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definition - Marinduque

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Marinduque

                   
Marinduque
Lalawigan ng Marinduque
—  Province  —

Flag

Seal
Map of the Philippines with Marinduque highlighted
Coordinates: 13°24′05″N 121°58′01″E / 13.40139°N 121.96694°E / 13.40139; 121.96694Coordinates: 13°24′05″N 121°58′01″E / 13.40139°N 121.96694°E / 13.40139; 121.96694
Country  Philippines
Region MIMAROPA (Region IV-B)
Founded February 21, 1920
Capital Boac
Government
 • Governor Carmencita Reyes (Liberal)
 • Vice Governor Antonio Uy Jr. (Liberal)
 • Representative Lord Allan Jay Velasco (Lakas-Kampi-CMD)
Lone District
Area
 • Total 952.6 km2 (367.8 sq mi)
Area rank 75th out of 80
Population (2007)
 • Total 229,636
 • Rank 68th out of 80
 • Density 240/km2 (620/sq mi)
 • Density rank 32nd out of 80
Divisions
 • Independent cities 0
 • Component cities 0
 • Municipalities 6
 • Barangays 218
 • Districts Lone district of Marinduque
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP Code
Spoken languages Tagalog, English

Marinduque (Filipino: Marinduke pronounced [mɑrinˈduke]) is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region in Luzon. Its capital is Boac. Marinduque lies between Tayabas Bay to the north and Sibuyan Sea to the south. It is located south and west of Quezon, east of Mindoro, and north of Romblon. The province is sometimes called the Heart of the Philippines, because of its geographical location.

Contents

  History

Legend has it that the island of Marinduque was formed as a consequence of a tragic love affair between two people: Mariin and Gatduke. Mariin's father, a local chieftain, did not approve of this affair and ordered the beheading of Gatduke. Before this could be done, the couple sailed out to sea and drowned themselves, forming the island now called Marinduque.

During the Spanish and early American occupations, Marinduque was part of Balayan Province (now Batangas) in the 16th century, Mindoro in the 17th century, and had a brief period as an independent province in 1901, when the Americans arrived.

During the Philippine-American War, Marinduque was the first island to have American concentration camps.[1] Marinduque is the site of the Battle of Pulang Lupa, where 250 Filipino soldiers under Colonel Maximo Abad, defeated a smaller force of 54 American Infantrymen.

In 1902, the US-Philippine Commission annexed the islands of Mindoro (now two separate provinces) and Lubang (now part of Occidental Mindoro) to the province.

Four months later, the province became part of the province of Tayabas (now Quezon).

On February 21, 1920, Act 2280 was passed by the Philippine Congress, reestablishing Marinduque as a separate province.

In 1942, the Japanese Imperial forces landed in Marinduque.

Battle of Marinduque
Part of World War II
Date 1945
Location Marinduque
Result Allied Victory
Belligerents
Philippines Philippines
  • Philippines Philippine Commonwealth Army
  • Philippines Philippine Commonwealth Navy
  • Philippines Recognized Guerrilla Units

United States United States

Japan Japan
Casualties and losses
18,700 killed
27,600 wounded
37,000 killed
43,000 wounded
8,000 captured

In 1945, combined American and Philippine Commonwealth troops attacked from the Japanese Troops liberated to the Battle of Marinduque in the Second World War.

  Archaeology

Archaeology in the Philippines began in Marinduque. Prior to 1900, only one important archaeological investigation had been carried out in the country: Antoine-Alfred Marche ’s exploration of Marinduque from April to July 1881. According to anthropologist Henry Otley Beyer, while many other accidental finds have been recorded from time to time and a few burial caves and sites had been casually explored by European or local scientists, no systematic work had been done anywhere else prior to these explorations. After Marche, the next important archaeological work was undertaken by Dr. Carl Gunthe in the Central Visayan Islands in 1922.

"An abundant yield of Chinese urns, vases, gold ornaments, skulls and other ornaments of pre-Spanish origin,” was what the Marche finds represented. He brought back to France in 40 crates the Marinduque artifacts he uncovered. Part of it now said to be housed at the Musee de l’Homme in France. The finds also included a wooden image of the Marinduque anito called ‘Pastores’ by the natives.

One of these artifacts also found its way into the National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.(Catalogue No. A127996-0, Department of Anthropology, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution.) These fragile jarlets traveled from China to the pre-colonial Philippines. Buried in a cave in Marinduque for centuries, they were excavated in the late 19th century, brought to Paris and eventually one ended up in the Smithsonian Institution museum facility outside Washington, D.C. Part of Marinduque's history lies in the Marinduque Museum (Poblacion, Boac, Marinduque) in museums abroad and it will take sometime to analyze these artifacts to piece together the pre-colonial past.

