963 [3] £4,800,000 [7]
F10 Aurora (a) & (b) John Brown & Co Ltd, Clydebank[7][8] 1 June 1961 [3] 28 November 1962 [3] April 1964 [8] 9 April 1964 [5] £4,650,000 [7][8]
F18 Galatea (a) Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd, Wallsend-on-Tyne
(b) The Wallsend Slipway & Engineering Co Ltd, Wallsend-on-Tyne (steam turbines)
(b) Parsons Marine Turbines Co Ltd, Wallsend-on-Tyne (gearing).[7][8]
29 December 1961 [3] 23 May 1963 [3] April 1964 [8] 25 April 1964 [5] £4,500,000 [7][8]
F15 Euryalus (a) Scotts Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd, Greenock
(b) Scotts Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd (steam turbines)
(b) Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd, Glasgow (gearing).[8]
2 November 1961 [3] 6 June 1963 [3] September 1964 [8] 16 September 1964 [5] £4,350,000 [8]
F39 Naiad (a) Yarrow & Co Ltd, Glasgow
(b) Yarrow & Co Ltd, Glasgow (steam turbines)
(b) Parsons Marine Turbines Co Ltd, Wallsend-on-Tyne (gearing).[8]
30 October 1962 [3] 4 November 1963 [5] March 1965 [8] 15 March 1965 [5] £4,750,000 [8]
F38 Arethusa (a) JS White & Co Ltd, Cowes, Isle of Wight
(b) JS White & Co Ltd, Cowes, Isle of Wight (steam turbines)
(b) Parsons Marine Turbines Co Ltd, Wallsend-on-Tyne (gearing).[9]
7 September 1962 [10] 5 November 1963 [5] November 1965 [9] 24 November 1965 [5] £4,850,000 [9]
F28 Cleopatra (a) HM Dockyard, Devonport
(b) Cammell Laird & Co (Shipbuilders & Engineers) Ltd, Birkenhead (turbines)
(b) John Brown & Co Ltd, Clydebank (gearing).[9]
19 June 1963 [5] 25 March 1964 [5] February 1966 [9] 4 January 1966 [5] £5,300,000 [9]
Second 6, Y-136 machinery [5]
F42 Phoebe (a) Alexander Stephen & Sons Ltd, Linthouse, Glasgow
(b) Alexander Stephen & Sons Ltd, Linthouse, Glasgow (steam turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd, Huddersfield (gearing).[11]
3 June 1963 [5] 8 July 1964 [5] April 1966 [11] 15 April 1966 [5] £4,750,000 [11]
F45 Minerva (a) Vickers Ltd, Shipbuilding Group, Newcastle
(b) Alexander Stephen & Sons Ltd, Linthouse, Glasgow (steam turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd, Huddersfield (gearing).[11]
26 July 1963 [3] 19 December 1964 [5] May 1966 [11] 14 May 1966 [5] £4,700,000 [11]
F40 Sirius (a) HM Dockyard, Portsmouth
(b) JS White & Co Ltd, Cowes, Isle of Wight (turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd, Huddersfield (gearing).[11]
9 August 1963 [5] 22 September 1964 [5] June 1966 [11] 15 June 1966 [5] £5,600,000 [11]
F52 Juno (a) JI Thornycroft Ltd, Southampton
(b) JI Thornycroft Ltd, Southampton (steam turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd, Huddersfield (gearing)[12]
16 July 1964 [5] 24 November 1965 [5] July 1967 [12] 18 July 1967 [5] £5,020,000 [12]
F56 Argonaut (a) Hawthorn Leslie, Hebburn
