definition of Wikipedia
Note: Most cases used for location and motion can be used for time as well.
|Adessive case||adjacent location||near/at/by the house||Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Lithuanian | Livonian | Tlingit | Tsez | Quechua|
|Apudessive case||location next to something||next to the house||Tsez|
|Inessive case||inside something||inside the house||Basque | Erzya | Estonian | Lithuanian | Finnish | Hungarian | Ossetic | Tsez|
|Intrative case||between something||between the houses||Limbu|
|Locative case||location||at/on/in the house||Armenian (Eastern) | Azeri | Bengali | Belarusian | Chuvash | Croatian | Czech | Hungarian (only for some traditional town names) | Inari Sami | Inuktitut | Latin (restricted) | Latvian | Lithuanian | Manchu | Northern Sami | Polish | Quechua, | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Skolt Sami | Slovak | Slovene | Sorbian | Telugu | Tlingit | Turkish | Ukrainian | Uzbek
(Note: the case in Slavic languages termed the "locative case" in English is actually a prepositional case.)
|Pertingent case||in contact with something||touching the house||Tlingit|
|Subessive case||under something||under/below the house||Tsez|
|Superessive case||on the surface||on (top of) the house||Hungarian | Ossetic | Tsez|
|Ablative case||movement away from something||away from the house||Azeri | Chuvash | Erzya | Estonian | Evenki | Finnish | Hungarian | Inuktitut | Latin | Manchu | Ossetic | Sanskrit | Tlingit | Tsez | Turkish | Uzbek | Yukaghir|
|Delative case||movement from the surface||from (the top of) the house||Hungarian|
|Egressive case||marking the beginning of a movement or time||beginning from the house||Udmurt|
|Elative case||out of something||out of the house||Erzya | Estonian | Evenki | Finnish | Hungarian|
|Initiative case||starting point of an action||beginning from the house||Manchu|
|Allative case||in Hungarian and in Finnish:
movement to (the adjacency of) something
movement onto something
|to the house
onto the house
|Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Inuktitut | Lithuanian | Manchu | Tlingit | Tsez | Turkish | Tuvan | Uzbek|
|Illative case||movement into something||into the house||Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Inari Sami | Lithuanian | Northern Sami | Skolt Sami | Tsez|
|Lative case||movement to something||to/into the house||Erzya | Finnish | Tsez | Turkish|
|Sublative case||movement onto the surface or below something||on(to) the house / under the house||Hungarian | Tsez|
|Terminative case||marking the end of a movement or time||as far as the house||Chuvash | Estonian | Hungarian | Manchu|
|Perlative case||movement through or along||through/along the house||Evenki | Tocharian A & B | Warlpiri | Yankunytjatjara|
|Prolative case||movement using a surface or way||by way of/through the house||Erzya | Estonian (rare) | Finnish | Tlingit|
|Prosecutive case||across or along||along the road||Kalaallisut|
|Vialis case||through or by||by way of the house, through the house||Inuktitut|
|Temporal case||(used only with time expressions)
specifying a time
|E.g.: hétkor "at seven" or hét órakor "at seven o'clock"; éjfélkor "at midnight"; karácsonykor "at Christmas".||Hungarian|
|Accusative case||indicating duration of time
known as the accusative of duration of time
|E.g.: multos annos, "for many years";
ducentos annos, "for 200 years."
|Essive case||used for specifying days and dates when something happens||E.g.: maanantaina, "on Monday";
kuudentena joulukuuta, "on the 6th of December".
For meanings of the terms agent, patient, experiencer, and instrument, see thematic relation.
|Absolutive case (1)||patient, experiencer; subject of an intransitive verb and direct object of a transitive verb||he pushed the door and it opened||Basque|
|Absolutive case (2)||patient, involuntary experiencer||he pushed the door and it opened; he slipped||active languages|
|Absolutive case (3)||patient; experiencer; instrument||he pushed the door with his hand and it opened||Inuktitut|
|Accusative case (1)||patient||he pushed the door and it opened||Akkadian | Arabic | Azeri | Croatian | Czech | Erzya | Esperanto | Faroese | Finnish | German | Greek | Hungarian | Icelandic | Inari Sami | Latin | Lithuanian | Northern Sami | Polish | Romanian | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Skolt Sami | Slovak | Slovene | Ukrainian|
|Accusative case (2)||direct object of a transitive verb; made from; about; for a time||I see her||Inuktitut | Persian | Turkish | Serbo-Croatian|
|Ergative case||agent; subject of a transitive verb||he pushed the door and it opened||Basque | Chechen | Dyirbal | Georgian | Samoan | Tlingit | Tsez|
|Ergative-genitive case||agent, possession||he pushed the door and it opened; her dog||Classic Maya | Inuktitut|
|Instructive||means, answers question how?||by means of the house||Estonian (rare) | Finnish|
|Instrumental||instrument, answers question with which thing?||with the house||Belarusian | Croatian | Czech | Evenki | Georgian | Lithuanian | Manchu | Polish | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Slovak | Slovene | Tsez | Ukrainian | Yukaghir|
|Instrumental-comitative case||instrument, in company of something||with the house||Chuvash | Hungarian | Tlingit|
