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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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|Nattier (1748) (portrait), Marie Leszczyńska|
|Tenure||4 September 1725 – 24 June 1768|
|Spouse||Louis XV of France|
|Louise Élisabeth, Duchess of Parma
Louis, Dauphin of France
Philippe, Duke of Anjou
Marie Adélaïde, Duchess of Louvois
Sophie, Duchess of Louvois
Louise Marie, Abbess of Saint Denis
|Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczyńska|
|House||House of Bourbon
House of Leszczyński
|Father||Stanislaus I of Poland|
23 June 1703|
|Died||24 June 1768
Marie Leszczyńska (Polish pronunciation: [ˈmarja lɛʂˈtʂɨɲska]) (Trzebnica, 23 June 1703 – Versailles, 24 June 1768) was a queen consort of France. She was a daughter of King Stanisław Leszczyński of Poland (later Duke of Lorraine) and Catherine Opalińska. She married King Louis XV of France and was the grandmother of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII, and Charles X. In France, she was referred to as Marie Leczinska. She was the longest serving Queen consort of France.
Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczyńska h. Wieniawa was the second daughter of Stanisław Leszczyński and his wife Katarzyna Opalińska. Her older sister Anna Leszczyńska (1699–1717) died at the age of 18 of pneumonia.
Maria's early life was troubled by her father's political misfortune. Ironically, King Stanisław's hopeless political career was eventually the reason why his daughter Maria was chosen as the bride of King Louis XV of France. Devoid of political connections, his daughter was viewed by the French as being free from the burden of international alliances.
She was born in Trzebnica, Lower Silesia, the year before her father was made King of Poland by Charles XII of Sweden who had invaded the country that year. She would be brought up as a fugitive princess living for a while in Stockholm, (Sweden).
Very close to her father, Maria shared his exile in Wissembourg in the French province of Alsace, a place suggested by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, a nephew of Louis XIV and Regent of the Kingdom of France during Louis XV's minority.
The family was supported by a pension from the Régent and, while living in Wissembourg, Maria was asked for her hand in marriage by Louis Henri de Bourbon, Prince of Condé, who became Louis XV's prime minister at the death of the Regent in December 1723. That same year, the young king fell ill and, fearing the consequences of the unmarried king dying without an heir, the prime minister suggested marrying the young king.
Maria was on a list of 99 eligible European princesses to marry the young king.
Cardinal Fleury, who wanted for the king a royal bride who would not drag France into any complicated political alliances, supported the marriage. One aspect in the choice of Marie was the fact that she was old enough to have children, while the former designated bride, the Infanta Mariana Victoria of Spain, was too young to bear children.
Louis and Marie first met on the eve of their wedding, which took place on 5 September 1725, at the Château de Fontainebleau. Marie was twenty-two years old and Louis fifteen. The young couple was reported to have fallen in love at first sight..
The announcement of the wedding was not received well as the royal court, who considered the match to be a misalliance, as the father of Marie had been a monarch for such a short time. There were rumours before the wedding that the bride was ugly, epileptic and sterile. However, Marie earned popularity among the population from the beginning, when she handed out money on her way to her wedding in Fontainebleau.
Cardinal de Fleury, who had been Louis' tutor, was appointed Grand Chaplain to Marie.
Upon her marriage, Maria's Polish name was modified into French as Marie Leczinska.
The young couple's marriage was initially happy. In August 1727, Maria gave birth to her first children, twin daughters named Louise Élisabeth de France and Henriette Anne de France, at the Palace of Versailles. The elder twin, Louise Élisabeth, later married the Infante Felipe of Spain and eventually became the Duchess Consort of Parma. Through Louise Élisabeth, Marie became an ancestor of Juan Carlos I of Spain.
After the difficult birth of Louise Marie de France, in 1737, which nearly took her life, she had no more children. In 1738, she refused Louis entrance to her bedroom, and after this, their private relationship ended, though the formal marriage continued in spite of her husband's infidelities.
Louis XV was a notorious womaniser. Several of his mistresses, particularly Madame de Pompadour, who was introduced at the court of Versailles in 1745 on the occasion of the marriage of the Dauphin Louis, eventually eclipsed the Queen's social status. Most of her husband's romantic affairs were with her knowledge, and she either simply accepted them, or was powerless to stop them, and throughout, she displayed an attitude of discretion and dignity. She upheld a relatively good relationship toward Madame de Pompadour.
Marie had a very close relationship to her children.
On 5 September 1725, she married Louis XV of France. They had eleven children:
Queen Marie never managed to acquire any political influence. She made an attempt to involve in politics at the very beginning of their marriage when she, in 1726, asked Louis to appoint the unpopular Duke of Bourbon as minister of Cabinet, despite her father's warnings. King Louis took her attempt to involve in politics very badly, and after 1726 she was completely separated from the affairs of State and any political influence on Louis. In 1733, she declared her father her support in his demand on the Polish throne as a private person.
Queen Marie represented the King many times in ceremonial rituals at the court of Versailles during his many absences from such matters.
Louis provided her with a large apartment in the palace where she could live more informally with her circle of friends. Among her most noted guests were the de Luynes couple.
She was given an allowance of 96,000 livres for pleasure, charity and gambling, which was not considered to be very large. She enjoyed a game called cavagnole, and was often in debt because of the reluctance of her husband and father to pay her debts.
Marie was a devout Roman Catholic. Her major contribution to life at Versailles was the weekly event of Polish choral concerts. She was also a great lover of music and painting and the protector of many artists. She met the castrato Farinelli in 1737, and, in 1764, the young Mozart whom she found very charming, and she acted as an interpreter for her husband and family who did not understand German. She also started a correspondence with Voltaire, for whom she secured a pension.
During an era when France was a very powerful nation, often in conflict with Austria, the Austrian ambassador to France, comte de Mercy-Argenteau (who later helped secure the marriage of the Dauphin and Marie Antoinette) was said to have been romantically involved with the queen; this seems highly unlikely and was disregarded as court gossip. Marie was known for her good manners, grace and her piety.
Her daughter-in-law, the dauphine, died at the age of 20 after giving birth to a daughter Marie Thérèse de France, Madame Royale. The Queen, very fond and loving of her only son, encouraged him to take as his second wife Duchess Marie-Josèphe of Saxony the daughter of her father's rival, Frederick Augustus Wettin of Saxony, King August III of Poland. Initially, this connection caused some friction between the Queen and her new daughter-in-law. However, the friction was soon overcome, reportedly because the young German princess was an admirer of the Queen's father. In honour of him, several of the Queen's grandsons received the name Stanislas at their christening.
Marie Leszczynsaka, Queen Consort of France for nearly 45 years was truly a people's queen. Although she rarely was involved in politics, she stepped in for her husband at court festivities at Versaille, due to his absence. Her death on 24 June 1768, at the age of 65 was a huge blow to the French Monarchy. She died six years before her husband, King Louis XV. She was buried at the Basilica of St. Denis, and her heart deposed at the Church of Notre-Dame-de-Bonsecours in Nancy (Lorraine).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Maria Leszczyńska|
|Ancestors of Marie Leszczyńska|
Marie LeszczyńskaBorn: 23 June 1703 Died: 24 June 1768
Title last held byMaria Theresa of Spain
|Queen consort of France and Navarre
4 September 1725 – 24 June 1768
Title next held byMarie Antoinette