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definition - List_of_human_evolution_fossils

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List of human evolution fossils

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The following charts give a brief overview of several notable primate fossil finds relating to human evolution. As there are thousands of fossils,[1] this overview is not meant to be complete, but does show some of the most important finds. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating. The species name represents current consensus, when there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated; deprecated classifications may be found on the fossil's page. Most of the fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage.

Contents

More than 6 million years old

ImageNameAgeSpeciesDate
discovered
PlaceDiscovered by
Eosimias sinensis image45 MaEosimias sinensis1985ChinaLin Yipu
Aegyptopithecus zeuxis
image at
Skulls Unlimited
DPC 2803>31 MaAegyptopithecus zeuxis1941EgyptElwyn Simons
Proconsul africanus
image at
Skulls Unlimited
KNM RU 729018 MaProconsul africanus1948KenyaMary Leakey
ImageKNM WK 1699916-18 MaAfropithecus turkanensis1986KenyaRichard Leakey
ImageKNM WK 1695016-18 MaTurkanapithecus kalakolensis1986KenyaRichard Leakey
GSP 1500010.5-12.5 MaSivapithecus indicus1979PakistanD. Pilbeam and S. M. Ibrahim Shah
IGF 117788 MaOreopithecus bambolii1872ItalyPaul Gervais
ImageIVPP PA6448 MaLufengpithecus lufengensis1978China
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
image at
talkorigins.org
TM 266 (Toumai)7 MaSahelanthropus tchadensis2001ChadAlain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye
BAR 1000'006 MaOrrorin tugenensis2000KenyaMartin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut,

4 million – 6 million years old

NameAgeSpeciesDate
discovered
PlaceDiscovered by
Sketch of Ardipithecus ramidusArdi4.4 MaArdipithecus ramidus1992Middle Awash, EthiopiaTim White

3 million – 4 million years old

NameAgeSpeciesDate
discovered
PlaceDiscovered by
Laetoli footprint
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Laetoli Footprints3.7 MaBipedal hominid1976TanzaniaMary Leakey
LH 4
image at
Modern Human
Origins
LH 43.6 - 3.8 MaAustralopithecus afarensis1974TanzaniaMary Leakey
KNM-WT 40000
image at
Modern Human
Origins
KNM WT 400003.5 MaKenyanthropus platyops1999KenyaJustus Erus
Stw 573 (Little foot)3.3 MaAustralopithecus ?1994South AfricaRonald J. Clarke
DIK-1 (Selam)3.3 MaAustralopithecus afarensis2000EthiopiaZeresenay Alemseged
AL 200-13 - 3.2 MaAustralopithecus afarensis1975EthiopiaDonald Johanson
AL 129-13 - 3.2 MaAustralopithecus afarensisNovember 1973EthiopiaDonald Johanson
K 12 (Abel)Australopithecus bahrelghazali1995ChadMichel Brunet
AL 288-1 (Lucy)3.2 MaAustralopithecus afarensisNovember 30, 1974EthiopiaDonald Johanson
AL444-2
image at
Modern Human
Origins
AL 444-23 MaAustralopithecus afarensis1991EthiopiaBill Kimbel

2 million – 3 million years old

NameAgeSpeciesDate
discovered
PlaceDiscovered by
STS 5
(Mrs. Ples)
2.6 - 2.8 MaAustralopithecus africanus1947South AfricaRobert Broom
STS 14
image at Modern
Human Origins
STS 142.6-2.8 MaAustralopithecus africanus1947South AfricaRobert Broom
STS 52
image at Modern
Human Origins
STS 52Australopithecus africanus
STS 712.5 MaAustralopithecus africanus1947South AfricaRobert Broom
Taung 1
(Taung Child)
2.5 MaAustralopithecus africanus1924South AfricaRaymond Dart
File:Paranthropus aethiopicus.JPGKNM WT 17000
(The Black Skull)
2.5 MaParanthropus aethiopicus1985KenyaAlan Walker
Wushan Man
image
Wushan Man2-2.04 MaHomo erectus1986China
TM 15172 MaParanthropus robustus1938South AfricaGert Terblanche