(b) JS White & Co Ltd, Cowes, Isle of Wight (steam turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd, Huddersfield (gearing).[12]
27 November 1964 [5] 8 February 1966 [5] September 1967 [12] 17 August 1967 [5] £5,000,000 [12]
F47 Danae (a) HM Dockyard, Devonport
(b) JS White & Co Ltd, Cowes, Isle of Wight (steam turbines)
(b) Fairfields (Glasgow) Ltd (gearing).[12]
16 December 1964 [5] 31 October 1965 [5] October 1967 [12] 7 September 1967 [5] £5,720,000 [12]
Broad-beamed Leander Y-160 machinery [5]
F75 Charybdis (a) Harland & Wolff Ltd, Belfast
(b) Vickers Ltd, Engineering Group, Barrow-in-Furness.[13]
27 January 1967 [5] 28 February 1968 [5] June 1969 [13] 2 June 1969 [5] £6,330,000 [13]
F58 Hermione (a) Yarrow & Co Ltd, Glasgow
(b) Alex Stephen & Sons Ltd, Linthouse, Glasgow (steam turbines)
(b) Vickers Ltd, Engineering Group, Barrow-in-Furness (gearing).[13]
6 December 1965 [5] 26 April 1967 [5] July 1969 [13] 11 July 1969 [5] £6,400,000 [13]
F60 Jupiter (a) Yarrow & Co Ltd, Glasgow
(b) JS White & Co Ltd, Cowes, Isle of Wight (steam turbines)
(b) Vickers Ltd, Engineering Group, Barrow-in-Furness (gearing).[13]
3 October 1966 [5] 4 September 1967 [5] August 1969 [13] 9 August 1969 [5] £6,100,000 [13]
F69 Bacchante (a) Vickers Ltd, Shipbuilding Group, Newcastle
(b) JS White & Co Ltd, Cowes, Isle of Wight (steam turbines)
(b) Vickers Ltd, Engineering Group, Barrow-in-Furness (gearing).[13]
27 October 1966 [5] 29 February 1968 [5] October 1969 [13] 17 October 1969 [5] £6,200,000 [13]
F57 Andromeda (a) HM Dockyard, Portsmouth
(b) JS White & Co Ltd, Cowes, Isle of Wight (steam turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd, Huddersfield (gearing).[14]
25 May 1966 [5] 24 May 1967 [5] December 1969 [14] 2 December 1968 [5] £6,700,000 [14]
F71 Scylla (a) HM Dockyard, Devonport
(b) JS White & Co Ltd (turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd (gearing).[13]
17 May 1967 [5] 8 August 1968 [5] February 1970 [13] 12 February 1970 [5] £6,600,000 [13]
F12 Achilles (a) Yarrow & Co Ltd, Glasgow
(b) JS White & Co Ltd (turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd (gearing).[15]
1 December 1967 [5] 21 November 1968 [5] July 1970 [15] 9 July 1970 [5] £6,270,000 [15]
F16 Diomede (a) Yarrow & Co Ltd, Glasgow
(b) JS White & Co Ltd (turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd (gearing).[16]
30 January 1968 [5] 15 April 1969 [5] April 1971 [16] 2 April 1971 [5] £5,980,000 [16]
F70 Apollo (a) Yarrow & Co Ltd, Glasgow
(b) JS White & Co Ltd (turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd (gearing).[17]
1 May 1969 [5] 15 October 1970 [5] 10 June 1972 [17] 28 May 1972 [5] £6,573,000 [17]
F72 Ariadne (a) Yarrow & Co Ltd, Glasgow
(b) JS White & Co Ltd (turbines)
(b) David Brown & Co Ltd (gearing).[17]
1 November 1969 [5] 10 September 1971 [5] 10 February 1973 [17] 10 February 1973 [5] £6,576,000 [17]

