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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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Other names: Dokdo, Takeshima
|Location of the Liancourt Rocks in the Sea of Japan (East Sea) between South Korea and Japan|
|Location||Sea of Japan (East Sea)|
|Total islands||90 (37 permanent land)|
|Major islands||East Islet, West Islet|
|Area||0.18745 square kilometres (46.32 acres)
East Islet: 0.0733 square kilometres (18.1 acres)
West Islet: 0.08864 square kilometres (21.90 acres)
|Highest point||unnamed location on West Islet
169 metres (554 ft)
|County||Ulleung County, North Gyeongsang|
|Population||2 + 43 support personnel (in rotation)|
The Liancourt Rocks, also known as Dokdo or Tokto (독도/獨島, literally "solitary island") in Korean or Takeshima (たけしま/竹島, literally "bamboo island") in Japanese, are a group of small islets in the Sea of Japan (East Sea). Sovereignty over the islets is disputed between Japan and South Korea. South Korea currently has its Coast Guard stationed there.
The Franco-English name of the islets derives from Le Liancourt, the name of a French whaling ship which came close to being wrecked on the rocks in 1849. Both the Korean and Japanese names have changed over time, a testament to the historical confusion over the subject which led to today's heated dispute.
The Liancourt Rocks consist of two main islets and 35 smaller rocks. The total surface area of the islets is 0.18745 square kilometres (46.32 acres), with the highest elevation of 169 metres (554 ft) found at an unnamed location on the west islet. Two Korean citizens—an octopus fisherman and his wife—are permanent residents on the islets. A small Korean police detachment, administrative personnel, and lighthouse staff are stationed in non-permanent supporting positions on the islets.
The islets lie in rich fishing grounds which could also contain large gas deposits.
The Liancourt Rocks consist of two main islets and numerous surrounding rocks. The two main islets, called Seodo (서도/西島, "Western Island") and Dongdo (동도/東島, "Eastern Island") in Korean, and Otokojima (男島, "Male Island") and Onnajima (女島, "Female Island") in Japanese, are 151 metres (495 ft) apart. The Western Island is the larger of the two, with a wider base and higher peak, while the Eastern Island offers more usable surface area.
Altogether, there are about 90 islets and reefs, volcanic rocks formed in the Cenozoic era, more specifically 4.6 to 2.0 million years ago. A total of 37 of these islets are recognized as permanent land.
The total area of the islets is about 187,450 square metres (46.32 acres), with their highest point at 169 metres (554 ft) on the West Islet. The West Islet is about 88,640 square metres (21.90 acres); the East Islet is about 73,300 square metres (18.1 acres).
The West Islet consists of a single peak and features many caves along the coastline. The cliffs of the East Islet are about 10 to 20 metres (33 to 66 ft) high. There are two large caves giving access to the sea, as well as a crater.
In 2006, a geologist reported that the islets formed 4.5 million years ago and are quickly eroding.
Liancourt Rocks are located at about 131°52´ East longitude and about 37°14´ North latitude. The West Islet is located at and the East Islet is located at .
Due to their location and extremely small size, the Liancourt Rocks sometimes have harsh weather. At times, ships are unable to dock because of strong northwestern winds in winter. Overall, the climate is warm and humid, and heavily influenced by warm sea currents. Precipitation is high throughout the year (annual average—1,324 millimetres or 52.1 inches), with occasional snowfall. Fog is also a common sight. In the summer, southerly winds dominate. The water around the islets is about 10 °C (50 °F) in spring, when the water is coolest. It warms to about 25 °C (77 °F) in August.
The islets are volcanic rocks, with only a thin layer of soil and moss. About 49 plant species, 107 bird species, and 93 insect species have been found to inhabit the islets, in addition to local marine life with 160 algal and 368 invertebrate species identified. Although between 1,100 and 1,200 litres of fresh water flow daily, desalinization plants have been installed on the islets for human consumption because existing spring water suffers from guano contamination. Since the early 1970s trees and some types of flowers were planted. According to historical records, there used to be trees indigenous to Liancourt Rocks, which have supposedly been wiped out by overharvesting and fires caused by bombing drills over the islets. A recent investigation, however, identified ten spindle trees aged 100–120 years. The presence of trees is required under international law for the islets to be recognized as natural islands rather than reefs.
There are two permanent Korean citizens, Kim Sung-do (김성도) and Kim Shin-yeol (김신열), living on the islets, who make a living from fishing. In addition to these residents, there are 37 South Korean police officers (독도경비대/獨島警備隊) who take residence on guard duty. There are also three Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries personnel, and three lighthouse keepers living on the islets in rotation. In the past, several fishermen also lived on the islets temporarily.
