definition of Wikipedia
|Boston Logan International Airport|
|IATA: BOS – ICAO: KBOS – FAA LID: BOS
– WMO: 72509
|Owner||Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport)|
|Serves||Boston, Massachusetts, US|
|Location||East Boston, Massachusetts|
|Hub for||Cape Air|
|Elevation AMSL||20 ft / 6 m|
|Source: FAA, Massport.|
General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport (IATA: BOS, ICAO: KBOS, FAA LID: BOS) is located in the East Boston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, US (and partly in the town of Winthrop, Massachusetts). It covers 2,384 acres (965 ha), has six runways, and employs an estimated 16,000 people. The largest airport in New England, as of 2010, Logan is the 19th busiest airport in the United States with about 13.5 million boardings a year and 28 million passengers overall in 2011.
Boston serves as a focus city for JetBlue Airways. Delta Air Lines and US Airways also carry out many operations from the airport, and all major airlines fly to Boston from all or the majority of their primary and secondary hubs. It is also a destination of many major European airlines. The airport is also a hub for regional airline Cape Air. The airport has service to destinations in the United States, as well as Africa, Canada, the Caribbean, Europe, Mexico and Asia. 
Originally called Boston Airport, Logan opened on September 8, 1923, and was used primarily by the Massachusetts Air Guard and the Army Air Corps. At that time, it was known as Jeffery Field. The first scheduled commercial passenger flights were initiated by Colonial Air Transport between Boston and New York City in 1927.
The airport has expanded over the years, including the 1940s addition of 1,800 acres (730 ha) of landfill in Boston Harbor and the incorporation of the former Governors, Noddle's and Apple Islands. In 1943 the state renamed the airport as General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport after a Spanish-American War officer from South Boston. In 1952 the airport became the first in the United States with an indirect rapid transit connection.
The December 1950 diagram shows a familiar layout: 7,000 ft (2,100 m) runway 4L, 10000-ft 4R, 7000-ft 9 and 7650-ft 33. The March 1947[clarification needed] shows 7,000 ft (2,100 m) runway 4 (future 4L) in use, with runways 9 and 33 under construction; a different runway 33 ran 6,700 ft (2,000 m) northwestward from the present intersection of 4R and 9, and runway 25 ran 4,000 ft (1,200 m) southwest from the present intersection of 4L and 33.
The era of the jumbo jet began at Logan during the summer of 1970 when Pan Am inaugurated daily Boeing 747 service to London Heathrow Airport. Non-stop flights to London now[when?] are scheduled by British Airways, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, and Virgin Atlantic.
When Terminal E opened in 1974 it was the second largest international arrivals facility in the United States. Since that time the number of international travelers using Logan has tripled.[when?] International long-haul travel has been the fastest growing market sector at Logan. Increased passenger traffic led the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) to embark on a major airport renewal project called the "Logan Modernization Project" from 1994 to 2006. The project included a new parking garage, a new hotel, moving walkways, terminal expansions and improvements, and a two-tiered roadway system that separates arrival from departure road traffic.
Massport's relationship with neighboring communities has been strained since the mid-1960s, when the agency took control of a parcel of residential land and popular fishing area near the northwest side of the airfield. This project was undertaken to extend Runway 15R/33L, which would later become Logan's longest runway. Residents of the neighborhood, known as Wood Island, were bought out of their homes and forced to relocate. Public opposition came to a head when residents lay down in the streets to block bulldozers and supply trucks from reaching the intended construction zone.
Construction was completed on an additional runway, 14/32, which officially opened to air traffic on November 23, 2006. Runway 14/32 was Logan's first major runway addition in more than forty years. This runway was first proposed in 1973, but had been delayed by court action.
In April 2007 the FAA approved construction of a center field taxiway long-sought by Massport to alleviate congestion. The 9,300-foot (2,830 m) taxiway is between, and parallel to, Runways 4R/22L and 4L/22R. News of the project angered Logan's neighboring residents. In 2009 the new taxiway opened ahead of schedule and under budget. To ensure the taxiway is not mistaken for a runway, "TAXI" is written in large yellow letters at each end.
A scene from the 2006 film The Departed was filmed on location at Logan, inside the connector bridge between Terminal E and the Central Parking Garage. Terminal C and several United Airlines aircraft can be seen in the background. Parts of the Delta Air Lines 2007 "Anthem" commercial were filmed inside Terminal A as well as the connector bridge between Terminal A and Central Parking.
In October 2009 US Airways announced that the airline would close its Boston crew base in May 2010. The airline cited an "operations realignment" as the reason for the closure. Over 400 employees were transferred or terminated.