  Midlife major refits

The entire class was given a standard weapons fit when built, with a 4.5in gun mount, Seacat missile system and Limbo ASW mortar. However, advances in weapons systems led to a number of different conversions being undertaken on various members of the class. This saw the class grouped into four broad batches:

  • Ikara - installation of the Ikara ASW missile system in place of the 4.5in gun mount.
  • Exocet/Seacat - installation of Exocet anti-ship missile system in place of 4.5in gun mount, plus additional Seacat surface-to-air missile systems.
  • Exocet/Seawolf - installation of Exocet anti-ship missile system in place of 4.5in gun mount; replacement of Seacat with single Seawolf surface-to-air missile system.
  • Gun - retained 4.5in gun mount and Seacat missile system.

  Batch 1, Ikara conversion

  Naiad, an Ikara conversion in 1982

Eight of the first ten Leanders were given the so-called "Batch 1" or "Ikara" conversion,[18] which saw the Ikara anti-submarine warfare missile installed in place of the 4.5in gun, plus an additional Seacat system.[19]

Ikara conversion
Pennant Name Commissioned conversion
Place undertaken Started Completed Cost[20]
Batch 1A
F109 Leander 27 March 1963 [3] Devonport [21][18] 8 June 1970 [21][22] 12 January 1973 [18][19][21] £7,587,000 [21]
F114 Ajax 10 December 1963 [3] Devonport [18][21] 19 October 1970 [21][22] 7 February 1974 [18][19][21] £8,269,000 [21]
F18 Galatea 25 April 1964 [5] Devonport [18][21] 4 October 1971 [21][22] 6 September 1974 [18][19][21] £9,217,000 [21]
Batch 1B
F10 Aurora 9 April 1964 [5] Chatham [18][21] 4 December 1974 [21][22] 27 February 1976 [18][19][21] £15,580,000 [21]
F39 Naiad 15 March 1965 [5] Devonport [18][21] 15 January 1973 [21][22] 20 June 1975 [18][19][21] £10,410,000 [21]
F15 Euryalus 16 September 1964 [5] Devonport [18][21] 7 May 1973 [21][22] 12 March 1976 [18][19][21] £12,127,000 [21]
F38 Arethusa 24 November 1965 [5] Portsmouth [18][21] 10 September 1973 [21][22] 7 April 1977 [18][19] £16,585,000 [21]
F104 Dido 18 September 1963 [3] Devonport [18][21] 7 July 1975 [21][22] 27 October 1978 [18][19][21] £23,006,000 [21]

  Batch 2, Exocet conversion

  Phoebe in 1990

Two of the Leanders with Y-100 machinery, and five out of the six with Y-136 machinery, were given the so-called "Batch 2" or "Exocet" conversion.[23] This conversion gave them Exocet anti-shipping missiles in place of the 4.5in gun mount, 2 additional Seacat systems, and the ability to operate the Lynx helicopter.[19]

Pennant Name Commissioned Exocet conversion
Place undertaken Started Completion date Cost
("Outturn")[20]
Planned Actual
Batch 2A
F28 Cleopatra 4 January 1966 [5] Devonport [21][23] 23 July 1973 [21][22] 19 December 1975 [19][21][23] £13,820,000 [21]
F42 Phoebe 15 April 1966 [5] Devonport [21][23] 5 August 1974 [21][22] 28 April 1977 [19][21][23] £18,204,000 [21]
F40 Sirius 15 June 1966 [5] Devonport [21][23] 10 March 1975 [22] 10 February 1978 [19][21][23] £21,598,000 [21]
F45 Minerva 14 May 1966 [5] Chatham [21][23] 1 December 1975 [21][22] 11 April 1979 [19][21][23] £31,575,000 [21]
Batch 2B
F56 Argonaut 17 August 1967 [5] Devonport [21][23] 23 February 1976 [21][22] 28 March 1980 [19][21][23] £30,262,000 [21]
F47 Danae 7 September 1967 [5] Devonport [21][23] 1 August 1977 [21][22] 8 April 1981 [19][21][23] £39,279,000 [21]
F127 Penelope 31 October 1963 [3] Devonport [19][21][23] 30 January 1978 [19][21][22] November 1981 [19][21] 15 January 1982 [21][23] £47,687,000 [21]
F52 Juno 18 July 1967 [5] Exocet conversion cancelled.[23]

  Batch 2, navigational training ship conversion

Juno, commissioned 18 July 1967 was converted to serve as a navigational training ship.[21] Work at Rosyth[21] began in January 1982 and completed in February 1985.[24]

  Batch 3, Seawolf conversion

  Andromeda in 1990

The Seawolf conversion gave the broad-beamed Leanders Exocet anti-shipping missiles in place of the 4.5in mounting, a Seawolf missile system in place of Seacat, Sonar 2016, and the ability to operate the Lynx helicopter.[19] Only five of the broad-beamed Leanders were converted to carry Seawolf. "Conversion of the remaining five was not undertaken on grounds of cost (£70 million for each refit) and, as a lesser consideration, to retain some ships for the NGS[Note 1] role."[25]