  Geography

Marinduque is a heart-shaped island between Tayabas Bay in the north and Sibuyan Sea to the south. It is separated from the Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon by the Mompong Pass. Some of the smaller islands to the northeast are Polo Island, Maniwaya Island, and Mompong Island. The highest peak in Marinduque is Mt. Malindig (formerly, Mt. Marlanga), a potentially active volcano with an elevation of 1157 meters.

The island has two major seasons—the dry season (November through February) and the rainy season (June through October), with a transitional period in between.[2]

Northen part
Southern part

  Demography

Marinduqueños are said to be very hospitable in nature and are very welcoming. One such custom reflecting this is putong or tubong, which is a custom of welcoming and honoring friends and visitors. The honoree (or honorees) are seated and crowned with flowers while local women dance and sing for them. Other well-wishers throw coins and flower petals for long life. Marinduqueños are of Tagalog origin and speak Tagalog.

  Language

The version of Tagalog spoken in Marinduque has been described as "the root from which modern national forms of speech have sprung," where remnants of archaic Tagalog could be found, spoken in a lilting manner by its inhabitants. If this linguistic theory is accurate, Marinduque's Tagalog has contributed significantly to the development of the official Philippine national language.[3]

To this day, Marinduqueños speak an old variation of the Tagalog language that is very close to the way Tagalog was spoken before the Spanish colonization. According to language experts, the Tagalog dialects of Marinduque are the most divergent, especially the Eastern Marinduque dialect, perhaps due to the relative isolation from the Tagalogs of Luzon and also perhaps due to the influence of the Visayan and Bikol migrants.[4]

Linguist Rosa Soberano's 1980 The Dialects of Marinduque Tagalog goes into great depth concerning the dialects spoken there. The following is a verb chart which outlines the conjugation of the Eastern Marinduque dialect of Tagalog:

Infinitive Contemplative

(future actions)

Progressive

(past and present actions)

Completed

(past actions)

Imperative
Actor Focus 1 -um-

(gumawa) (future actions)

má-

(mágawâ)

ná-

(nágawâ)

-um-

(gumawa)

0

(gawa)

Actor Focus 2 mag-

(magbigay)

(ma)ga-

([ma]gabigay)

naga-

(nagabigay)

nag-

(nagbigay)

pag-

(pagbigay)

Object Focus 1 -in

(kainin)

a-

(akainin)

ina-

(inakain)

-in-

(kinain)

-a

(kaina)

Object Focus 2 i-

(isulat)

a-

(asulat)

ina-

(inasulat)

i- -in-

(isinulat)

-an

(sulatan)

Object Focus 3 -an

(tawagan) (future actions)

a-...-an

(atawagan)

ina- ... -an

(inatawagan)

-in- ... -an

(tinawagan)

-i

(tawagi)

Linguist Christopher Sundita observed that some of the affixes in Marinduque Tagalog, particularly "a-" and "ina-," are affixes used in Asi (Bantoanon), a Visaya language spoken in Romblon, just south of Marinduque. Marinduque Tagalog, like the Tagalog spoken over two centuries ago, had an additional verb category, the imperative, which was used for commands and requests (e.g., Matulog ka na - Go to sleep). Even then, the imperative and the infinitive were used side by side in expressing commands; but in standard Tagalog, apparently the infinitive became used exclusively. And in the Eastern Marinduque dialect, the imperative affixes are very much alive.[5]

  Culture

Festival: The Moriones festival also plays a prominent role in Marinduque's culture. Marinduque is famous for this annual Moriones Festival locally known as "Moryonan". During the month of March or April, parades and celebrations can be seen on the streets. In Santa Cruz, Gasan, Boac, and Mogpog, a parade of people dressed as "Moryons" can be seen on the main road connecting the towns of the island. Boac and Sta. Cruz, the biggest town in the province, shows a reenactment in the evening of the actual event when Longinus, a blind soldier, punctures Jesus with his spear and blood droplets from the wound restores Longinus' sight.

Religion: Marinduque Province is resided with various religious sects, Catholics make up the number. Several Aglipay, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints(Mormons), Iglesia ni Cristo, and various Protestant- Born Again- bouds the island.

Music: The Marinduque is also home to a musical instrument called the Kalutang. The Kalutang is an instrument made of two pieces of wood that produce different note ranges depending on its size. A band of 10 to 12 can create music with this instrument.

