1.a historical area in west-central India
definition of Wikipedia
2006 Dalit protests in Maharashtra • 2008 attacks on North Indians in Maharashtra • Agri (Maharashtra) • Ahmednagar, Maharashtra • Ale, Maharashtra • Alur, Maharashtra • Arni, Maharashtra • Ashta, Maharashtra • Aurangabad district, Maharashtra • Aurangabad, Maharashtra • Banda, Maharashtra • Bank of Maharashtra • Bhadgaon, Maharashtra • Bhadravati, Maharashtra • Brihan Maharashtra • Chakan, Maharashtra • Chandur, Maharashtra • Chikhli, Maharashtra • Culture of Maharashtra • Deoli, Maharashtra • Deputy Chief Minister of Maharashtra • Desh Maharashtra region • Desh, Maharashtra • Devgarh, Maharashtra • Dindori, Maharashtra • Diva, Maharashtra • Economy of Maharashtra • Elections in Maharashtra • Fish research institutions in the Maharashtra • Fishing communities in Maharashtra • Food and Drug Administration, Maharashtra State • Freshwater ecology of Maharashtra • Gandhinagar, Maharashtra • Ganeshpur, Maharashtra • Gangapur, Aurangabad, Maharashtra • Gangapur, Maharashtra • Gass (Maharashtra) • Gates in Aurangabad, Maharashtra • Geography of Maharashtra • Goregaon, Maharashtra • Government Of Maharashtra • Government of Maharashtra • Himayatnagar, Maharashtra • History of Aurangabad, Maharashtra • History of Maharashtra • Holy Cross Convent School, Akola, Maharashtra, India • Indian general election in Maharashtra, 2009 • Jai Jai Maharashtra Maza • Jains in Maharashtra • KM Nanavati v State of Maharashtra • Khoni, Maharashtra • Latur City (Maharashtra Assembly constituency) • Latur Rural (Maharashtra Assembly constituency) • Legislature of Maharashtra • List of Chief Ministers of Maharashtra • List of Governors of Maharashtra • List of State Highways in Maharashtra • List of conglomerates in Maharashtra • List of constituencies of Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha • List of educational institutions in Maharashtra • List of forts in Maharashtra • List of fresh water fishes of Maharashtra • List of people from Maharashtra • Local government in Maharashtra • Maan, Maharashtra • Magar (Maharashtra) • Maharashtra Academy of Engineering • Maharashtra Academy of Sciences • Maharashtra Airport Development Company • Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University • Maharashtra Association of Resident Doctors • Maharashtra Bhushan Award • Maharashtra College of Engineering Nilanga • Maharashtra Cricket Association • Maharashtra Day • Maharashtra General Kamgar Union • Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority • Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation • Maharashtra Institute of Dental Science and Research Latur • Maharashtra Institute of Medical Science and Research, Latur • Maharashtra Institute of Technology • Maharashtra Knowledge Corporation Limited (MKCL) • Maharashtra Mandal • Maharashtra Mandal Dar es Salaam Tanzania • Maharashtra Navnirman Sena • Maharashtra Navnirman Sena a.k.a. Ma Na Se • Maharashtra Police • Maharashtra Pollution Control Board • Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee • Maharashtra Rashtravadi Congress • Maharashtra Sampark Kranti Express • Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education • Maharashtra State Distribution Co. Ltd • Maharashtra State Electricity Board • Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited • Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company Limited • Maharashtra State Film Awards • Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Limited • Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation • Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation • Maharashtra Sugarcane Cutting and Transport Workers Union • Maharashtra Times • Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation • Maharashtra University of Health Sciences • Maharashtra Vidhan Parishad • Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha • Maharashtra Vikas Party • Maharashtra cricket team • Maharashtra floods of 2005 • Maharashtra geet • Maharashtra state assembly elections, 1995 • Maharashtra state assembly elections, 1999 • Maharashtra state assembly elections, 2004 • Maharashtra state assembly elections, 2009 • Maharashtra utsav • Mahur, Maharashtra • Man-made lentic water bodies of Maharashtra • Marathi Buddhists from Maharashtra • Mora, Maharashtra • Music of Maharashtra • Nakoda, Maharashtra • Nandgaon, Maharashtra • Nerul Balaji Temple, Maharashtra • North Maharashtra University • Parli (Maharashtra Assembly constituency) • Parli, Maharashtra • Parola, Maharashtra • Paschim Maharashtra • Patan, Maharashtra • Politics of Maharashtra • Raj Bhavan (Maharashtra) • Rajapur, Maharashtra • Raver, Maharashtra • Regions and Divisions of Maharashtra • Religions, Cultures and Social Activities in Maharashtra • Sahar, Maharashtra • Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti • Sandor, Maharashtra • Shahada, Maharashtra • Shahapur, Maharashtra • Shirur, Maharashtra • Shivajinagar, Maharashtra • Sindi, Maharashtra • Social Reform Movement in Maharashtra • Soni, Maharashtra • St. Francis De'Sales High School, Nagpur, Maharashtra • State Highway 10 (Maharashtra) • State Highway 151 (Maharashtra) • State Highway 173 (Maharashtra) • State Highway 194 (Maharashtra) • State Highway 195 (Maharashtra) • Talukas in Maharashtra • Tarapur, Maharashtra • Thana, Maharashtra • Tilak Maharashtra University • Timeline of Maharashtra history • Tourism in Maharashtra • Vita, Maharashtra • Wadi (Maharashtra) • Wai, Maharashtra • Wani, Maharashtra • Winter Session of Maharashtra State Assembly • Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University
ancienne colonie brit. membre du Commonwealth (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
|— State —|
|Gateway of India, the Ajanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, and a statue of Lord Ganesha|
|Coordinates (Mumbai): Coordinates:|
|Established||1 May 1960 (Maharashtra Day)|
|• Body||Government of India, Government of Maharashtra|
|• Governor||K. Sankaranarayanan|
|• Chief Minister||Prithviraj Chavan (Indian National Congress)|
|• Parliamentary constituency||48|
|• High Court||Bombay High Court|
|• Total||307,713 km2 (118,809 sq mi)|
|• Density||370/km2 (950/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-MH|
|HDI rank||12th (2005)|
|Sex Ratio||946 |
Maharashtra // [məharaːʂʈrə] ( listen)) is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India. Maharashtra is the richest state in India, contributing 15% of the country's industrial output and 13.3% of its GDP (2006–2007 figures).