For many years, civilian travel was subject to Korean government approval because the islet group is designated as a nature reserve. Tourist boats carrying 1,597 visitors were allowed to land in 2004. Since mid-March 2005, more tourists have been allowed to land; up to 70 tourists are permitted at any one time. One ferry provides rides to the islets every day, and reportedly has a long waiting list. Around 60% of visitors on the ferry are allowed to land in port on the East Islet while the rest are given a tour around the islets. En route to Liancourt Rocks, the ferry shows an animated film featuring a giant robot warding off Japanese invaders. Tour companies charge around 350,000 Korean won per person (approx. 250 US dollars as of 2009[update]).
South Korea have carried out much construction work on Liancourt Rocks. Today, the islands house a lighthouse, a helicopter pad, a large South Korean flag visible from the air, a post box, a staircase, and police barracks. In 2007, two desalinization plants were built capable of producing 28 tons of clean water every day. Both of the major Korean telephone companies have installed cell phone towers on the islets.
There is a serious concern for pollution in the seas surrounding Liancourt Rocks. The sewage water treatment system established on the islets has malfunctioned and sewage water produced by inhabitants of Liancourt Rocks such as South Korean Coast Guard and lighthouse staff is being dumped directly into the ocean. Significant water pollution has been observed; sea water has turned milky white, sea vegetation is progressively dying off, and calcification of coral reefs is spreading. The pollution is also causing loss of biodiversity in the surrounding seas. In November 2004, eight tons of malodorous sludge was being dumped into the ocean every day. Efforts have since been made by both public and private organizations to help curb the level of pollution surrounding the Rocks.
The Liancourt Rocks are a point of heated contention, alongside other Japan–Korea disputes. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs considers its position "inalterable". South Korea, for its part, maintains a nationwide educational program which sends students from 62 elementary, middle, and high schools on field trips to the rocks on a regular basis. The government has also written a textbook about the rocks, intended to be used in elementary schools across the country, and manages a year-round national educational tour. When Japan's Shimane prefecture announced a "Takeshima Day" in 2005, Koreans reacted with demonstrations and protests throughout the country, extreme examples of which included a mother and son slicing off their own fingers, and a man who set himself on fire. In 2006, five Korean "Dokdo Riders" embarked on a world tour to raise international awareness of the dispute. Another notable protest featured South Koreans decapitating pheasants in front of the Japanese Embassy.
Both nations' claims extend back at least several hundred years. Significant arguments supported by a variety of historical evidence have been presented by both parties, which have been challenged by counter-arguments with varying degrees of success. North Korea, technically still at war with South Korea, supports South Korea's claim.
|Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia|
|Type||Territory||Currently administered by||Claimants|
|Land:||Aksai Chin||People's Republic of China||People's Republic of China, Republic of China1, India|
|Baekdu/Changbai Mountain||North Korea, People's Republic of China||North Korea, South Korea, People's Republic of China, Republic of China|
|Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky (Eastern part)1||People's Republic of China, Russia||Republic of China1|
|Indo-Bangladesh enclaves2||Bangladesh, India||Bangladesh, India|
|Kachin State||Burma,||Burma, Republic of China1|
|Kashmir2||India, Pakistan||India, Pakistan|
|Korean Peninsula and its adjacent islands||South Korea, North Korea||South Korea, North Korea|
|Mainland China1||People's Republic of China||People's Republic of China, Republic of China|
|North Borneo (Sabah)1||Malaysia||Malaysia, Philippines|
|Outer Mongolia1||Mongolia||Republic of China, Mongolia|
|Pamir Mountains2||Afghanistan, Tajikistan||Afghanistan, Republic of China1, Tajikistan|
|Sixty-Four Villages East of the River1||Russia||Republic of China1, Russia|
|South Tibet||India||People's Republic of China, Republic of China1, India|
|Tannu Uriankhai (now Tuva Republic of Russia)1||Russia||Republic of China1, Russia|
|Trans-Karakoram Tract||People's Republic of China||People's Republic of China, Republic of China1, India|
|Islands and waters:||Senkaku Islands / Diaoyutai||Japan||People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Japan|
|Quemoy||Republic of China||People's Republic of China, Republic of China|
|Kori Creek1||India, Pakistan||India, Pakistan|
|Liancourt Rocks||South Korea||South Korea, North Korea1, Japan|
|Macclesfield Bank||People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Philippines|
|Matsu||Republic of China||People's Republic of China, Republic of China|
|Paracel Islands||People's Republic of China||People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Vietnam|
|Pedra Branca, Middle Rocks, and South Ledge||Singapore||Malaysia, Singapore|
|Pratas Islands||Republic of China||People's Republic of China, Republic of China|
|Scarborough Shoal||People's Republic of China, Philippines||People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Philippines|
|Socotra Rock||South Korea||South Korea, People's Republic of China1|
|Southern Kuril Islands||Russia||Russia, Japan|
|Spratly Islands2||People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam||Brunei, People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam|
|Taiwan and Penghu1||Republic of China||People's Republic of China, Republic of China|
2Divided among multiple claimants.