Seawolf conversion Batch 3A
Name (Pennant) Commissioned
Place undertaken Started Completion date Cost
("Outturn")[20]
Planned Actual
Andromeda
F57
2 December 1968 [5] Devonport [21][25] 3 January 1978 [21][22][26] 6 February 1981 [19][21][25] £59,990,000 [21]
Charybdis
F75
2 June 1969 [5] Devonport [19][21][25] 25 June 1979 [21][22][27] June 1982 [27] 16 July 1982 [21][25] £61,581,000 [21]
Jupiter
F60
9 August 1969 [5] Devonport [19][21][25] 28 January 1980 [21][22][27] July 1983 [27] 14 October 1983 [21][25] †£68,348,000 [21]
Hermione
F58
11 July 1969 [5] Chatham/Devonport [19][21][28] 14 January 1980 [21][22][27] January 1983 [27] 8 December 1983 [21][25] †£79,692,000 [21]
Scylla
F71
12 February 1970 [5] Devonport [19][21][25] 10 November 1980 [21][22][27] September 1983 [27] December 1984 [25] †£79,278,000 [21]

† = Latest estimate as at 14 December 1983.[21]

  Batch 2 TA & Batch 1B - towed array conversions

  Argonaut, a batch 2 Exocet conversion fitted with a towed array, in 1985. Note the platform at the stern added in the towed array conversion in 1982-83.

In 1981 the Admiralty said that intended to devote "substantial resources to improving the effectiveness of the sensors and anti-submarine weapons ... This includes the new passive towed array system that we hope to introduce into service next year."[29]

The former destroyer Matapan and the frigate Lowestoft were used for testing prototypes in 1978-81.[30] It was planned to install them on Rothesay conversions, but this was not possible due to industrial strikes.[30] Scheduling then made it easier to fit them on board four of the Batch II Leanders. "Compensation for the additional 70 tons of top weight included lowering the Exocet launchers. This interesting quartet was to have been followed by five Batch III Leanders, but the latter fell foul of the Nott cancellations. A fifth Leander, the Ikara-carrying HMS Arethusa, was fitted with a towed array in 1985, the year the towed-array trials ship Lowestoft was withdrawn from service."[30]

Admiral Sir Julian Oswald said to the Defence Committee in 1989, "in order to capitalise on the really very exciting and important development of towed arrays, we had to get them to sea as soon as we could. The only sensible, cost-effective option open to us was to take some relatively older ships - the Leanders - and convert them quickly to the towed array. We have done that with great success, and the peacetime patrols have achieved some remarkable results, but there has been a price to pay because of the age of those ships."[31]

In general, "as a ship gets older it tends to get noisier - the hull and also the propulsion system".[32] Admiral Sir Julian Oswald spoke "to counter the presumption that older ships get noisier. That is not necessarily true and it is not true, in my experience, in the case of the Leanders because understanding of ship generated noise is improving all the time and our techniques for countering it are improving - our noise monitoring and so on - so, despite the fact that these ships are getting older, they are in many cases managing to improve their performance with regard to ship noise."[33] Captain Geoffrey Biggs said "the Leanders are remarkably quiet in operation and our experience has been that they have made excellent towed-array platforms despite the rather short notice of actually getting the towed-array programme together to start with. They actually perform very well."[33]

Five ships were converted to use Waverley Type 2031Z towed array (passive search very low frequency). They were as follows:[34]

Pennant Name Commissioned Refit when towed array fitted
Started Completed
Batch 2A Exocet Leander (Batch 2TA)
F42 Phoebe 15 April 1966 [5] February 1981 [35] July 1982 [35]
F28 Cleopatra 4 January 1966 [5] January 1982 [35] April 1983 [35]
F56 Argonaut 17 August 1967 [5] August 1982 [35] November 1983 [35]
F40 Sirius 15 June 1966 [5] April 1985 [35] December 1985 [35]
Batch 1B Ikara Leander
F38 Arethusa 24 November 1965 [5] May 1985 [35] February 1986 [35]

  Royal Navy service

The ships performed excellently in Royal Navy service, with relatively low noise levels giving the 2031(I) towed sonar mounted during the 1970s a range of more than 100 miles, better than that of the more advanced 2031(Z) sonar when fitted in the Type 22 class.[citation needed] However, all Leanders in Royal Navy service were decommissioned by the early 1990s due to the ships' aging design and the high number of crew.[citation needed] Scylla was sunk 27 March 2004 as an artificial reef off Cornwall, ten years after her decommissioning in 1994.