|Nominative case (1)||agent, experiencer; subject of a transitive or intransitive verb||he pushed the door and it opened||nominative–accusative languages and nominative–absolutive languages|
|Nominative case (2)||agent; voluntary experiencer||he pushed the door and it opened; she paused||active languages|
|Objective case (1)||direct or indirect object of verb||I saw her; I gave her the book.||Bengali | Chuvash|
|Objective/Oblique (2)||direct or indirect object of verb or object of preposition; a catch-all case for any situation except nominative or genitive||I saw her; I gave her the book; with her.||English | Swedish | Danish | Norwegian | Bulgarian|
|Oblique case||all-round case; any situation except nominative or vocative||concerning the house||Hindi | Telugu | Old French|
|Passive case or patient case or intransitive case||the subject of an intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb||The door opened||languages of the Caucasus|
|Pegative case||agent in a clause with a dative argument||he gave the book to him||Azoyú Tlapanec|
|Ablative case||all-round indirect case||concerning the house||Sanskrit | Inuktitut | Latin | Lithuanian|
|Aversive case||avoiding or fear||avoiding the house||Warlpiri | Yidiny|
|Benefactive case||for, for the benefit of, intended for||for the house||Basque | Quechua | Telugu|
|Causal case||because, because of||because of the house||Quechua | Telugu|
|Causal-final case||efficient or final cause||for a house||Chuvash | Hungarian|
|Comitative case||in company of something||with the house||Dumi | Ingush | Estonian | Finnish (rare) | Inari Sami | Northern Sami | Skolt Sami | Ossetic (only in Iron)|
|Dative case||shows direction or recipient||for/to the house||Azeri | Belarusian | Croatian | Czech | Erzya | Faroese | Georgian | German | Greek | Hindi | Hungarian | Icelandic | Inuktitut | Latin | Lithuanian | Manchu | Ossetic | Polish | Romanian | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Slovak | Slovene | Tsez | Turkish | Ukrainian|
|Distributive case||distribution by piece||per house||Chuvash | Hungarian | Manchu|
|Distributive-temporal case||how often something happens||daily; on Sundays||Hungarian|
|Genitive case||shows relationship, possession||of the house||Akkadian | Arabic | Azeri | Bengali | Belarusian | Chuvash | Croatian | Czech | Danish | Dutch | English | Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Georgian | German | Greek | Hungarian | Icelandic | Inari Sami | Irish | Latin | Lithuanian | Manchu | Northern Sami | Norwegian | Polish | Romanian | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Skolt Sami | Slovak | Slovene | Swedish | Tsez | Turkish | Ukrainian|
|Ornative case||endowment with something||equipped with a house||Dumi|
|Possessed case||possession by something||the house is owned by someone||Tlingit|
|Possessive case||direct possession of something||owned by the house||English|
|Privative case||lacking something||without a house||Chuvash | Wagiman|
|Semblative case||Similarity to something||that tree is like a house||Wagiman|
|Sociative case||along with something, together with something||with the house||Hungarian | Ossetic|
|Partitive case||used for amounts||three (of the) houses||Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami | Russian | Skolt Sami|
|Prepositional case||when certain prepositions precede the noun||in/on/about the house||Belarusian | Czech | Polish | Russian | Slovak | Ukrainian (note: this case is called lokál in Czech and in Slovak, miejscownik in Polish, місцевий (miscevý) in Ukrainian and месны (miesny) in Belarusian; these names imply that this case also covers Locative case)|
|Vocative case||used for addressing someone, with or without a preposition||Hey, father!
|Belarusian (rare) | Bulgarian | Croatian | Czech | Georgian | Greek | Hindi | Irish | Itelmen | Ket | Latin | Lithuanian | Macedonian | Nivkh | Polish | Romanian | Russian (rare) | Sanskrit | Serbian | Telugu | Ukrainian | Nahuatl|
|Abessive case||the lack of something||without the house||Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami | Skolt Sami; Quechua ||
|Comparative case||similarity with something||similar to the house||Dumi | Mari | Nivkh|
|Equative case||comparison with something||like the house||Ossetic | Sumerian | Tlingit | Tsez|
|Essive case||temporary state of being||as the house||Estonian | Finnish | Inari Sami | Inuktitut | Middle Egyptian | Northern Sami | Skolt Sami | Tsez|
|Essive-formal case||marking a condition as a quality||as a house||Hungarian | Manchu|
|Essive-modal case||marking a condition as a quality||as a house||Hungarian|
|Exessive case||marking a transition from a condition||from being a house (i.e., "it stops being a house")||Estonian (rare) | Finnish (dialectal)|
|Formal case||marking a condition as a quality||as a house||Hungarian|
|Identical case||showing that something is identical||being the house||Manchu|
|Orientative case||oriented towards something||turned towards the house||Chukchi | Manchu|
|Revertive case||backwards to something||against the house||Manchu|
|Translative case||change of a condition into another||(turning) into a house||Erzya | Estonian | Finnish | Hungarian | Khanty | Manchu|
||This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2009)|
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