1 million – 2 million years old

NameAgeSpeciesDate
discovered
PlaceDiscovered by
KNM ER 18131.9 MaHomo habilis1973KenyaKamoya Kimeu
KNM ER 14701.9 MaHomo rudolfensis1972KenyaBernard Ngeneo
SK 481.8 MaParanthropus robustus1948South AfricaRobert Broom
OH 24
(Twiggy)
1.8 MaHomo habilis1968TanzaniaPeter Nzube
OH 8 Image
of foot at
Modern Human
Origins
OH 81.8 MaHomo habilis1960Tanzania
OH 5
(Zinj or
nutcracker man)
1.8 MaParanthropus boisei1959TanzaniaMary Leakey
D 27001.8 MaHomo georgicus2001Georgia
OH 71.75 MaHomo habilis1960TanzaniaJonathan Leakey
KNM ER 37331.75 MaHomo ergaster1975KenyaBernard Ngeneo
KNM ER 18051.74 MaHomo habilisKoobi Fora, Kenya
STW 53
image at
Modern Human
Origins
StW 531.5 - 2 MaHomo habilis sensu Lato
or
unclassified
see Grine et al. 1996
1976South AfricaA. R. Hughes
SK 847
image at
Modern Human
Origins
SK 8471.5 - 2 MaHomo habilis sensu Lato
or
unclassified
see Grine et al. 1996
1949South Africa
DNH 7
image at
Modern Human
Origins
DNH 7
(Eurydice)
1.5 - 2 MaParanthropus robustus1994South AfricaAndré Keyser
SK 461.5-2 MaParanthropus robustus1949South AfricaRobert Broom
OH 131.7 MaHomo habilis1963TanzaniaN. Mbuika
KNM ER 4061.7 MaParanthropus boisei1969KenyaRichard Leakey
KNM ER 7321.7 MaParanthropus boisei1970KenyaRichard Leakey
KNM ER 23000
KNM WT 174001.7 MaParanthropus boiseiKenya
KNM WT 15000
(Turkana Boy)
1.6 MaHomo erectus
or
Homo ergaster
1984KenyaKamoya Kimeu
KNM ER 38831.4 - 1.6 MaHomo erectusKenyaRichard Leakey
Peninj Mandible1.5 MaParanthropus boisei1964TanzaniaRichard Leakey
Chellean OH 9
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
OH 9
(Chellean Man)
1.5 MaHomo erectus1960TanzaniaLouis Leakey
KNM ER 9921.5 MaHomo ergaster1971KenyaRichard Leakey
KGA 10-5251.4 MaParanthropus boisei1993EthiopiaA. Amzaye

