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Wikipedia

Maastricht

                   
Maastricht
Mestreech
—  Municipality  —

Flag

Coat of arms

Simplified arms
Anthem: Mestreechs Volksleed
Coordinates: 50°51′4.47″N 5°41′26.65″E / 50.8512417°N 5.6907361°E / 50.8512417; 5.6907361
Country Netherlands Netherlands
Province Limburg (Netherlands) Flag.png Limburg
COROP South Limburg
Settled 500 BC
City rights 1204
City subdivisions 40 neighbourhoods
Government
 • Body Gemeenteraad Maastricht
 • Mayor Onno Hoes (VVD)
Area(2006)
 • Total 60.06 km2 (23.19 sq mi)
 • Land 56.80 km2 (21.93 sq mi)
 • Water 3.26 km2 (1.26 sq mi)
Population (1 November 2011)
 • Total 121,164
 • Density 2,017/km2 (5,220/sq mi)
 • Demonym (Dutch) Maastrichtenaar;
(Limb.) Mestreechteneer or Sjeng
  Source: CBS, Statline.
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code(s) 6200 AA - 6229 ZZ
Area code(s) 043
Twin cities
 • Liège Belgium
 • Koblenz Germany
 • El Rama Nicaragua
 • Chengdu China
Website http://www.maastricht.nl/

Coordinates: 50°51′4.47″N 5°41′26.65″E / 50.8512417°N 5.6907361°E / 50.8512417; 5.6907361

Maastricht ([maːˈstʁɪçt] (southern Dutch) or [maːˈstɾɪxt] ( listen) (northern); Limburgish (incl. Maastrichtian) Mestreech [məˈstʁeːç]; French Maëstricht (archaic); Spanish Mastrique (archaic)) is a city in the Netherlands. It is located in the southern part of the Dutch province of Limburg, of which it is the capital.

Maastricht is widely known as a city of history, culture, local folklore, education.[1] Furthermore, it has become known, by way of the Maastricht Treaty, as the birthplace of the European Union, European citizenship, and the single European currency, the euro.[2][3] The town is popular with tourists for shopping and recreation, and has a large growing international student population. Maastricht is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.[4]

Contents

  Location

Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river (Dutch: Maas) in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border (with both the Dutch-speaking Flemish and French-speaking Walloon region within easy reach from the city centre) and near the German border. The city is part of the Meuse-Rhine Euroregion, the Euregio that includes Aachen, Hasselt and Liège in respectively Germany and Belgium.

  Climate

Climate data for Maastricht
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4
(39)
6
(43)
9
(48)
13
(55)
17
(63)
20
(68)
22
(72)
22
(72)
19
(66)
15
(59)
9
(48)
5
(41)
13.4
(56.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2
(36)
3
(37)
5
(41)
8
(46)
13
(55)
16
(61)
17
(63)
17
(63)
14
(57)
11
(52)
6
(43)
3
(37)
9.6
(49.2)
Average low °C (°F) 0
(32)
0
(32)
2
(36)
4
(39)
8
(46)
11
(52)
12
(54)
12
(54)
10
(50)
7
(45)
3
(37)
0
(32)
5.8
(42.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 59
(2.32)
53
(2.09)
62
(2.44)
53
(2.09)
62
(2.44)
74
(2.91)
71
(2.8)
66
(2.6)
57
(2.24)
61
(2.4)
69
(2.72)
73
(2.87)
760
(29.92)
humidity 88 84 80 76 75 76 76 77 81 84 87 89 81.1
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13 10 12 11 11 11 10 10 9 9 12 13 131
Mean monthly sunshine hours 42 71 98 141 187 176 183 175 134 108 58 38 1,411
Source: The Weather Network [5]

  History

  Etymology and 'oldest city in the Netherlands' dispute

The name Maastricht is derived from Latin Trajectum ad Mosam (or Mosae Trajectum), meaning 'crossing at the Meuse', and referring to the bridge built by the Romans. The Latin name first appears in medieval documents and it is not known whether this was Maastricht's official name during Roman times.

There is some debate as to whether Maastricht is the oldest city in the Netherlands. Some people consider Nijmegen the oldest, mainly because it was the first settlement in the Netherlands to receive Roman city rights. Maastricht never did, but it may be considerably older as a settlement. In addition, Maastricht can claim uninterrupted habitation since Roman times. A large number of archeological finds confirms this. Nijmegen has a gap in its history: there is practically no evidence of habitation in the early Middle Ages.