  Running costs

Date Running cost What is included
1972-73 £250,000[36] Average annual maintenance cost per vessel for Leander-class frigates
1980-81 £6 million[37] Average current cost for a normal refit of a Leander class frigate.
1981-82 £6.8 million [38] Average annual running cost of Leander frigates at average 1981–82 prices and including associated aircraft costs but excluding the costs of major refits.
1985-86 £6.5 million[39] The average cost of running and maintaining a Leander-class frigate for one year.
1987-88 £3.8 million[40] The average annual operating costs, at financial year 1987-88 prices of a Leander-class frigate. These costs include personnel, fuel, spares and so on, and administrative support services, but exclude new construction, capital equipment, and refit-repair costs.

  Overseas service

Leander-class frigates were also successfully exported to serve in the Royal New Zealand Navy and Chilean Navy; in the latter they were designated as the Condell class. Further Leander-class frigates were built under licence in Australia as the River class for the Royal Australian Navy, India as the Nilgiri class and the Netherlands as the Van Speijk class. Royal Navy ships were sold to the navies of Chile, Ecuador, New Zealand (Bacchante becoming HMNZS Wellington and Dido becoming HMNZS Southland), India and Pakistan.

No original Leanders remain in service, but the Indonesia ex-Van Speijk class are still in service. Pakistan decommissioned the last of its Leander-class frigates, Zulfiqar, in January 2007,[41] Ecuador decommissioned both her Leanders in 2008.[42] India decommissioned her last Leander on 24 May 2012.[43]

HMNZS Canterbury, the last steam-turbine driven Leander-class frigate in the Royal New Zealand Navy, was decommissioned in Auckland on 31 March 2005 after 33 years operational service. In 2006 it was announced that the ship was to be sunk as a dive attraction in the Bay of Islands, and this was carried out on 3 November 2007 at Deep Water Cove.[citation needed]

  Fate

Royal Navy
Pennant Name Commissioned Major refits Fate
Batch 1 (Ikara conversion)
F109 Leander 27 March 1963 [3] Sunk as target 1989
F104 Dido 18 September 1963 [3] To New Zealand as HMNZS Southland 1983, paid out 1995 and sold for scrap
F114 Ajax 10 December 1963 [3] Scrapped 1988
F10 Aurora 9 April 1964 [5] Scrapped 1990
F18 Galatea 25 April 1964 [5] Sunk as target 1988
F15 Euryalus 16 September 1964 [5] Sold for scrap 1990
F39 Naiad 15 March 1965 [5] Sunk as target 1990
F38 Arethusa 24 November 1965 [5] Sunk as target 1991
Batch 2 (Exocet conversion)
F127 Penelope 31 October 1963 [3] To Ecuador 1991 as Presidente Eloy Alfaro.
F28 Cleopatra 4 January 1966 [5] Sold for scrap 1993
F42 Phoebe 15 April 1966 [5] Sold for scrap 1992
F45 Minerva 14 May 1966 [5] Sold for scrap 1993
F40 Sirius 15 June 1966 [5] Sunk as target 1998
F56 Argonaut 17 August 1967 [5] Sold for scrap 1995
F47 Danae 7 September 1967 [5] To Ecuador 1991 as Morán Valverde.[42] She was decommissioned in 2008, and put up for sale in December 2009.[42]
Batch 2
F52 Juno 18 July 1967 [5] Sold for scrap 1994
Batch 3A / broad-beamed Leander (Sea Wolf conversion)
F75 Charybdis 2 June 1969 [5] Sunk as target 1993
F58 Hermione 11 July 1969 [5] Sold for scrap 1997
F60 Jupiter 9 August 1969 [5] Sold for scrap 1997
F57 Andromeda 2 December 1968 [5] To India 1995 as training ship, Krishna. Decommissioned 24 May 2012.[43]
F71 Scylla 12 February 1970 [5] Sunk as artificial reef off Whitsand Bay 2004
Batch 3B / broad-beamed Leander
F69 Bacchante 17 October 1969 [5] To New Zealand 1982 as Wellington, sunk as artificial reef in Cook Strait 2005
F12 Achilles 9 July 1970 [5] To Chile 1990 as Ministro Zenteno, in reserve from 2006. Washed out to sea by a tsunami and scuttled, 2010
F16 Diomede 2 April 1971 [5] Extensive refit between 1991 and 1993.[41] To Pakistan 1988 as Shamsher, retired pre-2007 to salvage spare parts for Zulfiqar.[44]
F70 Apollo 28 May 1972 [5] Extensive refit between 1991 and 1993.[41] To Pakistan 1988 as Zulfiquar, retired from Pakistani service 4 January 2007.[41] Sunk as target 12 March 2010
F72 Ariadne 10 February 1973 [5] To Chile 1992 as General Baquedano, sunk as target 2004