Maharashtra is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Gujarat and the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the northwest, Madhya Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the south, Andhra Pradesh to the southeast, and Goa to the southwest. The state covers an area of 307,731 km2 (118,816 sq mi) or 9.84% of the total geographical area of India. Mumbai, the capital city of the state, is India's largest city and the financial capital of the nation. Nagpur is the second capital of the state. Marathi is the official language.
Maharashtra is the world's second most populous first-level administrative country sub-division. Were it a nation in its own right, Maharashtra would be the world's tenth most populous country ahead of Mexico.
In the 17th century, the Marathas rose under the leadership of Chhatrapati Shivaji against the Mughals who ruled a large part of India. By 1760, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent. After the third Anglo-Maratha war, the empire ended and most of Maharashtra became part of Bombay state under a British Raj. After Indian independence, Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti demanded unification of all Marathi speaking regions under one state. At that time, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was of opinion that linguistic reorganization of states should be done on a "One state – One language" principle and not on a "One language – One state" principle. He submitted a memorandum to the reorganization commission stating that a "Single Government can not administer such a huge state as United Maharashtra". The first state reorganization committee created the current Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960 (known as Maharashtra Day). The Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay state, Deccan states and Vidarbha (which was part of Central Provinces and Berar) united, under the agreement known as Nagpur Pact, to form the current state.
The etymology of the word "Maharashtra" is certain.
The Nasik Gazetteer states that in 246 BC Maharashtra is mentioned as one of the places to which Mauryan emperor Asoka sent an embassy, and Maharashtraka is recorded in a Chalukyan inscription of 580 CE as including three provinces and 99,000 villages. The name Maharashtra also appeared in a 7th century inscription and in the account of a Chinese traveler, Hiuen-Tsang. In 90 AD Vedishri, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, thirty miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom.
In the early 14th century the Yadava dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Later, Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, and temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughlaqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the breakup of the Bahamani sultanate, in 1518, Maharashtra split into and was ruled by five Deccan Sultanates: namely Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Berar. These kingdoms often fought amongst each other. United, they decisively defeated the Vijayanagara Empire of the south in 1565. Also present area of Mumbai was ruled by Sultanate of Gujarat before capturing by Portugal in 1535.
By the early 17th century, Shahaji Bhosale, an ambitious local general in the service of the Mughals and Adil Shah of Bijapur, attempted to establish his independent rule. His son Shivaji succeeded in establishing Maratha Empire which was further expanded by Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Holkar of Indore, Scindia of Gwalior & Peshwas (prime ministers). The Marathas defeated the Mughals, and conquered large territories in Northern and Central parts of the Indian subcontinent. After the defeat at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, the Maratha restored their supremacy and ruled central and north india including New Delhi till the end of the eighteen century. The Third Anglo-Maratha war (1817–1818) led to the end of the Maratha Empire and East India Company ruled the country in 1819.
The British governed the region as part of the Bombay Presidency, which spanned an area from Karachi in Pakistan to northern Deccan. A number of the Maratha states persisted as princely states, retaining autonomy in return for acknowledging British suzerainty. The largest princely states in the territory of present-day Maharashtra were Nagpur, Satara and Kolhapur; Satara was annexed to Bombay Presidency in 1848, and Nagpur was annexed in 1853 to become Nagpur Province, later part of the Central Provinces. Berar, which had been part of the Nizam of Hyderabad's kingdom, was occupied by the British in 1853 and annexed to the Central Provinces in 1903. However, a large part of present-day Maharashtra, called Marathwada, remained part of the Nizam's Hyderabad State throughout the British period. The British rule was marked by social reforms and an improvement in infrastructure as well as revolts due to their discriminatory policies. At the beginning of the 20th century, the struggle for independence took shape led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the moderates like Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Pherozeshah Mehta and Dadabhai Naoroji. In 1942, the Quit India Movement was called by Gandhi which was marked by a non-violent civil disobedience movement and strikes in the region.
