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definition - List_of_Canadian_monarchs

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List of Canadian monarchs

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This page lists those monarchs who have reigned over Canada since Confederation in 1867, at which time the country was deemed to have become a kingdom in its own right,[1][2] though before that date the territories that today comprise Canada were reigned over by successive European monarchs since 1534.

While Canada became self-governing Dominion within the British Empire in 1867, the concept of the state being fully independent, and sharing a sovereign with the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms, did not emerge until the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931. Since that time,[3] the Canadian Crown has been recognized as legally distinct from the crowns of the other Commonwealth realms, meaning that Canada is a kingdom in its own right with a distinct national monarch.[N 1][5][6] Still, though the term King of Canada was used as early as the beginning of the reign of George VI,[7] it was not until 1953 that the style was made official; Elizabeth II was the first monarch to be separately proclaimed as Queen of Canada, by the Royal Style and Titles Act.

Contents

Monarchs of Canada

Sovereigns of Canada from 1867 to present:
#NameImageReign
House of Hanover
Canada; Dominion of the British Empire
1Victoria[N 2] 1 July 1867 – 22 January 1901
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
2Edward VII 22 January 1901 – 6 May 1910
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1910 – 1917), then House of Windsor
3George V 6 May 1910 –
Canada; kingdom sharing monarch with other realms of the Commonwealth
3George V  – 20 January 1936
4Edward VIII 20 January 1936 – 11 December 1936
5George VI 11 December 1936 – 6 February 1952
6Elizabeth II 6 February 1952 – Present

List of royal consorts of Canada

See also: List of titles and honours of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh > Royal and noble titles and styles

A royal consort is the spouse of a ruling king or queen. Consorts of Canadian monarchs have no constitutional status or power, but are members of the Canadian Royal Family. In the United Kingdom, all female consorts have had the right to and have held the title of Queen Consort; as Canada does not have laws or letters patent under the Great Seal of Canada laying out the styles of any Royal Family members besides the monarch, royal consorts are addressed in Canada using the title as they hold in the UK. After informal discussions amongst the various Commonwealth prime ministers, between 1954 and 1957, it was decided that Prince Philip, husband of Elizabeth II, not be granted the title of Prince Consort.[9][10]

Two sovereigns reigned over Canada without a consort: Victoria's husband, Albert, died before Confederation, and as Wallis Warfield Simpson married the Duke of Windsor after his abdication, she was never queen consort of Canada. Though Camilla Parker-Bowles will technically become Queen Consort in the United Kingdom, Clarence House has stated that, due to public opinion regarding her relationship with the Prince of Wales, she will be styled there as Princess Consort.[11][12][13]

Royal Consorts from 1867 to present:
#NameImageMarriageRoyal Consort fromConsort of
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1[N 3]AlexandraFile:200px-Alexandra of Denmark.JPG10 March 186322 January 1901
husband's ascension
Edward VII
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1910 – 1917), then House of Windsor
2Mary 6 July 18936 May 1910
husband's ascension
George V
3Elizabeth 26 April 192311 December 1936
husband's ascension
George VI
4Philip 20 November 19476 February 1952
wife's ascension
Elizabeth II

See also

Notes

  1. The English Court of Appeal ruled in 1982, while "there is only one person who is the Sovereign within the British Commonwealth... in matters of law and government the Queen of the United Kingdom, for example, is entirely independent and distinct from the Queen of Canada."[4]
  2. The Canadian Heraldry Society states: "...Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, [was] Queen of Canada and all her other realms. Queen Victoria was the first Monarch of the confederation of provinces that became known as the Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867."[8]
  3. The consort of Queen Victoria, Albert, Prince Consort, died on 14 December 1861, while Canada was confederated on 1 July 1867.

References

  1. Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > The crown in Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/symbl/101/102-eng.cfm. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  2. Royal Household. "The Queen and the Commonwealth > Queen and Canada > History and present government". Queen's Printer. http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchAndCommonwealth/Canada/Historyandpresentgovernment.aspx. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  3. MacLeod, Kevin, S.; Jackson, D. Michael & Monet, Jacques (2008). A Crown of Maples. Ottawa: Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1. http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/fr-rf/crnCdn/crn_mpls-eng.pdf. 
  4. R v Foreign Secretary, Ex parte Indian Association (as referenced in High Court of Australia: Sue v Hill [1999] HCA 30; 23 June 1999; S179/1998 and B49/1998), QB 892 at 928 (English Court of Appeal June 1999).
  5. Buckingham Palace. "The Queen and the Commonwealth > Queen and Canada > History and present government". Queen's Printer. http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchAndCommonwealth/Canada/Historyandpresentgovernment.aspx. Retrieved 19 February 2009. 
  6. Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > The crown in Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/symbl/101/102-eng.cfm. Retrieved 19 February 2009. 
  7. Galbraith, William (1989). "Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1939 Royal Visit". Canadian Parliamentary Review (Ottawa: Library of Parliament) 12 (3). http://www.parl.gc.ca/Infoparl/english/issue.htm?param=130&art=820. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  8. Royal Heraldry Society of Canada (5 February 2007). "The Coat of Arms of Canada - A Short History". Royal Heraldry Society of Canada. http://www.heraldry.ca/misc/coatArmsCanada.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  9. "Burke's Peerage and Gentry > The Royal Family > HRH The Duke of Edinburgh". Burke's Peerage & Gentry and The Origins Network. http://www.burkes-peerage.net/articles/peerage/page62-6c.aspx. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  10. "LCO 6/3677 Title of Prince: HRH Philip Duke of Edinburgh". Heraldica. http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/LCO_6_3677.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  11. "Prince Charles to marry Camilla" (in English). BBC. 10 February 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4252795.stm. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  12. "Charles-Camilla civil marriage seen as compromise" (in English). CTV. 10 February 2005. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1108054095201_8. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  13. "Camilla's 'flexible role'" (in English). News24. 11 February 2005. http://www.news24.com/News24/World/News/0,,2-10-1462_1661193,00.html. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 

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