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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
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|General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party|
1945 – July 18, 1956
|Succeeded by||Ernő Gerő|
|Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary|
August 14, 1952 – July 4, 1953
( 0 years, 324 days)
|Preceded by||István Dobi|
|Succeeded by||Imre Nagy|
March 9, 1892|
|Died||February 5, 1971
Gorky, Soviet Union
|Political party||Hungarian Communist Party,
Hungarian Working People's Party
Mátyás Rákosi (March 9, 1892 – February 5, 1971) was a Hungarian communist politician. He was born Mátyás Rosenfeld in present-day Serbia. He was the de facto ruler of communist Hungary between 1945 and 1956 — first in his capacity as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party (1945–1948) and later as General Secretary of the Hungarian Working People's Party (1948–1956). His rule was aligned with USSR politics during Joseph Stalin's government.
Rákosi was born in Ada, a village in Bács County in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now in Vojvodina, Serbia). Born into a Jewish family, the fourth son of a grocer (his mother would give birth to seven more children) he later repudiated religion and totally repudiated Judaism.
He served in the Austro-Hungarian Army during the First World War and was captured on the Eastern Front. After returning to Hungary, he participated in the communist government of Béla Kun; after its fall he fled, eventually to the Soviet Union. After returning to Hungary in 1924 he was imprisoned, and was released to the Soviet Union in 1940, in exchange for the Hungarian revolutionary banners captured by the Russian troops at Világos in 1849. In the Soviet Union, he became leader of the Comintern. He returned to Debrecen, Hungary, on January 30, 1945, sent by Soviet leadership, to organize the Communist Party.
When the communist government was installed in Hungary, Rákosi was appointed General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party (MKP). He was a member of the High National Council from September 27, to December 7, 1945. Rákosi was acting Prime Minister from February 1, to February 4, 1946 and on May 31, 1947. In 1948, the Communists forced the Social Democrats to merge with them to form the Hungarian Working People's Party (MDP). A year later, elections were held with a single list of candidates; although non-Communists nominally still figured, they were actually fellow travelers. This marked the onset of undisguised Communist rule in Hungary.
Rákosi described himself as "Stalin's best Hungarian disciple" and "Stalin's best pupil." He also invented the term "salami tactics", which related to his method of eliminating the non-Communist opposition. By portraying his rivals as either fascists or fascist sympathizers, he was able to get the non-Communist parties to push out their more courageous members, leaving only those willing to collaborate with the Communists. He later said that he destroyed the non-Communist forces in the country by "cutting them off like slices of salami." At the height of his rule, he developed a strong cult of personality around himself. Approximately 350,000 officials and intellectuals were purged under his rule, from 1948 to 1956. Rákosi imposed totalitarian rule on Hungary — arresting, jailing and killing both real and imagined foes in various waves of Stalin-inspired political purges – as the country went into decline. In August 1952 he also became Chairman of the Council of Ministers, but on June 13, 1953, to appease the Soviet Politburo, he was forced to give up the office to Imre Nagy, yet retained the office of General Secretary. Rákosi led the attacks on Nagy. On 9 March 1955, the Central Committee of the Hungarian Working People's Party condemned Nagy for "rightist deviation". Hungarian newspapers joined the attacks and Nagy was accused of being responsible for the country's economic problems and on 18 April he was dismissed from his post by a unanimous vote of the National Assembly. Although Rákosi did not resume the premiership, he quickly put the country back on its previous course.
The postwar Hungarian economy suffered from multiple challenges. The most important was the destruction of assets in the war (40% of national wealth, including all bridges, railways, raw materials, machinery, etc.) Hungary agreed to pay war reparations approximating US$300 million, to the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, and to support Soviet garrisons. The Hungarian National Bank in 1946 estimated the cost of reparations as "between 19 and 22 per cent of the annual national income." In spite of this, after the highest historical rate of inflation in world history, the new, stable currency was successfully in August 1946 on the basis of the plans of the Communist Party and the Social Democratic Party. While consumer goods production was still low, industrial production exceeded the level of 1938 by 40% in 1949 and tripled by 1953. However, the backwardness of light industries resulted in frequent shortages, especially on the countryside, leading to discontent. In addition, the huge investments in military sectors after the outbreak of the Korean War further reduced the supply of consumer goods. Because of the shortages, forced savings (state bond sales to the population) and below inflation wage increases were introduced.
Rákosi was then removed as General Secretary of the Party under pressure from the Soviet Politburo in June 1956 (shortly after Nikita Khrushchev's Secret Speech), and was replaced by Ernő Gerő. To remove him from the Hungarian political scene, the Soviet Politburo forced Rákosi to move to the Soviet Union in 1956, with the official story being that he was "seeking medical attention." He spent the rest of his life in the Kirgiz Soviet Socialist Republic. Shortly before his death, in 1970, Rákosi was finally granted permission to return to Hungary if he promised not to engage in any political activities. He refused the deal, and remained in the USSR where he died in Gorky in 1971.
|General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party
|Prime Minister of Hungary
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mátyás Rákosi|