  See also

  Notes

  1. ^ Naval gunfire support

  References

  1. ^ Postwar Frigates
  2. ^ Hansard HC Deb 07 March 1960 vol 619 cc39-200 Navy Estimates 1960-61, statement by the Civil Lord of the Admiralty (Mr. C. Ian Orr-Ewing), 7 March 1960.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Blackman, Raymond VB, Jane's Fighting Ships, 1963-64, pub Sampson Low Marston & Co Ltd, 1963, page 270.
  4. ^ "Unit cost, i.e. excluding cost of certain items (e.g. aircraft, First Outfits)."
    Text from Defences Estimates
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz Moore, John E, Jane's Fighting Ships, 1975-76, pub Macdonald and Jane's, 1975, ISBN 0-354-00519-7 pages 35405.
  6. ^ a b c Navy Estimates, 1963-64, page 71, Table 3 (Programme): List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1963
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Defence Estimates, 1964-65, page 73, Table 3 (Programme): List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1964
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Defence Estimates, 1965-66, page 75, Table 3 (Programme): List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1965
  9. ^ a b c d e f Defence Estimates, 1966-67, page 72, Table 3 (Programme): List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1966
  10. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships 1963-64 edition said that Arethus was laid down on 17 September 1964, however the 1975-76 edition says that she was laid down on 7 September 1964.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Defence Estimates, 1967-68, page 75, Table 3 (Programme): List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1967
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Defence Estimates, 1968-69, page 75, Table 3 (Programme): List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1968
    Note that the costs quoted in the Defence Estimates are slightly different from costs quoted by the Minister of State (Mr. John Morris) - see Hansard HC Deb 26 March 1969 vol 780 c302W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence how the cost of Leander-class frigates built in the Royal Dockyards compares with that of those built in commercial shipyards.
    Danae £5,720,000 (Defence Estimates) £5,830,000 (Hansard 26 March 1969)
    Juno £5,020,000 (Defence Estimates) £5,000,000 (Hansard 26 March 1969)
    Argonaut £5,000,000 (Defence Estimates) £5,000,000 (Hansard 26 March 1969)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Defence Estimates, 1970-71, page XII-81, Table V: List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1970
  14. ^ a b c Defence Estimates, 1969-70, page 75, Table 3 (Programme): List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1969
  15. ^ a b c Defence Estimates, 1971-72, page XII-81, Table V: List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1971
  16. ^ a b c Defence Estimates, 1972-73, page XII-92, Table V: List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1972
  17. ^ a b c d e f Defence Estimates, 1973-74, page XII-96, Table V: List and particulars of new ships which have been accepted or are expected to be accepted into HM service during the Financial Year ended 31st March 1973
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Marriott, Leo, Royal Navy Frigates since 1945 second edition , pub Ian Allan Ltd, 1990, ISBN 0-7110-1915-0 page 87.
    Note that Marriott gives slightly different dates than Hansard (6 July 1981) for the completion of the following refits:
    Leander Dec 1972 (Marriott) Jan 1973 (Hansard)
    Ajax Sep 1973 (Marriott) Feb 1974 (Hansard)
    Aurora Mar 1976 (Marriott) Feb 1976 (Hansard)
    Naiad Jul 1975 (Marriott) Jun 1975 (Hansard)
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Hansard HC Deb 06 July 1981 vol 8 c47W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence which frigates are now undergoing major refits; at which dockyards; when they commenced; and when they are planned to be completed.
  20. ^ a b c Hansard HC Deb 14 December 1983 vol 50 c473W The phrase used in Hansard was Outturn.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc Hansard HC Deb 14 December 1983 vol 50 c473W] Refit dates and costs for Leander-class frigates, 14 December 1983.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Royal Navy Postwar: Leander Class General Purpose Frigate (Type 12 Improved)
    Note that this source says that Penelope started her Exocet conversion in January 1978, which agrees with Hansard (14 December 1983), which says 30 January 1978, but disagrees with Hansard (6 July 1981) recorded that Penelope started her conversion in June 1978. It also gives a different start date for Arethusa - October 1973, whereas Hansard (14 December 1983) quotes 10 September 1973 It gives a different start date for Andromeda - March 1978, whereas Hansard (14 December 1983) quotes 3 January 1978.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Marriott, Leo, Royal Navy Frigates since 1945 second edition , pub Ian Allan Ltd, 1990, ISBN 0-7110-1915-0 page 90.
    Note that Marriott gives slightly different dates than Hansard (6 July 1981) or Hansard 14 Dec 1983 for the completion of the following refits:
    Cleopatra Nov 1975 (Marriott) Dec 1975 (Hansard 6 July 1981)
    Sirius Oct 1977 (Marriott) Feb 1978 (Hansard 6 July 1981)
    Minerva Mar 1979 (Marriott) Apr 1979 (Hansard 6 July 1981)
    Danae Sep 1980 (Marriott) Apr 1981 (Hansard 6 July 1981)
    Penelope Mar 1981 (Marriott) 15 Jan 1982 (Hansard 14 Dec 1983)