Logan last had service to Asia in 2001, when Korean Air discontinued service to Seoul, South Korea. Boston also had previous service to Asia with El Al to Tel Aviv. In 2008, Massport announced that Hainan Airlines had formally applied to the Civil Aviation Administration of China for approval to operate daily non-stop passenger flights between Boston and Beijing using Boeing 787 aircraft, but the service never started. In May 2011 Japan Airlines announced its first Boeing 787 route, Tokyo Narita to Boston, beginning four times weekly on April 22, 2012 and becoming daily on June 1, 2012. American Airlines will codeshare on the route.
The Airbus A380 first landed at Logan Airport for compatibility checks in February 2010. The airplane was also transporting a submarine back to its manufacturer for later use in the search for Air France Flight 447. Logan Airport has since served as a diversion for A380 flights, particularly for Air France.
By 2012 JetBlue Airways became a major operator at Logan Airport.
As of 2010, Logan is the 19th busiest airport in the United States with about 13.5 million boardings a year (not counting arrivals). In 2010, Logan was the world's 28th busiest airport in terms of aircraft movements. The airport is also the 12th busiest airport in the U.S. based on international traffic. In 2010, it handled 3,681,739 international passengers. Logan Airport stimulates the New England regional economy by approximately $7.6 billion per year, generating $559.4 million in state and local tax receipts, as of 2006.
In 2011, Logan Airport served an all-time high of 28,800,000 passengers, a 5% increase from 2010. In 2010 Logan Airport handled about 27,428,962 passengers, about 3,681,739 of whom were international passengers. JetBlue carried 23.44% of all passengers for the 12-month period ending July 31, 2011; other leading carriers include US Airways (13.27%), Delta Air Lines (11.86%), and American Airlines (11.47%). These figures do not include US Airways Express or Delta Connection each of which has significant operations at Logan Airport. Logan Airport also handled over 546,000,000 pounds (248,000,000 kg) of cargo and mail.
As of February 2011[update], Logan ranks 14th among major U.S. airports for on-time domestic departures with 80 percent of domestic flights departing on time. The airport ranks 25th in on-time domestic arrivals with 76 percent of domestic flights arriving on time.
|Passengers||Change from previous year||Aircraft operations||Cargo
|Source: Massport |
ILS is available for runways 4R, 15R, 22L, 27, and 33L, with runway 4R being certified for CAT III Instrument Landing operations. The other runways with ILS are certified for CAT I Instrument Landing operations. EMAS pads are located at the starting thresholds of runways 22R and 33L.
The distinctive central control tower, nearly a dozen stories high, is a local landmark with its pair of segmented elliptical pylons and a six-story platform trussed between them.
Logan Airport has two cargo facilities: North Cargo is adjacent to Terminal E and South Cargo adjacent to Terminals A and B. North Cargo is also the location of several maintenance hangars, including those operated by American Airlines and Delta Air Lines.
Runway 14-32, which officially opened to air traffic on November 23, 2006, is unidirectional. Runway 32 is used for landings and 14 is used for takeoffs. Massport is barred by a court order from using the runway for overland landings or takeoffs, except in emergencies.
There was fierce opposition to the construction of 14-32 among communities adjacent to the northwest side of the airport, such as Chelsea and East Boston, as authorities acknowledged that these areas would likely see a slight increase in noise levels. However, residents of Winthrop and Revere also joined in opposition, even though Massport had promised that the new traffic patterns allowed by 14-32 would reduce overflights of those areas.
Since the opening of the new runway, there has been disagreement about when, and how often, the new runway should be operational. Residents have demanded a minimum of 11.5-knot (21.3 km/h) northwest winds, slightly higher than the 10-knot (19 km/h) threshold favored by Massport.
The new runway reduces the need for the existing Runway 15L-33R, which, at only 2,557 feet (779 m) is among the shortest hard-surface runways at major airports in the United States. In 1988, Massport had proposed an 800-foot (240 m) extension to this airstrip (a project which would have required additional filling-in of land along a clam bed), but was thwarted by a court injunction.
Boston's Hyatt Harborside Hotel, which sits only a few hundred yards from the runway threshold, was built primarily to prevent Massport from ever extending the length of 14-32 or using it for takeoffs or landings over the city. Massachusetts state legislators carefully chose the location of the hotel—directly in the runway centerline—prior to its construction in 1992.
The airport is served by several Fixed Base Operators (FBO), which handle fueling, ground handling, aircraft cleaning, cargo service, and aircraft maintenance. They include Swissport USA and Penauille Servisair. General aviation, which is adjacent to the North Cargo area, is handled by Signature Flight Support.