After India's independence, the Deccan States, including Kolhapur were integrated into Bombay State, which was created from the former Bombay Presidency in 1950. In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act reorganized the Indian states along linguistic lines, and Bombay Presidency State was enlarged by the addition of the predominantly Marathi-speaking regions of Marathwada (Aurangabad Division) from erstwhile Hyderabad state and Vidarbha region from the Central Provinces and Berar. Also, southernmost part of Bombay State was ceded to Mysore one. From 1954-1955 the people of Maharashtra strongly protested against the injustice and Samayukta Maharashtra Samiti was formed. Shri S.M. Joshi, Shri S.A. Dange, Shri P.K. Atre and other leaders fought for a separate state of Maharashtra with Mumbai as its capital. On 1 May 1960, following mass protests and sacrifice of 105 human lives the separate Marathi-speaking state was formed by dividing earlier Bombay State into new states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The demand of the local people of merging some of the Marathi speaking areas of Karnataka namely Belgaum, Karwar and Nipani is still pending.
Maharashtra encompasses an area of 308,000 km² (119,000 mi²), and is the third largest state in India. It is bordered by the states of Madhya Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Andhra Pradesh to the southeast, Karnataka to the south, and Goa to the southwest. The state of Gujarat lies to the northwest, with the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli sandwiched in between. The Arabian Sea makes up Maharashtra's west coast.
The Western Ghats better known as Sahyadri, are a hilly range running parallel to the coast, at an average elevation of 1,200 metres (4,000 ft). Kalsubai, a peak in the Sahyadris, near Nashik City is the highest elevated point in Maharashtra. To the west of these hills lie the Konkan coastal plains, 50–80 kilometres in width. To the east of the Ghats lies the flat Deccan Plateau. The Western Ghats form one of the three watersheds of India, from which many South Indian rivers originate, notable among them being Godavari River, and Krishna, which flow eastward into the Bay of Bengal, forming one of the greatest river basins in India.
Several wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and Project Tiger reserves have been created in Maharashtra, with the aim of conserving the rich bio-diversity of the region. As of May 2004, India has 92 national parks, of which six are located in Maharashtra. A large percentage of Maharashtra's forests and wildlife lie in the Zadipranta (Forest rich region) of far eastern Maharashtra OR eastern Vidarbha.
|Year||Gross domestic product (millions of )|
Favourable economic policies in the 1970s led to Maharashtra becoming India's leading industrial state in the last quarter of 20th century. Over 41% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Maharashtra.
In 2012 Maharashtra reported a revenue surplus of 152.49 crore (US$30.42 million), with a total revenue of 136,711.70 crore (US$27.27 billion) and a spending of 136,559.21 crore (US$27.24 billion). Maharashtra is the second most urbanised state with urban population of 42% of whole population. The headquarters to the Financial Planning Standards Board India is in Maharashtra.
Maharashtra is India's leading industrial state contributing 15% of national industrial output and over 40% of India's national revenue. 64.14% of the people are employed in agriculture and allied activities. Almost 46% of the GSDP is contributed by industry. Major industries in Maharashtra include chemical and allied products, electrical and non-electrical machinery, textiles, petroleum and allied products. Other important industries include metal products, wine, jewellery, pharmaceuticals, engineering goods, machine tools, steel and iron castings and plastic wares. Food crops include mangoes, grapes, bananas, oranges, wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, and pulses. Cash crops include groundnut, cotton, sugarcane, turmeric, and tobacco. The net irrigated area totals 33,500 square kilometres.
Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra and the financial capital of India, houses the headquarters of all major banks, financial institutions, insurance companies in India. India's largest stock exchange Bombay Stock Exchange, the oldest in Asia, is also located in the city. After successes in the information technology in the neighboring states, Maharashtra has set up software parks in Pune, Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Aurangabad, Nagpur and Nashik, Now Maharashtra is the second largest exporter of software with annual exports of 18,000 crore (US$3.59 billion) and accounts for more than 30 per cent of the country's software exports, with over 1,200 software units based in the state. Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust in Navi Mumbai is the busiest port in India. Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport in Mumbai is the busiest airport in South Asia as per passenger volume.
The coast of Maharashtra has been a shipbuilding center for many centuries. Companies operating shipyards in the state include Bharati Shipyard at Ratnagiri and the Rajapur Shipyards at Rajapur, apart from the state owned Mazagon Dock Limited at Mumbai.
Mumbai is home for the world's largest film industry- Bollywood, Hindi filmmaking industry. Maharashtra ranks first nationwide in coal-based thermal electricity as well as nuclear electricity generation with national market shares of over 13% and 17% respectively. Maharashtra is also introducing Jatropha cultivation and has started a project for the identification of suitable sites for Jatropha plantations.
An international cargo hub (Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur, MIHAN) is being developed at Nagpur. MIHAN will be used for handling heavy cargo coming from South-East Asia and Middle-East Asia. Project will also include 10,000 crore (US$2 billion) Special Economic Zone (SEZ) for Information Technology (IT) companies. This will be the biggest development project in India so far.
Pune has become an IT hub with the presence of almost all IT leaders.
Like all states in India, the nominal head of state is the governor, appointed by the Union Government. The Governor's post is largely ceremonial. The Chief Minister is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. Maharashtra's legislature is bicameral, one of the few states in India to have a bicameral type. The Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) is the lower house consisting of directly elected members. The Chief Minister is chosen by the members of the Vidhan Sabha. The Vidhan Parishad (Legislative Council) is the upper house, whose members are indirectly voted through an electoral college. Maharashtra is allocated nineteen seats in the Rajya Sabha and forty-eight in the Lok Sabha, India's national parliament.