  Schools/Educational Institution

  Tertiary

  • Educational Systems Technological Institute (ESTI) - Murallon, Boac, Marinduque
  • Lighthouse Maritime Institute (LMI) - San Miguel, Boac, Marinduque
  • Marinduque Midwest College (MMC) - Dili, Gasan, Marinduque
  • Marinduque State College (MSC) - Main College Campus in Tanza, Boac, Marinduque
  • Marinduque State College (MSC) - College of Fisheries in Pinggan, Gasan, Marinduque
  • Santa Cruz Institute]] - Banahaw,Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Malindig Institute (MI) - Lapu-Lapu, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Marinduque State College (MSC) - Marinduque Community College in Matalaba, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Marinduque State College (MSC) - College of Agriculture in Poctoy, Torrijos, Marinduque
  • St. Mary's College of Marinduque (SMCM) - Isok, Boac, Marinduque
  • Marinduque Victorian College (MVC) - Buenavista, Marinduque
  • Buyabod School of Arts and Trades (BSAT) - Buyabod, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Torrijos Poblacion School of Arts and Trades (TPSAT)- Poblacion, Torrijos, Marinduque

  Secondary

  • Marinduque National High School, Boac, Marinduque - Marinduque National High School is the premier public school in Marinduque province. This institution once was used as a camp for Spaniards, Japanese, American, and Filipino armies during World War II. It offers a Science Class Curriculum wherein students who qualified in the series of examinations prepared by DepEd are expected to maintain an 85% remark on the 3 core subjects.
  • Saint Mary's College of Marinduque (Former Immaculate Conception College) (High School Department) (Founded 1953) - Isok, Boac,
  • Santa Cruz Institute (Marinduque) Inc. (Founded 1951 as Quezon Memorial School) - Bonifacio St., Santa Cruz, Marinduque. The premier private school offering quality education in the province of Marinduque.
  • Malindig Institute Foundation Inc.-(Private School) The Pioneer School in the field of Private Education in the province of Marinduque.

(Founded 1922) - Osmena St., Barangay Lapu-Lapu Sta. Cruz, Marinduque

  • Marcopper High School, Tapian Sta. Cruz Marinduque
  • Quezon-Roxas High School(private school)-Dulong Bayan, Mogpog, Marinduque
  • Marinduque Academy - Poblacion, Mogpog, Marinduque
  • Balanacan National High School - Balanacan, Mogpog, Marinduque
  • Argao National High School - Argao, Mogpog, Marinduque
  • Butansapa National High School - Butansapa, Mogpog, Marinduque
  • Mogpog Comprehensive National High School - Ino, Mogpog, Marinduque
  • Sayao National High School - Sayao, Mogpog, Marinduque
  • Makapuyat National High School - (Public School) Since 1968 - Napo, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Tambangan National High School-Since 1977- Tambagan Santa Cruz Marinduque
  • Maranlig National High School (Public School) - Maranlig, Torrijos Marinduque
  • Bonliw National High School - Bonliw, Torrijos, Marinduque
  • Malibago National High School - Malibago, Torrijos, Marinduque
  • Poctoy National High School - Poctoy, Torrijos, Marinduque
  • Sibuyao National High School - Sibuyao, Torrijos, Marinduque
  • Tigwi National High School - Tigwi, Torrijos, Marinduque
  • Landy National High School (Public School) - Landy, Santa Cruz, Marinduque
  • Ipil National High School - Ipil, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Dolores National High School - Dolores, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Kasily National High School - Kasily, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Kilo Kilo National High School - Kilo Kilo, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Botilao National High School - Botilao, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Hupi National High School - Hupi, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Tagum National High School - Tagum, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Polo National High School - Polo, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Maniwaya National High School - Maniwaya, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Mompong National High School - Mompong, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Matalaba National High School - Matalaba, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Masaguisi National High School - Masaguisi, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Puting Buhangin National High School - Puting Buhangin, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Punong National High School - Punong, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Marcopper Schools Incorporated (Private 1971) - Tapian, Santa Cruz, Marinduque
  • St. Joseph Academy - Malabon (Napo), Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
  • Matuyatuya National High School. (public School) - Matuyatuya Torrijos Marinduque
  • Our Mother of Perpetual Succor Academy (OMPSA)(Catholic Private School) - Poblacion, Torrijos, Marinduque
  • Educational Systems Technological Institute (High School Department) - Murallon, Boac, Marinduque
  • Ilaya National High School - Ilaya, Boac, Marinduque
  • Cawit Comprehensive National High School - Cawit, Boac, Marinduque
  • Lord of Lords Christian School (Private) - Cawit, Boac, Marinduque
  • Bangbang National High School - Since 1968 - Bangbang, Gasan, Marinduque
  • Bognuyan National High School - Bognuyan, Gasan, Marinduque
  • Tapuyan National High School - Tapuyan, Gasan, Marinduque
  • Tiguion National High School - Tiguion, Gasan, Marinduque
  • Marinduque Christian Academy (High School Division)- Private - Dawis, Gasan, Marinduque
  • Paciano A. Sena Memorial High School - Tabionan, Gasan, Marinduque
  • Marinduque Midwest College (High School Division)- Dili, Gasan, Marinduque
  • Buenavista National High School Main Campus - Poblacion, Buenavista, Marinduque
  • Buenavista National High School Bagacay Annex - Bagacay, Buenavista, Marinduque
  • Buenavista National High School Daykitin Annex - Daykitin, Buenavista, Marinduque
  • Buenavista National High School Lipata-Tungib Annex - Tungib-Lipata, Buenavista, Marinduque
  • Buenavista National High School Sihi Annex - Sihi, Buenavista, Marinduque
  • Yook National High School - Yook, Buenavista, Marinduque
  • Marinduque Victorians College (High School Division) - Private = Poblacion, Buenavista, Marinduque