    In addition, Marriot states that Juno's Exocet conversion was cancelled in 1984. However Hansard (14 December 1983) states "Juno is currently being converted at Rosyth to serve as a navigational training ship."

  24. ^ Hansard HC Deb 14 July 1987 vol 119 cc437-40W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence asking for a list by class the destroyers and frigates presently 438W serving in the Royal Navy showing for each vessel the current age and the dates between which they have undergone major refits, 14 July 1987.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Marriott, Leo, Royal Navy Frigates since 1945 second edition , pub Ian Allan Ltd, 1990, ISBN 0-7110-1915-0 page 92.
    There are also some differences between Marriott and Hansard on the following completion dates:
    Andromeda December 1980 (Marriott) February 1981 (Hansard 6 July 1981)
    Charybdis August 1982 (Marriott) 16 July 1982 (Hansard 14 December 1983)
    Hermione June 1983 (Marriott) 8 December 1983 (Hansard 14 December 1983)
  26. ^ Marriott, Leo, Royal Navy Frigates since 1945 second edition , pub Ian Allan Ltd, 1990, ISBN 0-7110-1915-0 page 92 says that she paid off in January 1978.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h Hansard HC Deb 06 July 1981 vol 8 c47W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence which frigates are now undergoing major refits; at which dockyards; when they commenced; and when they are planned to be completed.
    Hansard HC Deb 30 November 1981 vol 14 c23W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence asking how many Leander-class frigates are undergoing modernising refits at an estimated unit cost equal to or exceeding the figure of £70 million, 30 November 1981.
    The answers given on 6 July and 30 November 1981 for the start and forecast completion times for Jupiter, Scylla, Charydis, and Hermione are identical, except that on 6 July 1981, it was stated that Charydis was forecast to complete in June 1983, and on 30 November, it was stated that she was forecast to complete in June 1982.
  28. ^ Marriott puts Hermiones Seawolf conversion at Devonport, whereas 6 July 1981, Hansard puts it at Chatham.
  29. ^ "Hansard HC Deb 22 July 1981 vol 9 cc326-409 Debate on the Royal Navy". 22 July 1981. http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1981/jul/22/royall-navy. 
  30. ^ a b c Friedman, Norman (2006). British Destroyers and Frigates, the Second World War and After. Seaforth. p. 302.. ISBN 978-1-84832-015-4. 
  31. ^ Defence Committee, sixth report, The Royal Navy's Surface Fleet: Current Issues - report, together with the proceedings of the committee, minutes of evidence and memoranda, pub HMSO, 21 June 1989, minutes of evidence pages 12-13.
  32. ^ Defence Committee, sixth report, The Royal Navy's Surface Fleet: Current Issues - report, together with the proceedings of the committee, minutes of evidence and memoranda, pub HMSO, 21 June 1989, minutes of evidence page 3, remarks by former naval officer Jonathan Sayeed MP.
  33. ^ a b Defence Committee, sixth report, The Royal Navy's Surface Fleet: Current Issues - report, together with the proceedings of the committee, minutes of evidence and memoranda, pub HMSO, 21 June 1989, minutes of evidence page 3.
  34. ^ Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships 1988-89, pub Jane's Publishing Company Ltd, 1988, ISBN 0-7106-058-6, page 660 lists five ships as having Type 2031Z towed arrays: Arethusa, Cleopatra, Sirius, Phoebe, and Argonaut. The last four were described by Jane's as "Batch 2TA".
