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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
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|Man Booker Prize|
|Awarded for||Best full-length English novel|
|Presented by||Man Group|
|Location||Commonwealth of Nations, Ireland, and Zimbabwe|
The Man Booker Prize for Fiction is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original full-length novel, written in the English language, by a citizen of the Commonwealth of Nations, Ireland, or Zimbabwe. The winner of the Man Booker Prize is generally assured of international renown and success; therefore, the prize is of great significance for the book trade. In contrast to literary prizes in the United States, the Booker Prize is greeted with great anticipation and fanfare. It is also a mark of distinction for authors to be selected for inclusion in the shortlist or even to be nominated for the "longlist".
The prize was originally known as the Booker-McConnell Prize, after the company Booker-McConnell began sponsoring the event in 1968; it became commonly known as the "Booker Prize" or simply "the Booker." When administration of the prize was transferred to the Booker Prize Foundation in 2002, the title sponsor became the investment company Man Group, which opted to retain "Booker" as part of the official title of the prize. The foundation is an independent registered charity funded by the entire profits of Booker Prize Trading Ltd., of which it is the sole shareholder. The prize money awarded with the Booker Prize was originally £21,000, and was subsequently raised to £50,000 in 2002 under the sponsorship of the Man Group, making it one of the world's richest literary prizes.
The rules of the Booker changed in 1971; previously, it had been awarded retrospectively to books published prior to the year in which the award was given. In 1971 the year of eligibility was changed to the same as the year of the award; in effect, this meant that books published in 1970 were not considered for the Booker in either year. The Booker Prize Foundation announced in January 2010 the creation of a special award called the "Lost Man Booker Prize," with the winner chosen from a longlist of 22 novels published in 1970.
The longlist was not publicly revealed until 2001.
In 1972 the winning author John Berger, known for his Marxist politics, protested during his acceptance speech against Booker McConnell. He blamed Booker's 130 years of sugar production in the Caribbean for the region's modern poverty. Berger donated half of his £5,000 prize to the British Black Panther movement, because they had a socialist and revolutionary perspective in agreement with his own.
In 1980 Anthony Burgess (Earthly Powers) refused to attend the ceremony unless it was confirmed to him in advance whether he had won. He was one of two considered likely to win, the other being William Golding's Rites of Passage. The judges decided only 30 minutes before the ceremony, giving the prize to Golding. Both novels had been seen as favourites to win leading up to the prize and the dramatic "literary battle" between two senior authors made front page news.
The award has been criticized for the types of books it covers. In 1981 nominee John Banville wrote a letter to The Guardian requesting that the prize be given to him so that he could use the money to buy every copy of the longlisted books in Ireland and donate them to libraries, "thus ensuring that the books not only are bought but also read — surely a unique occurrence." In 1994, journalist Richard Gott described the prize as "a significant and dangerous iceberg in the sea of British culture that serves as a symbol of its current malaise."
The selection process for the winner of the prize commences with the formation of an advisory committee which includes an author, two publishers, a literary agent, a bookseller, a librarian, and a chairperson appointed by the Booker Prize Foundation. The advisory committee then selects the judging panel, the membership of which changes each year, although on rare occasions a judge may be selected a second time. Judges are selected from amongst leading literary critics, writers, academics and leading public figures.
The winner is usually announced at a ceremony in London's Guildhall, usually in early October.
In 1993 to mark the 25th anniversary it was decided to choose a Booker of Bookers Prize. Three previous judges of the award, Malcolm Bradbury, David Holloway and W. L. Webb, met and chose Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children (the 1981 winner) as "the best novel out of all the winners".
