definition of Wikipedia
|Mansi language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Spoken natively in||Russia|
|Native speakers||2,750 (2002)|
The Mansi language (also Vogul, although this is obsolete, and Maansi) is spoken by the Mansi people in Russia along the Ob River and its tributaries, in the Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Sverdlovsk Oblast. According to the 1989 census, there were 3,184 Mansi-speaking people in Russia.
The base dialect of the Mansi literary language is the Sosva dialect, a representative of the northern dialect; the discussion below is based on the standard language. Fixed word order is typical in Mansi. Adverbials and participles play an important role in sentence construction. The written language was first published in 1868 and in 1937 was revised using a form of Cyrillic.
Northern Mansi (Sosva, Upper Lozyvin) has strong Russian, Komi, Nenets, and Northern Khanty influence. There is no accusative case; that is, both the nominative and accusative roles are unmarked on the noun. */æ/ and */æː/ have been backed to [a] and [aː].
Western Mansi (Pelym, Vagily, Middle and Lower Lazyvin) went extinct ca. 2000. It had strong Russian and Komi influences. Long vowels were diphthongized.
Southern Mansi (Tavdin) went extinct ca. 1900. It had vowel harmony and a strong Tatar influence and displayed several archaisms such as retention of /y/ (elsewhere merged with */æ/), /tsʲ/ (elsewhere deaffricated to /sʲ/), and /aː/ (elsewhere raised to /oː/).
The first publication of the written Mansi language was a translation of the Gospel of Matthew published in London in 1868. In 1932 a version of Latin alphabet was introduced with little success. The former Latin alphabet:
In 1937, Cyrillic replaced the Latin.
There are two articles in Mansi: definite ань (aɲ), which also means "now" when placed before verbs, and indefinite акв (akʷ), literally "one".
There is no grammatical gender. Mansi distinguishes between singular, dual and plural number. Six grammatical cases exist. Possession is expressed using possessive suffixes, for example -зм, which means "my".
Example with: пут /put/ (cauldron)
Missing cases can be expressed using postpositions, such as халнэл (χalnəl, 'of, out of'), саит (sait, 'after, behind'), etc.
Mansi conjugation has three persons, three numbers, two tenses, and four moods. Active and passive voices exist.
Intransitive and transitive conjugations are distinguished. This means that there are two possible ways of conjugating a verb. When the speaker conjugates in intransitive, the sentence has no concrete object (in this case, the object is nothing or something like something, anything). In the transitive conjugation, there is a concrete object. This feature also exists in the other Ugric languages.
Mansi uses suffixes to express the tense. The tense suffix precedes the personal suffix.
|Present||-г (lat. -g)||минагум (lat. minagum – I am going)|
|Past||-с (lat. -s)||минасум (minasum – I went)|
The language has no future tense; the future is expressed in other ways.
Indicative mood has no suffix. Imperative mood exists only in the second person.
|This section requires expansion. (June 2008)|
The suffixes are the following:
Thus, the conjugation of the verb мина (lat. mina [go]), in past tense (remember the suffix -с):
|1st||минасум (minasum)||минасумен (minasumen)||минасув (minasuv)|
Verbs have active and passive voice. Active voice has no suffix; the suffix to express the passive is -ве-.
Verbal prefixes are used to modify the meaning of the verb in both concrete and abstract ways. For example, with the prefix эл- (el-) (away, off) the verb мина (mina) (go) becomes элмина (elmina), which means to go away. This is surprisingly close to the Hungarian equivalents: el- (away) and menni (to go), where elmenni is to go away
ēl(a) – 'forwards, onwards, away'
|jōm- 'to go, to stride'||ēl-jōm- 'to go away/on'|
|tinal- 'to sell'||ēl-tinal- 'to sell off'|
χot – 'direction away from something and other nuances of action intensity'
|min- 'to go'||χot-min- 'to go away, to stop'|
|roχt- 'to be frightened'||χot-roχt- 'to take fright suddenly'|
Numbers 1 and 2 also have attributive forms: акв (1) and кит (2); compare with Hungarian két, and Old Hungarian "kit").
ам хул алысьлаӈкве минасум. – I went fishing (literally "I fish catch went").
Here are some invented sentences in Northern Mansi (IPA transcription) and Hungarian. They demonstrate well the relationship between Hungarian and Mansi.
|Mansi||Approximate pronunciation using Hungarian spelling||Hungarian||English|
|ˈxuːrəm neː ˈwitnəl ˈxuːlpəl xus xuːl ˈpuːɣi.||Húrem né vitnel húlpel husz húl púgi||Három nő a vízből hálóval húsz halat fog.||Three women are catching twenty fish with a net from the water.|
|ˈxuːrəm-saːt-xus ˈxulax-sam ˈampəm ˈwitn̩ ˈoːli||Húrem-szát-husz hulah-szam ampem viten óli||Háromszázhúsz hollószemű ebem vízen él.||The three hundred and twenty dogs of mine with raven eyes live on water.|
|luː ˈlaːɕal ˈmini toː ˈseːln̩||Lú lásal mini tó szélen||Ló lassan megy a tó szélén.||A horse is slowly walking on the shore of the lake.|
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