Police services are provided by the Massachusetts State Police Troop F. Fire protection is the responsibility of the Massport Fire Rescue. Even though the airport is within city limits, by Massachusetts state law municipal police such as the Boston Police Department do not have jurisdiction on Massport property.
Logan International Airport has 103 gate positions total divided among four terminals, A, B, C, and E. All terminals are connected by pre-security shuttle buses, as well as between Terminals A, B and E via moving walkways pre-security. Moving walkways also connect the terminals to a central parking garage designed for consolidated service between all 4 terminals and the garage itself. The concession program at Logan is developed, leased and managed by AirMall USA (formerly BAA USA) in Terminals B and E and Westfield Concession Management Inc. in Terminals A and C.
Terminal A, which replaced a 1970s-era building designed by Minoru Yamasaki once occupied by the now-defunct Eastern Airlines, opened to passengers on March 16, 2005. The terminal, designed by Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum, is divided into a main terminal (housing gates A1-A12) and a satellite building (housing gates A13-A22). The main terminal and the satellite building are connected through an underground walkway. Terminal A houses airline lounges United Airlines United Club and for Delta Air Lines (Delta Sky Club). The latter is located in the satellite building on the 3rd floor, which is used exclusively for the Sky Club.
The building is the first airport terminal in the United States to be LEED certified for environmentally friendly design by the U.S. Green Building Council. Among the building's features are heat-reflecting roof and windows, low-flow faucets and waterless urinals, self-dimming lights, and storm water filtration.
Terminal B opened in 1974. Pier B was completed for US Airways in 1974 and Pier A for American Airlines in 1975. Terminal B remained largely unchanged until the US Airways expanded its operations at Logan Airport in 1979 and improvements to Terminal B were constructed in 1980. From 1980 until 2000, numerous small projects including passenger seating area improvements, concessions expansions, and passenger lounges were completed at both piers. It is split into north and south buildings, with a parking garage located between the two buildings. The gates of the south building (primarily occupied by US Airways and housing a US Airways Club) are divided into three groups: B1-B3, B4-B14, and B15-B21. Gates B4-14 and B15-B21 are connected by a walkway post-security. The gates of the north building (primarily occupied by American Airlines, which operates an Admirals Club in the terminal building) are divided into two groups: B22-B36 and B37-B38. Gates B22-36 are generally used by American Airlines, while Gates B37 and B38 are home to Virgin America.
Terminal C opened in 1967. It was renovated in 1987, in 2002, and in 2005. It has three groups of gates: C11-C21, C25-C36, and C40-C42. The two Terminal C security checkpoints providing access to Gates C11 through C21 on the left and Gates C25 to C36 on the right were replaced by a common checkpoint on July 28, 2011. The Terminal D gates (the three gates at the north end of Terminal C) were renumbered and labeled as part of Terminal C on February 28, 2006. The terminal services for Cape Air, United Airlines, and mainly for JetBlue Airways. JetBlue and Massport are undergoing a "reshuffle" of the Airlines so that Jetblue will acquire all of Terminal C. This will enable the airline to have 150+ daily flights from Boston, almost the same as their operations at JFK. This will be Logan's first airline to have their own terminal in Boston.
The airport's USO Lounge is located in the baggage claim area of Terminal C, lower level. It offers most typical amenities as other markets as major as Greater Boston. Military ID is mandatory. Terminal C also houses a United Club.
Terminal E, also known as the John A. Volpe International Terminal named after the former Governor of Massachusetts and U.S. Secretary of Transportation, serves as the international terminal for Logan Airport. All 13 Terminal E gates are designated as common-use, meaning the gates may be assigned mostly depending on an operational need. All ticket counters and gates in Terminal E are shared among the international carriers, except for the counters and gates leased by Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways. The terminal houses airline lounges for Aer Lingus (Gold Circle Lounge), Air France (Air France Lounge), British Airways (First Lounge and Terraces Lounge), Lufthansa (Senator Lounge and Business Lounge), and Virgin Atlantic (Clubhouse Lounge). Also Minnesota based Sun Country Airlines flies seasonally out of the terminal along with fellow year round domestic carrier Southwest Airlines.