The capital city Mumbai is home to the Vidhan Sabha – the state assembly and Mantralaya, the administrative offices of the government. The legislature convenes its budget and monsoon sessions in Mumbai, and the winter session in Nagpur, which was designated as the state's auxiliary capital.
After India's independence, most of Maharashtra's political history was dominated by the Indian National Congress. Maharashtra became a bastion of the Congress party producing stalwarts such as Y.B. Chavan, one of its most prominent Chief Ministers. The party enjoyed near unchallenged dominance of the political landscape until 1995 when the right wing Shiv Sena and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) secured an overwhelming majority in the state to form a coalition. After a split in the Congress party, former chief minister Sharad Pawar formed the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), but formed a coalition with the Congress to keep out the BJP-SS combine. The 2004 elections saw the NCP gaining the largest number of seats to become the state's largest party, eroding much of the Shiv Sena's base. Now new parties emerging in Maharashtra's politics specially Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS)(Marathi: महाराष्ट्र नवनिर्माण सेना) based regional political party operating on the motto of "Sons (of)for the Soil" founded on the March 9, 2006 in Mumbai by Raj Thackeray after he left the Shiv Sena .
The 2009 elections saw the Congress-NCP alliance winning with clean sweep to the BJP-Shivsena alliance.
This is a chart of trend of own tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Maharashtra assessed by the Finance Commissions from time to time with figures in millions of Indian Rupees ().
|Year||Own tax revenues|
This is a chart of trend of own non-tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Maharashtra assessed by the Finance Commissions from time to time with figures in millions of Indian Rupees ().
|Year||Own non-tax revenues|
Mumbai is home to the Bombay High Court which has jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra, Goa, and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli, with the benches being at Nagpur and Aurangabad in Maharashtra and Panaji, Goa.
The Bar Council of Maharashtra and Goa enrolled approximately 90,000 advocates on its roll (2009 data). The Bar Council is represented by 25 elected members from the above territory; the Advocate General of each state is an ex-officio member of the Council. This Bar Council elects one representative to the Bar Council of India as its member and also elects a chairman for the council. The tenure of the entire Council is five years.
Maharashtra has good human resource development infrastructure in terms of educational institutions—301 engineering/diploma colleges, 616 industrial training institutes and more than 24 universities with a turnout of 160,000 technocrats every year.
It is home to institutions like Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) which developed India's supercomputer, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), Sardar Patel College of Engineering, University Department of Chemical Technology, College of Engineering Pune (COEP), Fergusson College, Pune,Government College of Engineering Aurangabad, Government College of Engineering Amravati, Government College of Engineering Karad, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli (WCES), Shri Guru Gobind Singhji Institute of Engineering and Technology Nanded (SGGSIE&T) and top management institutions. 50,000 youth trained to take up self-employment ventures every year by the Maharashtra Centre for Entrepreneurship Development (MCED), Aurangabad.
The literacy rate is well above the national average at 82.9%. University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates. The Indian Institute of Technology (Mumbai), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), and University Institute of Chemical Technology (UICT), which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, and SNDT Women's University are the other autonomous universities in Mumbai.
Mumbai is home to Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (NMIMS), National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research, K J Somaiya Institute of Management Studies and Research (SIMSR) and several other management schools. Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai. The Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution. College of Engineering Pune, established in 1854 is the third oldest college in Asia.
Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay.
The University of Pune, the National Defence Academy, Film and Television Institute of India, National Film Archives, Armed Forces Medical College and National Chemical Laboratory were established in Pune after the independence of India.
ILS Law College, established by the Indian Law Society is one of the top ten law schools in India. Established medical schools such as the Armed Forces Medical College and Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College train students from all over Maharashtra and India and are amongst the top medical colleges in India. Military Nursing College (affiliated to the AFMC) ranks among the top nursing colleges in the world.
The University of Nagpur, established in 1923, one of the oldest universities in India, manages more than 24 engineering colleges, 43 science colleges and many colleges in the Arts and Commerce faculties. Nagpur is the home for Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT) (also referred to as NIT, Nagpur, formerly known as Visvesvaraya Regional College of Engineering (VRCE), Nagpur) is one of the first six Regional Engineering Colleges established under the scheme sponsored by Government of India and the Maharashtra State Government and is one of the Institutes of National Importance.
The geographical center of India lies at Nagpur, known as Zero Mile Stone. Nagpur is the headquarter for Hindu nationalist organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and an important location for the Dalit Buddhist movement. Nagpur is also the home for National Fire Institution, Rashtrabhasha Prachar Samiti (promotion of and for spreading the national language, Hindi) and National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC-Western zone).
|Source:Census of India|
As per the 2001 census, Maharashtra has a population of 96,752,247 inhabitants making it the second most populous state in India, and the second most populous country subdivision in existence, and third ever after the Russian SFSR of the former Soviet Union. The Marathi-speaking population of Maharashtra numbers 72,481,681 according to the 2011 census. Only eleven countries of the world have a population greater than Maharashtra. Its density is 322.5 inhabitants per square kilometre. Males constitute 50.3 million and females, 46.4 million. Maharashtra's urban population stands at 42.4%. Its sex ratio is 922 females to 1000 males. 77.27% of its population is literate, broken into 86.2% males and 67.5% females. Its growth rate between 1991–2001 was pegged at 22.57%
Marathi is the official state language. In Mumbai and suburban areas, apart from the native Marathi and English, Gujarati is also spoken. In the northwest portion of Maharashtra, a dialect Ahirani is spoken by 2.5 million people. In south Konkan, a dialect known as Malvani is spoken by most of the people. In the Desh (inland) region of the Deccan, a dialect called Deshi is spoken, while in Vidarbha, a dialect known as Varhadi is spoken by most of the people.
The Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2008-09 says the percentage of the state’s population that names Marathi as its mother tongue has declined to 68.8% from 76.5% over the past three decades. The migration of people especially from under developed states like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar for earning livelihood is putting lot of pressure on the infrastructure of the State.
Outlining migratory trends in the state, the survey highlights the sharp rise in the Hindi-speaking population in the same period. The number of people citing Hindi as their mother tongue rose to 11% from 5% in the same period
The total fertility rate in 2001 was 2.23. Hindus - 2.09, Muslims - 4.09, Christians - 1.41, Jains - 1.41, Sikh - 1.57, Buddhist - 2.24, others -2.25, Tribals - 3.14.
Hindus form 83.2% of total population and Hinduism plays an important role in Maharashtrian people in their day-to-day life. Ganesh is the most popular deity amongst Marathi Hindus, followed by Krishna in the form of Vithal. They also worship the Shiva Family deities such as Shankar and Parvati. The Warkari tradition holds strong grip on local Hindus of Maharastra. The public Ganesh festival started by Lokmanya Tilak in the late 19th century is very popular. Marathi Hindus also revere Bhakti saints of all castes, such as Dnyaneshwar (Deshastha Brahmin), Savata Mali (Mali), Tukaram (Moray Maratahi-Kunbi), Namdev (Shimpi-Artsian,Vaishya) and Chokhamela (Mahar).
Islam is the second biggest religion in the state, with more than 11 million adherents comprising over 10% of the population. Eid-ul-Fitr (Ramzan Eid) and Eid-ul-Azha (Bakra Eid) are the most important Muslim festivals in the state. Within Muslims, Sunnis represent an overwhlelming majority with an estimated 98% Muslims adhering to the Sunni Hanafi branch of Islam.
Jainists are a major group in Maharashtra. Jain community census for 2001 in Maharashtra area was 1,301,843. Cultural roots on Maharashtra for Jainism explain this numbers, as this more than 2,500 year old religion has some ancient temples in Maharashtra.
Christians account for 1,058,313 of Maharashtra's population. Most of the Christians are Catholics, some Protestants. There are also Goan, Mangalorean, Keralite and Tamilian Christians in the urban pockets of Mumbai and Pune.
There are two ethnic Christian communities in Maharashtra:
Sikhism is India's fourth-largest religion and has existed for over 500 years, beginning with the birth of its founder Guru Nanak Dev ji. The Sikhs are predominantly located in Punjab, however the sikh community has a sizeable presence in Maharashtra. Sikh community census for 2001 in Maharashtra was 215,337.
Nanded, the second largest city in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra, is an important holy place for the Sikh faith and is famous for the Hazur Sahib Gurudwara. Hazūr Sāhib ("presence of the master"), also spelled Hazoor Sahib, is one of the five takhts (seats of temporal authority) in Sikhism. Located on the banks of the River Godavari, it is where the 10th guru, Guru Gobind Singh Ji breathed his last breath. The Gurudwara within the complex is known Sach-Khand, "Realm of Truth".
Most Marathi Buddhists are followers of the Dalit Buddhist movement, a 19th and 20th-century Buddhist revival movement in India that received its most substantial impetus from B. R. Ambedkar who called for the conversion of Dalits to Buddhism to escape a caste-based society that considered them to be the lowest in the hierarchy. Buddhism accounts for nearly 6% in Maharastra's total population.
There are two Zoroastrian communities in Maharahtra.
Their descendants culturally and linguistically closer to the Zoroastrians of Iran, in particular to the Zoroastrians of Yazd and Kerman. Consequently, the Dari dialect of the Zoroastrians of those provinces may also be heard amongst the Iranis.
The Bene Israel ("Sons of Israel") are a 3,000 strong community of Marathi Jews originally from villages in the Konkan region who migrated in the 19th century to the nearby cities, primarily Mumbai, but also to Pune, and Ahmedabad. Prior to these waves of emigrations and to this day, the Bene Israel formed the largest sector of the subcontinent's Jewish population. The native language of the Bene Israel is Marathi. Most Bene Israel have now emigrated to Israel. Before the migration this community numbered at least 90,000.
Aashadi Ekadashi is one of most important festivals celebrated across Maharashtra. It is also referred to as "WARI" and people from all over Maharashtra, Karnataka and other parts of India walk to Pandharpur from there respective villages.
Lord Ganesha's devotion is celebrated by Ganesh Chaturthi in August–September of every year. Town of Pen in Raigad district is famous for Ganesh Idols made of special Shadu Clay. Dagdusheth Halwai Ganpati, Lalbaugcha Raja, Shri Siddhivinayak Temple, Shri Ashtavinayaka's are the major holy places for Maharashtrians.