A resident of Maastricht is referred to as Maastrichtenaar whilst in the local dialect it is either Mestreechteneer or, colloquially, Sjeng (derived from the formerly popular French name Jean).

  Roman roads around Traiectum ad Mosam
  View of Maastricht, coloured engraving by Philippo Bellomonte, 1580/82
  Maquette of Maastricht in 1750
  Map of the Netherlands in 1843

  Early history

Neanderthal remains have been found to the west of Maastricht (Belvédère excavations). Of a later date are Paleolithic remains, between 8,000 and 25,000 years old. Celts lived here around 500 BC, at a spot where the river Meuse was shallow and therefore easy to cross.

It is not known exactly when the Romans arrived in Maastricht, or whether the settlement was founded by them. It is known though, that the Romans built a bridge over the Meuse in the 1st century AD, during the reign of Augustus Caesar. The bridge was an important link in the main road between Bavay and Cologne. Roman Maastricht was probably relatively small. Remains of the Roman road, the bridge, a religious shrine, a Roman bath, a granary, some houses and the 4th century castrum walls and gates, have been excavated. Fragments of provincial Roman sculptures, as well as coins, jewelry, glass, pottery and other objects from Roman Maastricht are on display in the exhibition space of the city's public library (Centre Céramique).

According to legend, the Armenian-born Saint Servatius, bishop of Tongeren, died in Maastricht in 384 and was buried there along the Roman road, outside the castrum. According to Gregory of Tours it was bishop Monulph who, around 570, built the first stone church on the grave of Servatius, the present-day Basilica of Saint Servatius. The city remained an early Christian diocese until it lost this position to nearby Liège in the early 8th century.

  Middle Ages

In the early Middle Ages Maastricht was, along with Aachen and the area around Liège, part of the heartland of the Carolingian Empire. The town was an important centre for trade and manufacturing. Merovingian coins minted in Maastricht have been found in many places throughout Europe. In the 10th century Maastricht briefly became the capital of the duchy of Lower Lorraine.

During the 12th century the town flourished culturally. The provosts of the church of Saint Servatius held important positions in the Holy Roman Empire during this era. The city's two main churches were largely rebuilt and redecorated. Maastricht Romanesque stone sculpture is regarded as one of the highlights of Mosan art. Maastricht painters were praised by Wolfram von Eschenbach in his Parzival. Around the same time, the poet Henric van Veldeke wrote a legend of Saint Servatius, one of the earliest works in Dutch literature.

Shortly after 1200 the city received dual authority, with the prince-bishops of Liège and the dukes of Brabant holding joint sovereignty over the city. Maastricht received city rights in 1204. Soon afterwards the first ring of medieval walls were built. Throughout the Middle Ages, the city remained a centre for trade and manufacturing of wool and leather but gradually economic decline set in. After a brief period of economic prosperity in the 15th century, the city's economy suffered during the wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, and recovery did not happen until the industrial revolution in the early 19th century.

  16th to 19th century

The important strategic location of Maastricht resulted in the construction of an impressive array of fortifications around the city during this period. The Spanish and Dutch garrisons became an important factor in the city's economy. In 1579 the city was sacked by the Spanish army under general Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (Siege of Maastricht, 1579). For over fifty years the Spanish crown took over the role of the dukes of Brabant in the joint sovereignty over Maastricht. In 1632 the city was conquered by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and the Dutch States General replaced the Spanish crown in the joint government of Maastricht.

Another Siege of Maastricht (1673) took place during the Franco-Dutch War. In June 1673, Louis XIV laid siege of the city because French battle supply lines were being threatened. During this siege, Vauban, the famous French military engineer, developed a new strategy in order to break down the strong fortifications surrounding Maastricht. His systematic approach remained the standard method of attacking fortresses until the 20th century. On 25 June 1673, while preparing to storm the city, captain-lieutenant Charles de Batz de Castelmore, also known as the comte d'Artagnan, was killed by a musket shot outside Tongerse Poort. This event was immortalized in Alexandre Dumas' novel The Vicomte de Bragelonne, part of the D'Artagnan Romances (D'Artagnan is one of the Mousquetaires du Roi, or Three Musketeers, in this series). French troops occupied Maastricht from 1673 to 1678.

In 1748 the French once again conquered the city at what is known as the Second French Siege of Maastricht, during the War of Austrian Succession. The French took the city one last time in 1794, when the condominium was dissolved and Maastricht was annexed to the First French Empire. For twenty years Maastricht was the capital of the French département of Meuse-Inférieure.