100,000 – 1 million years old

NameAgeSpeciesDate
discovered
PlaceDiscovered by
Sangiran 4< 1 MaHomo erectus1939IndonesiaG.H.R. von Koenigswald
Sangiran 2
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Sangiran 20.7-1.6 MaHomo erectus1937IndonesiaG.H.R. von Koenigswald
Trinil 2
Pithecanthropus-1
or
Java Man
.7 - 1 MaHomo erectus1891IndonesiaEugène Dubois
780 - 858kHomo antecessor
or
Homo erectus
1994Atapuerca, SpainBermúdez & Arsuaga
Peking Man680 - 780kHomo erectus1921ChinaDavidson Black
Ternifine 2-3700kHomo erectus1954AlgeriaC. Arambourg
Sangiran 17
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Sangiran 17700kHomo erectus1969IndonesiaS. Sartono
Hexian PA830
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Hexian400 - 500kHomo erectus1980China
Skull 5 (Miguelón)400kHomo heidelbergensis1992Atapuerca, SpainBermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell
Altamura Man400kHomo heidelbergensisAltamura, Italy
Bodo
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Bodo600kHomo heidelbergensis
or
Homo erectus
1976EthiopiaA. Asfaw
File:Unterkiefer von Mauer (Replika).JPGMauer 1
(Heidelberg Man)
500kHomo heidelbergensis1907GermanyDaniel Hartmann
Ndutu
Sale
Saldanha manSaldanha man500kHomo heidelbergensis1953South Africa
Arago XXI
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Arago 21
(Tautavel Man)
400kHomo heidelbergensis
or
Homo erectus
1971FranceHenry de Lumley
Steinheim Skull350kHomo heidelbergensis
or
Homo neanderthalensis
1933Germany
Petralona 1
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Petralona 1250 - 500kHomo erectus
or
Homo rhodesiensis
1960Greece
Swanscombe Man250kHomo heidelbergensis
or
Homo neanderthalensis
1935EnglandAlvan T Marston
Ngandong 7250kHomo heidelbergensis
or
Homo erectus
1931IndonesiaC. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Broken Hill 1
(Kabwe Cranium
or
Rhodesian Man)
125 - 300kHomo rhodesiensis
or
Homo heidelbergensis
1921ZambiaTom Zwiglaar
Dali
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Dali (fossil)209kHomo heidelbergensis
or
Homo sapiens
1978ChinaShuntang Liu
LH 18Homo sapiens1976TanzaniaMary Leakey
Omo 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Omo 1190kHomo sapiens1967-1974EthiopiaRichard Leakey
Omo II
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Omo 2 ?Homo rhodesiensis
or
'Homo sapiens
 ?EthiopiaRichard Leakey
Herto skull
images at
ABC Science
Herto remains160kHomo sapiens idaltu1997 - 2003Middle Awash EthiopiaTim White
Jebel Irhoud 1160kHomo sapienscirca 1991Jebel Irhoud, Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 2160kHomo sapienscirca 1991Jebel Irhoud, Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 3
Mandible
Image at
PhysOrg.com
Jebel Irhoud 3160kHomo sapienscirca 1991Jebel Irhoud, Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 4160kHomo sapiensafter 1991Jebel Irhoud, Morocco
Tabun 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Tabun C1120kHomo neanderthalensis1967-1972IsraelArthur Jelinek

50,000 – 100,000 years old

NameAgeSpeciesDate
discovered
PlaceDiscovered by
Klasies
Images at
Modern Human
Origins
Klasies River Caves125 - 75kHomo sapiens1960 onwardsSouth AfricaRay Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
Krapina C
Images at
Modern Human
Origins
Krapina100kHomo neanderthalensis1899CroatiaDragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
File:Skhul.JPGSkhul V90 - 100kHomo sapiens1933Es Skhul, Mount Carmel, IsraelT. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
File:Qafzeh.JPGQafzeh IX90 - 100kHomo sapiens[1]1933Qafzeh, IsraelT. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul IXHomo sapiens ?Es Skhul, Mount Carmel, Israel
Qafzeh VI
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Qafzeh VI90 - 100kHomo sapiens1933Nazareth, IsraelT. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
La Ferrassie 170kHomo neanderthalensisSeptember 17, 1909FranceR. Capitan and D. Peyrony
La Quina 540-55kHomo neanderthalensisFrance
La Quina 1840-55kHomo neanderthalensisFrance
Mount Circeo 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Mt. Circeo 140 - 60kHomo neanderthalensis1939ItalyProf. Blanc
Saccopastore 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Saccopastore 160kHomo neanderthalensisItaly
Gibraltar 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Gibraltar 1Homo neanderthalensis1848GibraltarLieutenant Flint
Shanidar 160 - 80kHomo neanderthalensis1961IraqRalph Solecki
Amud 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Amud 1Homo neanderthalensisIsrael
Amud 7
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Amud 7Homo neanderthalensisIsrael
La Chapelle-aux-Saints 160kHomo neanderthalensisAugust 3, 1908FranceA. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon

Less than 50,000 years old

NameAgeSpeciesDate
discovered
PlaceDiscovered by
Mungo Man60 - 40kHomo sapiens1974Australia
Le Moustier45kHomo neanderthalensis1909France
Neanderthal 1
images at
Modern Human
Origins
Neanderthal 140kHomo neanderthalensis1856GermanyJohann Carl Fuhlrott
Qafzeh VI
images at
Modern Human
Origins
Jebel Qafzeh 692 - 115k or 30 - 55kHomo sapiens1930'sIsraelR. Neuville M Stekelis
NG 627 - 53kHomo erectus1931IndonesiaC. ter Haar and GHR von Koenigswald
Hofmeyr Skull36kHomo sapiens1952South Africa
Images of Peştera cu OasePeştera cu Oase36kHomo sapiens2002Romania
Yamashita-Cho Man32kHomo sapiens1962/1968Naha, Okinawa, Japan
Cro-Magnon 130kHomo sapiens1868FranceLouis Lartet
Combe Capelle30 - 35kHomo sapiens1909FranceO. Hauser
Predmosti 3
images at
Modern Human
Origins
Predmost 326kHomo sapiens1894CzechoslovakiaK.J. Maska
LB 1 (Hobbit)18kHomo floresiensis
or
Homo erectus
or ?
2003IndonesiaPeter Brown
Minatogawa 1
images at
Modern Human
Origins
Minatogawa 116 - 18kHomo sapiens1970Okinawa, Japan
Tandou15kHomo sapiens1967AustraliaDuncan Merrilees
Wadi Kubbaniya8 - 20kHomo sapiens1982EgyptFred Wendorf
Kow Swamp 1
images at
Modern Human
Origins
Kow Swamp 19k - 13kHomo sapiens1968AustraliaA.G. Thorne
Afalou 138k - 12kHomo sapiens1920'sAlgeriaC. Arambourg
Wadi Halfa 256k - 12kHomo sapiens1963SudanG. Armelagos, E. Ewing, D. Greene
Wadjak 110 - 12kHomo sapiens1888IndonesiaEugene Dubois
Tepexpan Man11kHomo sapiens1947MexicoH. de Terra
Cerro Sota 211kHomo sapiens1936ChileJunius Bird
SDM 167044.9k - 11.8kHomo sapiens1929United StatesM.J. Rogers
Lo 4b6k - 9kHomo sapiens1965-1975H. Robbins B.M. Lynch
Ötzi the Iceman5.3kHomo sapiens1991Ötztal Alps (between Austria and Italy)Helmut and Erika Simon
Kerma 273.5kHomo sapiens1913-1916SudanG.A. Reisner
Five Knolls 181.5k - 3.5kHomo sapiens1925-1929England
Humboldt Sink<1500 yearsHomo sapiensUnited States
SCDG K102300 - 400 yearsHomo sapiens1982United StatesC.S. Larsen

Abbreviations used in fossil catalog name

  • AL - Afar Locality, Ethiopia
  • ARA-VP - Aramis Vertebrate Paleontology, Ethiopia
  • BOU-VP - Bouri Vertebrate Paleontology, Ethiopia
  • ER - East (Lake) Rudolf, Kenya
  • KGA - Konso-Gardula, Ethiopia
  • KNM - Kenya National Museum
  • KP - Kanapoi, Kenya
  • OH - Olduvai Hominid, Tanzania
  • SK - Swartkrans, South Africa
  • Sts,Stw - Sterkfontein, South Africa
  • TM - Transvaal Museum, South Africa
  • TM - Toros-Menalla, Chad
  • WT - West (Lake) Turkana, Kenya

See also

Evolutionary biology portal

References

 

All translations of List_of_human_evolution_fossils


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