Popular forms of God are Shiva, Krishna and Ganesha. Lord Shiva's devotion is celebrated by taking part in Maha Shivaratri (Great Night of Shiva) festival. In modern times, the Elephanta island in Mumbai, Lord's Shiva island in local mythology, originated the Elephant Festival.
Lord Krishna's devotions are celebrated in the state-wide Gokul Ashtami (or Krishna Janmashtami, Krishna's birthday) whereby many devotees fast on the entire day until midnight. The Dahi-Handi (Matki-fod) is also observed on this day at many places. Lord Krishna's devotion are also celebrated at Kaartik Aamawasya (or Diwali) and at Narak Chaturdashi as the killing of the demon Narakasura.
The other festivals celebrated on a large scale are Vijayadashami or Dasara (Marathi: दसरा), Navaratri, Holi, Diwali, Eid (Ramzan Eid). Simollanghan is a ritual performed on Dasara or Viajaya Dashami day in Maharashtra. Simollanghan is crossing the border or frontier of a village or a place. In ancient times, kings used to cross the frontier of their kingdom to fight against their rivals or neighbor kingdoms. They used to perform Ayudha Puja on Dasara and begin the war season. On Dasara, people cross the borders of their places (Seemollanghan) and collect the leaves of Apta tree (आपट्याची पाने) and exchange among their friends and relatives as gold (सोने म्हणून आपट्याची पाने देतात). People worship Shami tree and its leaves (शमीची पाने) on this day.
Maharashtra has produced or been closely associated with many saints throughout its history. These have risen from all across the several castes. Some of the very revered examples of Bhakti saints are Dnyaneshwar, Tukaram, Namdev, sant Gora Kumbhar, Samarth Ramdas, Chokhamela, and Savta Mali. There have also been several other Harijan saints such as Sant Banka Mahar, Sant Bhagu, Sant Damaji panth, Sant Kanhopatra, Sant Karmamelam, Sant Nirmala, Sant Sadna, Sant Sakhubai, Sant Satyakam Jabali, Sant Soyarabai, and Sant Eknath. It has also been the birthplace and home of world-reputed saints like Sai Baba of Shirdi, Gajanan Maharaj of shegaon, Swami Shukadas Maharaj, Swami Samarth Maharaj, and Meher Baba, whose tomb-shrine in Meherabad has become a place of world pilgrimage. Maharashtra is also equally famous for ardent devotees (or Bhaktas). For example, Namdev Mahar and his wife Bhagubai from Kharagpur are both devotees of Shirdi Sai Baba. The Sai Baba template in Shirdi is the second richest one in the country, a close second after the Lord Tirupati temples at Tirumala, Andhra Pradesh.
Marathi is the Official language of Maharashtra. According to 2001 census, it is mother tongue of 68.89 % of the population. Other languages which are Mother tongue by more than one percent of the people are as follows
|Language||Percentage in state|
Maharashtra is divided into six revenue divisions, which are further divided into thirty-five districts. These thirty-five districts are further divided into 109 sub-divisions of the districts and 357 Talukas in Maharashtra.
|Mumbai (Konkan)||Mumbai, Mumbai Suburban (Mumbai Upanagar), Thane, Raigad, Ratnagiri, and Sindhudurg|
|Pune||Pune, Satara, Sangli, Solapur, and Kolhapur|
|Nashik||Nashik, Dhule, Jalgaon, Ahmednagar, and Nandurbar|
|Aurangabad||Aurangabad, Jalna, Latur/Lattalur, Nanded, Osmanabad, Parbhani, Hingoli, and Beed|
|Amravati||Amravati, Akola, Washim, Buldhana and Yavatmal|
|Nagpur||Nagpur, Chandrapur, Wardha, Bhandara, Gondia, and Gadchiroli|
Geographically, historically and according to political sentiments, Maharashtra has five main regions:
Maharashtra has a border dispute with the neighbouring state of Karnataka over the district of Belgaum. Belgaum was incorporated into the newly formed Mysore state (now Karnataka) with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act (1956), which reorganised India's states along linguistic lines despite having about three-fourths of the total population  speaking Marathi. Since then, Maharashtra has continued to claim the district. The case is awaiting a verdict in the Supreme Court of India.
Maharashtra has one of the highest level of urbanization of all Indian states. The mountainous topography and soil are not as suitable for intensive agriculture as the plains of North India; therefore, the proportion of the urban population (42.4 per cent) contrasts starkly with the national average of developing metros and many large towns. Mumbai is the state capital with a population of approximately 15.2 million people. The other large cities are Pune, Nagpur, Nashik, Navi Mumbai, Thane, Aurangabad, Kolhapur, Amravati, Akola and Solapur.
Pune is connected to Mumbai by the Mumbai-Pune Expressway. Pune also has very important military cantonments as well as the HQ of the Southern Command, the National Defence Academy, the Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, CME, and the Indian Air Force base at Lohegaon too. Pune is a major Information Technology hub of India as well as a foremost destination for automobile manufacturing and the component industry.
In 1950 Nagpur became the capital of Madhya Pradesh. In 1956, Nagpur and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha was ceded to Bombay state. Nagpur was recommended as capital of Vidarbha state by Hon. Fazal Ali commission for reorganisation of states. Nagpur was described by the first Prime Minister of India Mr. Jawaharlal Nehru, as the "Heart of India". Nagpur is the nerve centre of Vidarbha (eastern Maharashtra), Nagpur - the Orange City as it is known - is located in the centre of the country and is a geographical center of India, with a population of about 2.4 million people (2.1 million as per census 2001). It is the second administrative capital of Maharashtra.