After the Napoleonic era, Maastricht became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. It was made the capital of the newly formed Province of Limburg (1815–1839). When the Southern provinces of the newly formed kingdom seceded in 1830 (Belgian Revolution), the Dutch garrison in Maastricht remained loyal to the Dutch king, William I of the Netherlands, even when most of the inhabitants of the town and the surrounding area sided with the Belgian revolutionaries. In 1831, arbitration by the Great Powers allocated the city to the Netherlands. However, neither the Dutch nor the Belgians agreed to this and it was not until the 1839 Treaty of London that the arrangement was implemented.

Because of its eccentric location in the Netherlands, and its geographical and cultural proximity to Belgium, integration of Maastricht and Limburg into the Netherlands did not come about easily. Maastricht retained a distinctly non-Dutch appearance during much of the 19th century and it was not until the First World War that the city was forced to look northwards.

  20th century and onwards

Maastricht did not escape the ravages of World War II. It was quickly taken by the Germans during the Battle of Maastricht in May 1940, but on 14 September 1944 it was also the first Dutch city to be liberated by allied forces. The three Meuse bridges were destroyed or severely damaged during the war. The majority of Maastricht Jews were murdered in Nazi concentration camps.

The latter half of the century saw the decline of traditional industries (such as the famous Maastricht potteries) and a shift to a service economy. Maastricht University was founded in 1976. Several European institutions have found their base in Maastricht. In 1992, the Maastricht treaty was negotiated and signed here, leading to the creation of the European Union and the euro.[6]

In recent years, under mayor Gerd Leers, Maastricht launched a campaign against drug-related problems. Leers instigated a controversial plan to relocate some of the cannabis coffee shop - where the purchase of soft drugs in limited quantities is tolerated - from the city centre to the outskirts, in an attempt to stop (foreign) buyers from causing trouble in the downtown area.[7] Although the so-called coffee corner plan has not been entirely abandoned, the new mayor Onno Hoes has given priority to the Dutch government's approach of limiting entrance to 'coffeeshops' to Dutch adults only, and to tackle the problem of drugs runners in joint cooperation with the city of Rotterdam (where the majority of drugs runners are from).

On a positive note, large parts of the city centre were thoroughly refurbished in recent years, including the area around the main railway station, the main shopping streets, the Entre Deux and Mosae Forum shopping centres, and the Maasboulevard promenade along the Meuse. Also, a new quarter, including the new Bonnefanten Museum, a public library, a theater and several housing blocks designed by international architects, was built on the grounds of the former Céramique potteries near the town centre. As a result, Maastricht looks notably smarter. Further large-scale projects, such as the redevelopment of the Sphinx and Belvédère areas, are underway.

  Culture & tourism

  Sights of Maastricht

  Fortress of Sint Pieter on Sint-Pietersberg
  Vrijthof, Saint Servatius Basilica
  Henri Hermanspark

Maastricht is known for its picturesque squares, romantic streets, and historical buildings. The tourist information office (VVV) is located in the Dinghuis, a 15th-century former town hall and law courts building on the corner of Grote Staat and Kleine Staat. The main sights include:

  • City Fortifications, including:
    • Helpoort - a 13th century town gate, the oldest in the Netherlands.
    • fragments of the first and second medieval city walls.
    • Hoge Fronten (or Linie van Du Moulin) - remnants of 17th and 18th century fortifications with a number of well-preserved bastions and an early 19th century fortress Fort Willem.
    • Casemates - underground network of tunnels, built as sheltered emplacements for guns and cannons. These tunnels run for several miles underneath the city's fortifications. Guided tours available.
  • Binnenstad - inner city shopping district, including Grote and Kleine Staat, and high-end shopping street Stokstraat. Maastricht is also well known for its cafés, pubs and restaurants.
    • Dinghuis - Medieval courthouse with an early Renaissance façade.
    • Entre Deux - a recently rebuilt shopping centre which has won several international awards.[8] It includes a book store located inside a former 13th century Dominican church. In 2008, British newspaper The Guardian proclaimed this the world's most beautiful bookshop.[9]
  • Onze Lieve Vrouweplein - picturesque tree-lined square with an abundance of pavement cafes. Sights:
    • Basilica of Our Lady - 11th-century church.
    • Derlon Museumkelder - a small museum in the basement of hotel Derlon with Roman remains.
  • Markt - the Market Square was completely refurbished in 2006-2007 and is now virtually traffic free. Sights include:
    • Town hall - built in the 17th century by Pieter Post.
    • Mosae Forum - a brand new shopping center and civic building designed by Jo Coenen and Bruno Albert. Citroën Miniature Cars, the world's largest exposition of Citroën miniature cars, is inside the Mosae Forum parking garage below the square.
  • Bassin - a restored early 19th century inner harbor with restaurants and cafés. The surroundings are currently being developed into a cultural hotspot.
  • Wyck - the old quarter on the right bank of the Meuse river. Rechtstraat is the main shopping street in Wyck with a mix of specialty shops, art galleries and restaurants.
  • Parks - there are various parks in Maastricht. Of particular note are the following:
    • Stadspark - the main public park on the West bank of the river.
    • Monsigneur Nolenspark - extension of Stadspark with remnants of medieval city walls.
    • Aldenhofpark - another extension of Stadspark with statue of d'Artagnan.
    • Charles Eykpark - modern park between the public library and Bonnefanten Museum on the East bank of the Meuse river
    • Griendpark - modern park on the East bank of the river with inline-skating and skateboarding course.
  • Sint-Pietersberg - a modest hill just South of the city, peaking at 171 metres (561 ft) above sea level. Sights:
    • Fort Sint-Pieter - an 18th-century fortress fully restored in 2008.
    • Grotten Sint-Pietersberg (caves) - sandstone (marl) quarry with vast network of man-made tunnels. Guided tours are available.
    • Kasteelruïne Lichtenberg - a farmstead containing a ruined medieval castle keep.
    • D'n Observant - artificial hilltop on Sint-Pietersberg.
  • Sint Servaasbrug, the oldest bridge in the Netherlands

  Museums in Maastricht

  Museum aan het Vrijthof

  Events & Festivals

  • Damascus Road International Church[10] - English speaking church held Sundays at 11am at the Stay Okay Hostel along the Maas.
  • The European Fine Art Fair - TEFAF is the world's leading art and antiques fair (March).
  • Preuvenemint - a large culinary event held on the Vrijthof square (August).
  • Magic Maastricht - a winter-themed fun fair and Christmas market held on Vrijthof square and other locations throughout the city (December/January).
  • European Model United Nations (EuroMUN) - annual international conference in May and the second largest of its kind in Europe.
  • Amstel Gold Race - international cycling race which starts in Maastricht (usually April).
  • Jumping Indoor Maastricht - international concours hippique (showjumping).
  • Maastrichts Mooiste - annual running and walking event.
  • Musica Sacra - a festival of religious (classical) music (September).
  • Jazz Maastricht - jazz festival formerly known as Jeker Jazz (Autumn).
  • Nederlandse Dansdagen - modern dance festival (October).
  • KunstTour - annual art festival (May).
  • Inkom - the traditional opening of the academic year and introduction for new students of Maastricht University (August).
  • Carnival (Dutch: Carnaval, Limburgish and Maastrichtian: Vastelaovend) - a traditional 3-day festival in the southern part of the Netherlands (February/March). In Maastricht largely celebrated outdoors.
  • 11de van de 11de - the official start of the carnival season (November 11).

Furthermore, the Maastricht Exposition and Congress Centre (MECC) hosts many events throughout the year.

  Cannabis

On 16 December 2010, the Court of Justice of the European Union upheld a local Maastrict ban on the sale of cannabis to foreign tourists, restricting coffee shops to residents of Maastricht.[11] The ban did not affect scientific or medical usage. While the ban is now legal to enforce, its future is uncertain as the city council of Maastricht and other cities have voted against the planned "cannabis pass system".[12]

  Demographics and language

  Demographics

Year Population
1794 17,000[13]
1818 20,000[13]
2011 (Jan) 121,050 [14]

  Language

Maastricht is a city of linguistic diversity, thanks to its location at the crossroads of multiple language areas and its international student population.