Unlike the other terminals, where each terminal's upper level is used for departures while the lower level is used for arrivals, in Terminal E the third level is used for departures while the ground level is used for arrivals and customs. The second level is used for passport control. The Federal Inspection Station (FIS) located in Terminal E is capable of processing over 2,000 passengers per hour.
|Air Canada||Toronto-Pearson||B South|
|Air Canada Express operated by Jazz Air||Halifax, Montréal-Trudeau, Ottawa, Toronto-Pearson||B South|
|Air France||Paris-Charles de Gaulle||E|
|AirTran Airways operated by Southwest Airlines||Akron/Canton, Atlanta, Baltimore, Milwaukee [ends November 3, 2012]
|Alaska Airlines||Portland (OR), Seattle/Tacoma||A|
|American Airlines||Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Miami, New York-JFK
Seasonal: Paris-Charles de Gaulle, St. Thomas
|Cape Air||Albany (NY), Augusta (ME), Bar Harbor, Hyannis, Lebanon, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Provincetown, Rockland, Rutland, Saranac Lake||C|
|Delta Air Lines||Amsterdam, Atlanta, Bermuda, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Detroit, London-Heathrow, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Orlando, Salt Lake City
Seasonal: Cancún, Paris-Charles de Gaulle
|Delta Connection operated by Chautauqua Airlines||Columbus (OH), Norfolk||A|
|Delta Connection operated by Comair||Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Columbus, Memphis, New York-JFK, Raleigh/Durham||A|
|Delta Connection operated by Compass Airlines||Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Detroit, Kansas City, Memphis, Raleigh/Durham||A|
|Delta Connection operated by ExpressJet||Detroit, Indianapolis, Memphis, Norfolk, Raleigh/Durham||A|
|Delta Connection operated by Pinnacle Airlines||Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Memphis, Norfolk, New York-JFK, Raleigh/Durham, Toronto-Pearson||A|
|Delta Connection operated by Shuttle America||Detroit, Indianapolis, Memphis||A|
|Delta Shuttle operated by Delta Air Lines||New York-LaGuardia||A|
|Delta Shuttle operated by Shuttle America||New York-LaGuardia||A|
|JetBlue Airways||Aruba, Austin, Baltimore, Buffalo, Cancún, Charlotte, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Jacksonville (FL), Las Vegas, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Montego Bay, Nassau, New Orleans, New York-JFK, Newark, Orlando, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Punta Cana, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, St. Maarten, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa, Washington-Dulles, Washington-National, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Bermuda, Nantucket, Oakland, Portland (OR), Providenciales, Sarasota, St. Thomas
|PenAir||Bar Harbor, Plattsburgh, Presque Isle||B South|
|Porter Airlines||Toronto-Billy Bishop||E|
|SATA International||Lisbon, Ponta Delgada, Terceira||E|
|Southwest Airlines||Baltimore, Chicago-Midway, Denver, Milwaukee [begins November 4, 2012], Nashville [begins August 12, 2012], Phoenix [ends August 11, 2012], St. Louis
Seasonal: Fort Myers [begins November 4, 2012]
|Spirit Airlines||Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Fort Lauderdale, Myrtle Beach
Seasonal: Atlantic City
|Sun Country Airlines||Minneapolis/St. Paul||E|
|Swiss International Air Lines||Zürich||E|
|United Airlines||Cleveland, Houston-Intercontinental, Newark||A|
|United Airlines||Chicago-O'Hare, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington-Dulles||C|
|United Express operated by Chautauqua Airlines||Cleveland||A|
|United Express operated by Colgan Air||Newark||A|
|United Express operated by ExpressJet Airlines||Cleveland, Newark||A|
|United Express operated by Mesa Airlines||Washington-Dulles||C|
|United Express operated by Shuttle America||Chicago-O'Hare, Washington-Dulles||C|
|United Express operated by Trans States Airlines||Cleveland||C|
|US Airways||Cancún, Charlotte, Philadelphia, Phoenix
Seasonal: Grand Cayman, Montego Bay, Punta Cana, Providenciales
|US Airways Express operated by Air Wisconsin||Buffalo, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Rochester (NY)||B South|
|US Airways Express operated by Piedmont Airlines||Harrisburg, Syracuse||B South|
|US Airways Express operated by Republic Airlines||Philadelphia, Pittsburgh||B South|
|US Airways Shuttle operated by US Airways||New York-LaGuardia, Washington-National||B South|
|Virgin America||Los Angeles, San Francisco||B North|
|ABX Air||Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky|
|Astar Air Cargo||Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky|
|Air Transport International||Newark|
|Capital Cargo International Airlines||Newark|
|DHL Airways||Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky|
|FedEx Express||Indianapolis, Manchester (NH), Memphis, Newark|
|FedEx Feeder operater by Wiggins Airways||Newark|
|UPS Airlines||Hartford, Louisville, Philadelphia|
Boston Logan International Airport has the accolade of "Easiest Airport to Get To" in a 2007 article on aviation.com because of the variety of options to/from the airport. These options include cars, taxis, the MBTA Blue and Silver lines, regional bus services, shared ride vans, limousines, and a service offered by few U.S. Airports, Logan Express. Logan is also 3 miles (4.8 km) northeast of downtown Boston, a very short distance compared with airports in other cities.