Nagpur is home of many industries, ranging from food products and chemicals to electrical and transports equipment. An international cargo airport, MIHAN is being builton the outskirts of the Nagpur city which will house number of service industries in its SEZ. The Maintenance Command of Indian Air Force is located in Nagpur. The "Zero Mile Stone" or the geographical center of India is located in Nagpur. Deekshabhoomi, Sitabardi Fort, Ambazari Lake, Seminary Hills, Ramtek Temple, Khindsi Lake, Pench National Park are some of the tourist attractions in and around Nagpur.
Nashik is one of the fastest growing cities in India, with a number of automobile and pharmaceutical industries.Recently declared as 16th fastest growing city in the world with 3.90% average annual report by city mayor reporthttp://www.citymayors.com/statistics/urban_growth1.html.Nashik is also an educational hub and the educational and cultural capital of North Maharashtra. Maharashtra's health sciences university, Maharashtra University of Health Sciences (MUHS) is based in Nashik. It is home to Yashvantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University. In agriculture, apart from grapes, Nashik is Asia's leading market for onions and tomatoes.
Kolhapur is not only famous as a tourist place but also it is one of the most important places for "foundry businesses".It has progressed to the status of a very important industrial city, being the centre for textiles, automobile and ancillaries,chemicals in the region.As a growing IT hub, the city is witnessing development of a multitude of IT parks at several locations.Being a multi-dimensional industrial city, Kolhapur has good prospects for investment.
Maharashtra has the largest road network in India at 267,452 kilometers. 17 National Highways connect Maharashtra to six neighbouring states. The length of National Highways in Maharashtra is 3688 kilometers. Maharashtra has a large state highway network. 97.5 per cent of the villages in the state were connected by all-weather roads as of March 2010. The Yeshwantrao Chavan Mumbai-Pune Expressway, the first access controlled toll road project in India was made fully operational in April 2002.
The Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC) has been providing passenger road transport service in the public sector since 1948, linking most of the towns and villages in and around the state with a large network of operation. These buses, popularly called ST (State Transport), are the preferred mode of transport for much of the populace. In addition to the government run buses, privately run luxury buses also ply between major towns. Other modes of public transport, such as a seven-seater tempo have gained popularity in semi-urban areas.
The state is well-connected to other parts of the country with a railway network spanning 5,983 km between four Railways.
Maharashtra also has suburban railway networks that carry around 6.4 million passengers every day.
The booming Indian economy, growing tourism industry, entry of low cost airlines, liberalization of international bi-lateral agreements and liberalization of civil aviation policy at the centre has resulted in an unprecedented growth in air traffic. Most of the State's airfields are operated by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) while Reliance Airport Developers (RADPL), currently operate five non - metro airports at Latur, Nanded, Baramati, Osmanabad and Yavatmal on a 95 year lease. The Maharashtra Airport Development Company Limited (MADC) that was set up by the Government in 2002 will take up development of Airports in the state that are not under the AAI or the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC). MADC is playing the lead role in the planning and implementation of the Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur (MIHAN) project.
Maharashtra has three international airports-
Additionally, there are smaller airports like those at Akola, Amravati, Baramati, Chandrapur, Dhule, Gondia, Jalgaon, Karad, Kolhapur, Latur, Nashik, Osmanabad, Ratnagiri, Solapur and Yavatmal that do not have any scheduled air services.
Maharashtra has three major ports at Mumbai (operated by the Mumbai Port Trust), the JNPT lying across the Mumbai harbour in Navi Mumbai, and in Ratnagiri, which handles the export of ores mined in the Maharastra hinterland. Additionally, there are 53 minor ports. Ferryboat services also operate at Mumbai, linking the city to neighbouring coastal towns. Minor ports in the state will be developed by the State government with the participation of the private sector under the Maharashtra Maritime Board. Seven minor ports are being developed in Phase-I.
Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra. Maharashtrians take great pride in their language and history, particularly the Maratha Empire, its founder Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is considered a folk hero across India. About 60% of Maharashtrians are Hindu, and there are significant Muslim, Christian and Buddhist minorities. There are many temples in Maharashtra some of them being hundreds of years old. These temples are constructed in a fusion of architectural styles borrowed from North and South India. The temples also blend themes from Hindu, Buddhist and Jain cultures. A National Geographic edition reads, "The flow between faiths was such that for hundreds of years, almost all Buddhist temples, including the ones at Ajanta, were built under the rule and patronage of Hindu kings." The temple of Vitthal at Pandharpur is the most important temple for the Varkari sect. Other important religious places are the Ashtavinayaka temples of Lord Ganesha, Bhimashankar which is one of the Jyotirling (12 important Shiva temples). Ajanta and Ellora caves near Aurangabad as well as Elephanta Caves near Mumbai are UNESCO World Heritage Sites and famous tourist attractions. Mughal architecture can be seen is the tomb of the wife of Aurangzeb called Bibi Ka Maqbara located at Aurangabad.