  • Dutch is the national language and the language of elementary and secondary education (excluding international institutions) as well as administration. Dutch in Maastricht is often spoken with a distinctive Limburgish accent, which should not be confused with the Limburgish language.
  • Limburgish (or Limburgian), is the overlapping term of the tonal dialects spoken in the Dutch and Belgian provinces of Limburg. The Maastrichtian dialect (Mestreechs) is only one of many variants of Limburgish. It is characterised by stretched vowels and some French influence on its vocabulary. In recent years the Maastricht dialect has been in decline (see dialect levelling) and a language switch to Standard Dutch has been noted.[15]
  • French formerly was the language of education in Maastricht. As of the 18th century the language occupied a powerful position as judicial and cultural language, with it being used and throughout the following century by the upper classes.[16] Between 1851 and 1892 a Francophone newspaper (Le Courrier de la Meuse) was published in Maastricht. Currently, the language is often part of secondary school curricula. Many proper names and some street names are French and the language has left many traces in the local dialect.
  • German, like French, is often part of secondary school curricula. Due to Maastricht's geographic proximity to Germany and the great number of German students in the city, German is widely spoken.
  • English has become an important language in education. At Maastricht University it is the language of instruction for many courses. Many foreign students and expatriates use English as a lingua franca. English is also a mandatory subject in Dutch elementary and secondary schools.

  Education

  Secondary education

  Maastricht University Law faculty
  Hotel Management School. Castle Bethlehem

  Tertiary education

  Other

  Economy

  Private Companies based in Maastricht

  ENCI quarry
  Provincial Government Buildings
  • ENCI - First Dutch Cement Industry
  • Sappi - South African Pulp and Paper Industry
  • Mosa - ceramic tiles
  • BASF - previously Ten Horn, pigments
  • Hewlett-Packard - previously Indigo, manufacturer of electronic data systems
  • Vodafone - mobile phone company
  • DHL - international express mail services
  • Teleperformance - contact center services
  • Mercedes-Benz - customer contact centre for Europe
  • VGZ - health insurance, customer contact centre
  • Esaote (former Pie Medical Equipment) - manufacturer of medical and veterinary diagnostic equipment
  • Pie Medical Imaging - cardiovascular quantitative analysis software
  • CardioTek - manufacturer of medical equipment for Cardiac electrophysiology procedures
  • BioPartner Centre Maastricht - life sciences spin-off companies

  Public Institutions

  Sports

  • In football, Maastricht is represented by MVV Maastricht (Dutch: Maatschappelijke Voetbal Vereniging Maastricht), currently playing in the Dutch first division of the national competition (which is actually the second league after the Eredivisie league). MVV's home is the Geusselt stadium near the A2 motorway.
  • Maastricht is also home to the Maastricht Wildcats, an American Football League team and member of the AFBN (American Football Bond Nederland).
  • Since 1998, Maastricht has been the traditional starting place of the annual Amstel Gold Race - the only Dutch cycling classic. For several years the race also finished in Maastricht, but since 2002 the finale has been on the Cauberg hill in nearby Valkenburg.

  Politics

Election results of 2006: council seats
Party Seats Compared to 2002
PvdA 13 +5
CDA 7 -4
GroenLinks 5 0
VVD 3(4) -1
SP 3 +1
Senioren 3 0
D66 2 0
Stadsbelangen 2 -1
Liberalen Maastricht 1 0
Total 39
  Former mayor of Maastricht Gerd Leers

The municipal government of Maastricht consists of a city council, a mayor and a number of aldermen. The city council, a 39-member legislative body directly elected for four years, appoints the aldermen on the basis of a coalition agreement between two or more parties after each election. The 2006 municipal elections in the Netherlands were, as often, dominated by national politics and led to a shift from right to left throughout the country. In Maastricht, the traditional broad governing coalition of Christian Democrats (CDA), Labour (PvdA), Greens (GreenLeft) and Liberals (VVD) was replaced by a centre-left coalition of Labour, Christian Democrats and Greens. Two Labour aldermen were appointed, along with one Christian Democrat and one Green alderman. Due to internal disagreements, one of the VVD council members left the party in 2005 and formed a new liberal group in 2006 (Liberalen Maastricht). The other opposition parties in the current city council are the Socialist Party (SP), the Democrats (D66) and two local parties (Stadsbelangen Mestreech (SBM) and the Seniorenpartij).

The aldermen and the mayor make up the executive branch of the municipal government. The current mayor of Maastricht is Onno Hoes, a Liberal (VVD), who was appointed after the popular previous mayor, Gerd Leers (CDA), decided to step down in January 2010 following the 'Bulgarian Villa' affair.