Massport's Logan Express bus service also serves the areas of Braintree, Framingham, Peabody, and the Anderson Regional Transportation Center in Woburn for an adult fare of $12.00 one-way and $22.00 round-trip per passenger. Logan Express operates on the lower level curb of all terminals.
The MBTA operates a water shuttle connecting Logan with downtown Boston, Quincy, and Hull. On demand service from the airport to various locations on the downtown waterfront is provided by a fleet of water taxis. A free shuttle bus ferries passengers between the airport dock and the various terminals.
The MBTA's Silver Line SL1 bus rapid transit service connects South Station, a major MBTA Commuter Rail, Amtrak, Red Line subway and bus transportation hub in the downtown Boston financial district, with all Logan terminals. Silverline bus tickets are sold in every terminal building to the far right of the lower level. There is also an Airport stop on the MBTA's Blue Line subway service. The Blue Line stop is not in the airport terminal itself; free shuttle buses 55, 22, and 33 provided by Massport bring passengers from the train station to the terminal buildings.
|Preceding station||MBTA||Following station|
toward South Station
Transfer at: Airport
Limousine pickup is also very common at the airport. Limousine drivers are not allowed to leave their vehicles at the designated pickup areas and pickup locations vary depending on the terminal. For Terminal A, the pickup location is on the arrival level, outside baggage claim, in a small parking lot across the road. At Terminal E, pickup is also on the arrival level in a small parking lot across the outermost curb. For Terminal B (both American Airlines and US Airways sides), pickup is at the curbside on the departure level at the outermost curb area. At Terminal C, pickup is also on the departure level at the second and third islands from the building.
Taxi operations are coordinated at each terminal by Massport. Massport's regulations have reduced the number of taxis allowed to wait in front of the terminal at any one time, and prohibit taxis from picking up fares at any location other than the designated taxi stands located at each terminal on the lower level curbs on the far left outside of baggage claim. A large staging area near the South Cargo complex serves as the waiting area for taxis, before they are called to the taxi stands to replenish the supply. Metered-rates from Logan to the Boston-area hotels range from approximately $25.00 to $50.00. The airport fee for trips leaving the airport is $2.25. Additionally, the city of Boston charges a $2.75 fee for trips to Logan Airport.
Boston Logan Airport is located partly in East Boston and partly in the town of Winthrop, on Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. By public roads, the airport is accessible via Exit 26 of the Massachusetts Turnpike (Interstate 90), near its eastern terminus, which provides easy access from the west via the Ted Williams Tunnel. East of Exit 26, I-90 transitions to Route 1A to Lynn and New Hampshire. From the south, travellers on Interstate 93 can connect to the Masspike east, through the Ted Williams Tunnel and take exit 26 to reach the airport. From the north, I-93 traffic to the airport uses the Callahan Tunnel, Route 1A North. From the North Shore, access is via Route 1A South. Additionally, road traffic from most of downtown Boston, Back Bay and Fenway/Boston University should use the Callahan Tunnel. The westbound twin tunnel to the Callahan Tunnel is known as the Sumner Tunnel. Eastbound travel through the tunnels is free, but there is a $3.50 toll for westbound travel, and a $5.25 toll for taxis, which passengers are responsible for.
Logan International Airport offers a 30-minute cell phone waiting lot area at the intersection of Hotel Dr. and Service Rd., which is complimentary and five minutes from all terminals by car. This convenience service exists to reduce congestion and pollution problems.
To address Logan Airport's overcrowding, Massport has designated two out-of-state airports as the second and third airports of Boston: Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, New Hampshire, located approximately 44 statute miles (71 km) north-northwest of Logan, which converts to an average drive time of 48 minutes via I-93; and T. F. Green Airport in Warwick, Rhode Island, located 63 statute miles (101 km) south-southwest of Logan, averaging a 1 hour, 8 minute drive to Logan via I-95, or a 75-minute ride on commuter rail from South Station). Massport does not operate these facilities.
Worcester Regional Airport in Worcester, which is also operated by Massport, provides some scheduled airline service. Scheduled airline service also exists at Hanscom Field in Bedford, Massachusetts, another facility operated by Massport.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Logan International Airport|
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