    Defence Committee, sixth report, The Royal Navy's Surface Fleet: Current Issues - report, together with the proceedings of the committee, minutes of evidence and memoranda, pub HMSO, 21 June 1989, page xviii lists four Exocet Leanders described as Batch 2A: Cleopatra, Sirius, Phoebe, and Argonaut. "Batch 2A are fitted with towed array sonar."
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Marriott, Leo, Royal Navy Frigates since 1945 second edition , pub Ian Allan Ltd, 1990, ISBN 0-7110-1915-0 page 98 lists which year the 'Leanders completed the refits in which the towed array was fitted.
    Friedman, Norman, British Destroyers and Frigates, the Second World War and After, pub Seaforth, 2006, ISBN 978-1-84832-015-4 page 302 says that the prototype Type 2031 was installed on Cleopatra, the conversion beginning in 1980, and that Arethusa's towed array was fitted in 1985.
    Hansard (22 July 1981) made it clear that towed-arrays were not in service in 1981, but that it was intended to introduce them into service in 1982.
    Hansard HC Deb 14 July 1987 vol 119 cc437-40W contains a list of all the refits by the Leanders up to 14 July 1987.
    Ship Year completed refit
    (Marriott)
    Year fitted or started fitting
    (Friedman)
    Dates of refits 1979-87
    (Hansard {14 Jul 1987})
    Phoebe 1982 Refit
    Feb 1981 - Jul 1982
    Refit
    May 1986 - Feb 1987
    Argonaut 1983 Major refit
    Feb 1976 - Mar 1980
    Refit
    Aug 1982 - Nov 1983
    Cleopatra 1984 1980 Refit
    Oct 1978 - May 1979
    Refit
    Jan 1982 - Apr 1983
    Refit
    Mar 1987 - unknown
    Sirius 1985 Refit
    May 1981 - Jul 1982
    Refit
    Apr 1985 - Dec 1985.
    Arethusa Not stated 1985 Refit
    May 1980 - Mar 1981
    Comparator refit
    May 1985 - Feb 1986
  36. ^ Hansard HC Deb 16 December 1974 vol 883 c316W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about the approximate annual average refit cost per vessel for (a) a County class destroyer and (b) a Leander class frigate, 16 December 1974.
  37. ^ Hansard HC Deb 09 June 1981 vol 6 c121W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence about the cost of (a) a mid-life and (b) a normal refit for a Leander class frigate, 9 June 1981.
  38. ^ Hansard HC Deb 16 July 1982 vol 27 cc485-6W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 1982.
  39. ^ Hansard HC Deb 22 January 1987 vol 108 c730W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 22 January 1987.
  40. ^ Hansard HC Deb 10 March 1989 vol 148 c44W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 10 March 1989.
  41. ^ a b c d http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/f-shamsher.htm
  42. ^ a b c Expreso, 1 December 2009, Marina subastará el Morán Valverde[dead link]
  43. ^ a b "INS Krishna, one of Indian Navy’s 1st Training Squadron Ships, decommissioned". kemmannu.com. http://www.kemmannu.com/index.php?action=highlights&type=3256. Retrieved 2012-05-28. 
  44. ^ http://www.ordersofbattle.darkscape.net/site/history/volume4/432/pn%20frigates%203C.htm

  Bibliography

  • The Encyclopedia of Warships, From World War Two to the Present Day, General Editor Robert Jackson
  • Modern Combat Ships 1: Leander Class, by Commander C.J. Meyer OBE, RN
  • Leander Class Frigates, by Jim Allaway
  • Leander Class Frigates, by Richard Osborne and David Sowdon

  External links

   
               

 

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