One controversial issue which has characterized Maastricht politics for years and which has also affected national and even international politics, is the city's approach to soft drug policy. Under the pragmatic Dutch soft drug policy, a policy of non-enforcement, individuals may buy and use cannabis from 'coffeeshops' (cannabis bars) under certain conditions. Maastricht, like many other border towns, has seen a growing influx of 'drug tourists', mainly young people from Belgium, France and Germany, who provide a large amount of revenue for the coffeeshops in the city centre. The city government, most notably ex-mayor Leers, have been actively promoting drug policy reform in order to deal with its negative side effects.

Under one of the latest proposals, known as the 'Coffee Corner Plan' and proposed by then-mayor Leers,[17] the city council unanimously voted in November 2008 to relocate most of its coffeeshops from the city centre to the edge of town, where the sale and use of cannabis can more easily be monitored. The purpose of this plan was to reduce the impact of drug tourism on the city centre, such as parking problems and the more serious issue of the illegal sale of hard drugs in the vicinity of the coffeeshops. The Coffee Corner Plan, however, has met with fierce opposition from neighbouring municipalities and from national government, where the Christian Democrats take a notably more conservative approach to soft drugs than their local party and mayor. Bordering towns and the federal government in Belgium have also opposed the city's policy, citing Maastricht's plan to move the coffeeshops towards the Belgian borders as a violation of European law. The plan has been the subject of various legal challenges and has not yet been carried out.

  International relations

  Twin towns — Sister cities

Maastricht is twinned with:

  Other relations

  Neighbourhoods

  Typical street Jekerkwartier

Maastricht consists of five districts and over 40 neighbourhoods. Each neighbourhood has a number which corresponds to its postal code.

  1. Maastricht Centrum (Binnenstad, Jekerkwartier, Kommelkwartier, Statenkwartier, Boschstraatkwartier, Sint Maartenspoort, Wyck-Céramique)
  2. South-West (Villapark, Jekerdal, Biesland, Campagne, Wolder, Sint Pieter)
  3. North-West (Brusselsepoort, Mariaberg, Belfort, Pottenberg, Malpertuis, Caberg, Malberg, Dousberg-Hazendans, Daalhof, Boschpoort, Bosscherveld, Frontenkwartier, Belvédère, Lanakerveld)
  4. North-East (Beatrixhaven, Borgharen, Itteren, Meerssenhoven, Wyckerpoort, Wittevrouwenveld, Nazareth, Limmel, Amby)
  5. South-East (Randwyck, Heugem, Heugemerveld, Scharn, Heer, De Heeg, Vroendaal)

The neighbourhoods of Itteren, Borgharen, Limmel, Amby, Heer, Heugem, Scharn, Oud-Caberg, Sint Pieter and Wolder all used to be separate municipalities or villages until they were annexed by the city of Maastricht in the course of the twentieth century.

  Transport

  By car

Maastricht is served by the A2 and A79 motorways. The city can be reached from Brussels and Cologne in approximately one hour and from Amsterdam in about two and a half hours.

  A2 motorway in Maastricht

The A2 motorway that runs through Maastricht is heavily congested and causes air pollution in the urban area. Construction of a two-level tunnel designed to solve these problems is scheduled to start in 2011 and last until 2016.[18]

In spite of several large underground car parks, parking in the city centre forms a major problem during weekends and bank holidays due to the large numbers of visitors. Parking fees are high in order to incite visitors to use public transport or park and ride facilities away from the centre.

  By train

Maastricht is served by three rail operators, all of which call at the main Maastricht railway station near the centre and the smaller Maastricht Randwyck, located near the business and university district. Services northwards are operated by Dutch Railways, including regular intercity trains to Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Den Bosch and Utrecht. The National Railway Company of Belgium runs south to Liège and Brussels in Belgium. The line to Heerlen, Valkenburg and Kerkrade is operated by Veolia. The former railway to Aachen was closed down in the 1980s. The old westbound railway to Hasselt (Belgium) is currently being restored. This line will be used as a modern tramline, scheduled to open in 2017.[19][20]

  By bus

Regular bus lines connect the city centre, outer areas, business districts and railway stations. The regional Veolia bus network extends to most parts of South Limburg as well as to Hasselt, Tongeren and Liège in Belgium, and Aachen in Germany.

  By air

Maastricht is served by nearby Maastricht Aachen Airport - locally known as Beek - with scheduled flights to Alicante, Berlin, Faro, Girona, Málaga, Pisa, Reus, Trapani and charters to popular holiday destinations during the summer season. The airport is located about 10 kilometres north of Maastricht's centre.