In 1708, the year following the death of Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh the tenth spiritual leader of the Sikhs came over to Nanded, his permanent abode. He proclaimed himself the last living Guru and established the Guru Granth Sahib as the eternal Guru of the Sikhs. This elevates the reverence of Granth to that of a living Guru. A monument has been constructed at place where he breathed his last. Maharaja Ranjit Singh's endowment saw the construction of a beautiful Gurudwara at Nanded around 1835 AD. The Gurudwara features an imposing golden dome with intricate carvings and a breathtakingly beautiful artwork. It is known as Shri Huzur Abchalnagar Sachkhand Gurudwara.
Maharashtra has a large number of hill, land and sea forts. Forts have played an important role in the history of Maharashtra since the time of the Peshwas. Some of the important forts in Maharashtra are Raigad, Vijaydurg, Sindhudurg, Pratapgad, Sinhagad. Majority of the forts in Maharashtra are found along the coastal region of Konkan.
Maharashtra, like other states of India, has its own folk music. The folk music viz. Gondhal Lavani, Bharud and Powada are popular especially in rural areas, while the common forms of music from the Hindi and Marathi film industry are favoured in urban areas.
The earliest instances of Marathi literature is by Sant Jnyaneshwar with his Bhawarthadeepika (popularly known as Jnyaneshwari). The compositions written during this period are spiritually inclined. The other compositions are by Sant Tukaram, Sant Namdev, and Sant Gora Kumbhar. The compositions are mostly in poetic form, which are called bhajans. These bhajans by saints are popular and part of day to day life. During same period of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, a great patriotic saint wandered in the soil of Maharashtra, Samarth Ramdas.He wrote many books such as Dasbodh, Atmaram, Manache shlok, and also enriched Marathi liturature by using almost all types of Vruttas like Karunashtake, sawaya,shatakas, ashtakas , manas, purvarambha, panchikarana etcThe modern Marathi literature has been enriched by famous poets and authors like P. L. Deshpande, Kusumagraj, Prahlad Keshav Atre and Vyankatesh Madgulkar. This literature has been passed on to the next generations through the medium of large numbers of books that are published every year in Marathi.
The world famous film industry Bollywood is in Maharashtra, located in the economic capital of India, Mumbai. The Marathi film industry was once placed in Kolhapur but now is spread out through Mumbai too. The pioneer of Indian movie industry, Bharat Ratna Shri Dadasaheb Phalke, producer & director V. Shantaram, B.R. Chopra, Shakti Samanta, Raj Kapoor, form a few names of the Hindi film fraternity, while writer, director, and actor P. L. Deshpande, actor Ashok Saraf, actor Laxmikant Berde, actor & producer, Sachin Pilgaonkar, Mahesh Kothare belong to the Marathi film industry. Dada Kondke was the most popular name in Marathi film industry.The early period of Marathi theatre was dominated by playwrights like Kolhatkar, Khadilkar, Deval, Gadkari and Kirloskar who enriched the Marathi theatre for about half a century with excellent musical plays known as Sangeet Naatak. The genre of music used in such plays is known as Natyasangeet. It is during this era of the Marathi theatre that great singer-actors like Bal Gandharva, Keshavrao Bhosle, Bhaurao Kolhatkar and Deenanath Mangeshkar thrived.
Some of the popular Marathi television news channels are IBN Lokmat, Star Majha, Zee Talkies, Zee Chovis Taas and entertainment channels areMi Marathi, DD Sahyadri, Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star pravah and Saam TV which host shows ranging from soap operas, cooking and travel to political satire and game shows.
The cuisine of Maharashtra varies according to the region of Maharashtra. The people of the Konkan region have a chiefly rice based diet with fish being a major component, due the close proximity to the sea. In eastern Maharashtra, the diet is based more on wheat, jowar and bajra. Puran Poli, Bakarwadi, plain simple Varan Bhat (a dish cooked with plain rice and curry),Modak and chivada are a few dishes to name. Chicken and mutton are also widely used for a variety of cuisines. Kolhapuri Mutton is a dish famous for its peculiar spicy nature.
Women traditionally wear a nine yard or five yard sari and men a dhoti or pajama with a shirt. This, however, is changing with women in urban Maharashtra wearing Punjabi dresses, consisting of a Salwar and a Kurta while men wear trousers and a shirt.
The cricket craze can be seen throughout Maharashtra, as it is the most widely followed and played sport. Kabaddi and hockey are also played with fervor. Children’s games include Viti-Dandu (Gilli-danda in Hindi) and Pakada-pakadi (tag).
Hindus in Maharashtra follow the Shalivahana Saka era calendar. Gudi Padwa, Diwali, Rangapanchami, Gokulashtami and Ganeshotsav are some of the festivals that are celebrated in Maharashtra. Ganeshotsav is one of the biggest festival of Maharashtra which is celebrated with much reverence and festivity throughout the state and has since some time become popular all over the country. The festival which continues over ten days is in honour of Ganesha, the deva (like guardian angel ) of learning and knowledge under the one supreme lord . A large number of people walk hundreds of kilometers to Pandharpur for the annual pilgrimage in the month of Ashadh.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
|Madhya Pradesh||Madhya Pradesh|
Dictionary and translator for handheld
New : sensagent is now available on your handheld
A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !
With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.
Improve your site content
Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.
Crawl products or adds
Get XML access to reach the best products.
Index images and define metadata
Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.
Please, email us to describe your idea.
Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.