A similar prize known as The Best of the Booker was awarded in 2008 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the prize. A short list of six winners was chosen and the decision was left to a public vote. The winner was again Midnight's Children.
|1969||P. H. Newby||Something to Answer For||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1970||Bernice Rubens||The Elected Member||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1970[a]||J. G. Farrell||Troubles||Novel||United Kingdom
|1971||V. S. Naipaul||In a Free State||Short story||United Kingdom
Trinidad and Tobago
|1972||John Berger||G.||Experimental novel||United Kingdom|
|1973||J. G. Farrell||The Siege of Krishnapur||Novel||United Kingdom
|1974||Nadine Gordimer||The Conservationist||Novel||South Africa|
|Stanley Middleton||Holiday||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1975||Ruth Prawer Jhabvala||Heat and Dust||Historical novel||United Kingdom
|1976||David Storey||Saville||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1977||Paul Scott||Staying On||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1978||Iris Murdoch||The Sea, the Sea||Philosophical novel||Ireland
|1979||Penelope Fitzgerald||Offshore||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1980||William Golding||Rites of Passage||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1981||Salman Rushdie||Midnight's Children||Magical realism||United Kingdom
|1982||Thomas Keneally||Schindler's Ark||Biographical novel||Australia|
|1983||J. M. Coetzee||Life & Times of Michael K||Novel||South Africa|
|1984||Anita Brookner||Hotel du Lac||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1985||Keri Hulme||The Bone People||Mystery novel||New Zealand|
|1986||Kingsley Amis||The Old Devils||Comic novel||United Kingdom|
|1987||Penelope Lively||Moon Tiger||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1988||Peter Carey||Oscar and Lucinda||Novel||Australia|
|1989||Kazuo Ishiguro||The Remains of the Day||Historical novel||United Kingdom
|1990||A. S. Byatt||Possession||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1991||Ben Okri||The Famished Road||Magic realism||Nigeria|
|1992||Michael Ondaatje||The English Patient||Historiographic metafiction||Canada
|Barry Unsworth||Sacred Hunger||Historical novel||United Kingdom|
|1993||Roddy Doyle||Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha||Novel||Ireland|
|1994||James Kelman||How Late It Was, How Late||Stream of consciousness||United Kingdom|
|1995||Pat Barker||The Ghost Road||War novel||United Kingdom|
|1996||Graham Swift||Last Orders||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1997||Arundhati Roy||The God of Small Things||Novel||India|
|1998||Ian McEwan||Amsterdam||Novel||United Kingdom|
|1999||J. M. Coetzee||Disgrace||Novel||South Africa|
|2000||Margaret Atwood||The Blind Assassin||Novel||Canada|
|2001||Peter Carey||True History of the Kelly Gang||Historical novel||Australia|
|2002||Yann Martel||Life of Pi||Fantasy novel||Canada|
|2003||DBC Pierre||Vernon God Little||Novel||Australia|
|2004||Alan Hollinghurst||The Line of Beauty||Historical novel||United Kingdom|
|2005||John Banville||The Sea||Novel||Ireland|
|2006||Kiran Desai||The Inheritance of Loss||Novel||India|
|2007||Anne Enright||The Gathering||Novel||Ireland|
|2008||Aravind Adiga||The White Tiger||Novel||India|
|2009||Hilary Mantel||Wolf Hall||Historical novel||United Kingdom|
|2010||Howard Jacobson||The Finkler Question||Novel||United Kingdom|
|2011||Julian Barnes||The Sense of an Ending||Novel||United Kingdom|
A separate prize for which any living author in the world may qualify, the Man Booker International Prize, was inaugurated in 2005 and is awarded biennially. A Russian version of the Booker Prize was created in 1992 called the Booker-Open Russia Literary Prize, also known as the Russian Booker Prize. In 2007, Man Group plc established the Man Asian Literary Prize, an annual literary award given to the best novel by an Asian writer, either written in English or translated into English, and published in the previous calendar year.
As part of The Times' Literature Festival in Cheltenham, a Booker event is held on the last Saturday of the festival. Four guest speakers/judges debate a shortlist of four books from a given year from before the introduction of the Booker prize, and a winner is chosen. Unlike the real Man Booker, authors from outside the Commonwealth are also considered. In 2008, the winner for 1948 was Alan Paton's Cry, the Beloved Country, beating Norman Mailer's The Naked and the Dead, Graham Greene's The Heart of the Matter and Evelyn Waugh's The Loved One.
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