  By boat

Maastricht has a river port (Beatrixhaven) and is connected by water with Belgium and the rest of the Netherlands through the river Meuse, the Juliana Canal, the Albert Canal and the Zuid-Willemsvaart.

  Distances to other cities

These distances are as the crow flies and therefore not represent actual overland distances.

  Local anthem

In 2002 the municipal government officially adopted a local anthem (Limburgish (Maastrichtian variant): Mestreechs Volksleed, Dutch: Maastrichts Volkslied) composed of lyrics in Maastrichtian. The theme was originally written by Alfons Olterdissen (1865–1923) as finishing stanza of the Maastrichtian opera "Trijn de Begijn" of 1910.[21]

  Natives of Maastricht

See also People from Maastricht

  Gallery

  Vrijthof square, early morning
  Panorama from Saint Servatius Bridge over Meuse river

  See also

  References

Notes
  1. ^ "VVV Maastricht". Vvv-maastricht.eu. http://www.vvv-maastricht.eu. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  2. ^ Sponsored by. "The Economist ''Charlemagne: Return to Maastricht'' Oct 8th 2011". Economist.com. http://www.economist.com/node/21531445. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  3. ^ BBC News Is Brighton the next Maastricht March 29th 2012
  4. ^ MAETN (1999 [last update]). "diktyo". classic-web.archive.org. http://classic-web.archive.org/web/20051022022345/http://www.argos.gr/diktyoe.htm. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  5. ^ "Climate Data for Maastricht, The Netherlands". http://www.theweathernetwork.com/statistics/c01497. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  6. ^ Gnesotto, N. (1992). European union after Minsk and Maastricht. International Affairs. 68(2), 223-232.
  7. ^ MaastrichtVan onze verslaggever. "Coffee Corner: Dagblad de Limburger". Limburger.nl. http://www.limburger.nl/article/20080311/REGIONIEUWS06/803110348/1056. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  8. ^ "Entre Deux". Entredeux.nl. http://www.entredeux.nl/. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  9. ^ "Top shelves". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/jan/11/bestukbookshops. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  10. ^ damascusroadic.com
  11. ^ "Marc Michel Josemans v. Burgemeester van Maastricht, case C‑137/09". Court of Justice of the European Union. December 16, 2010. http://curia.europa.eu/jurisp/cgi-bin/gettext.pl?where=&lang=en&num=79898783C19090137&doc=T&ouvert=T&seance=ARRET. 
  12. ^ "Eindhoven joins opposition to cannabis pass system". Dutchnews.nl. February 9, 2011. http://www.dutchnews.nl/news/archives/2011/02/eindhoven_joins_opposition_to.php. 
  13. ^ a b Jansen, J.C.G.M. (1986). "Maastricht tussen 1813 en 1850" (PDF). BMCN 101 (4): 529–550. http://www.knhg.nl/bmgn2/J/Jansen__J._C._G._M._-_Maastricht_tussen_1813_en_1850.pdf. Retrieved February 10, 2012. 
  14. ^ Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Statline "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand". http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=37230ned&D1=0&D2=373&D3=123-127&HDR=G2&STB=G1,T&VW=T Statline. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  15. ^ Gussenhoven, C. & Aarts, F. (1999). "The dialect of Maastricht". University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies. http://www.let.kun.nl/gep/carlos/Maastrich2ipa.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  16. ^ Kessels-van der Heijde, Maria (2002). Maastricht, Maestricht, Mestreech. Hilversum, Netherlands: Uitgeverij Verloren. pp. 11–12. http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=NP3deKbb9QoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&dq=maastricht+tussen+1813+en+1830&ots=IrXhA_X7-p&sig=KO2Xp9nHzrfDCOlgj38SV2QDhV0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 11 February 2012. 
  17. ^ Cannabis Cafes Get Nudge to Fringes of a Dutch City, The New York Times, 20 August 2006.
  18. ^ A2maastricht.nl
  19. ^ MaastrichtVan onze verslaggever. "Tramlijn: Dagblad de Limburger". Limburger.nl. http://www.limburger.nl/article/20080715/REGIONIEUWS06/682893768/1007. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  20. ^ Tramverbinding tussen Nederland en België (Dutch)
  21. ^ Municipality of Maastricht (2008). "Municipality of Maastricht: Maastrichts Volkslied". N.A. Maastricht. http://www.maastricht.nl/maastricht/show/id=64886/notextonly=42282. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 

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