  Economy

Marinduque is an agricultural province, primarily growing rice and coconuts. Handicrafts from Marinduque are also exported to dıfferent parts of the world, and fishing is another important part of the economy. Mining was once an important player in the economy until a mining accident (the Marcopper Mining Disaster) occurred, bringing the industry to a standstill on the island and causing enormous damage to the people and the island. The provincial government has just recently sued Marcopper's parent company, Placer Dome, for $100 million in damages. Placer Dome was purchased in 2006 by Barrick Gold, who has now been joined in the lawsuit.

A significant role in Marinduque's economy is also played by tourism, especially during the lenten season. While this is not one of the larger parts of the island's economy, it has shown great growth. Recently, some residents are now engaged in butterfly farming. Butterflies are raised for export to countries in both Europe and the Americas. Locally, live butterflies are released in celebration on different occasions, such as birthdays, weddings, and some corporate events.

  Transport

By Air

Currently, Marinduque is served by direct daily flights between it and Manila by Zest Airways (Formerly Asian Spirit), the Marinduque Airport being in barangay Masiga, roughly between Gasan and Boac.

By Water

Montenegro Lines- plying the sea routes from Dalahican Pier in Barangay Talao-Talao in Lucena City to Marinduque via Balanacan Port in Mogpog (5 trips daily going to Marinduque including the Cawit Pier in Boac or 10 to 14 trips daily back and forth)).(See Schedule of Montenegro Shipping Lines - Source: Google or MSLI Website)

MV - Torrijos- plying the sea route from Dalahican Pier in Barangay Talao-Talao in Lucena City to Marinduque via Buyabod Port in Sta. Cruz and Cawit Port in Boac and vice versa.

Sta. Cruz Shipping Services- plying the sea route from Dalahican Pier in Barangay Talao-Talao in Lucena City to Marinduque through Buyabod Port in Sta. Cruz, and Balanacan Port and vice versa.

Star Horse Shipping Lines- plying the sea routes from San Juan Batangas to Balanacan, Marinduque (every Saturday and Sunday only - one trip per day only on these days) while the other two ships from Dalahican Pier, Lucena City to Balanacan, Marinduque (4 trips daily going to Marinduque or 8 to 10 trips daily back and forth - (See Schedule of Star Horse Shipping - Source: Google or SHSLI Website).

Boac Ferries, Inc.- plying the sea route from Dalahican Port in Barangay Talao-talao in Lucena City to Marinduque via Cawit Port and vice versa. Note: Boac Ferries Inc. temporarily on hold because of some seaworthiness issue by PPA and MARINA

JAC Liner Inc. serving a direct bus route from Cubao in Quezon City and Gil Puyat cor EDSA in Pasay City to Marinduque via roll on-roll off ship.

  Political divisions

Marinduque is divided into 6 municipalities and 218 barangays

  Municipalities

  References

  1. ^ Birtle, p. 272
  2. ^ Birtle, Andrew J. (April 1997). "The U.S. Army's Pacification of Marinduque, Philippine Islands, April 1900 – April 1901" (at JSTOR). The Journal of Military History (Society for Military History) 61 (2): 255–282. DOI:10.2307/2953967. JSTOR 2953967. 
    Jessup, Philip Caryl (1938). Elihu Root. Dodd, Mead, & Co./Reprint Services Corp. ISBN 0-7812-4908-2. 
  3. ^ http://www.travelblog.org/Asia/Philippines/Marinduque/blog-462972.html
  4. ^ http://salitablog.blogspot.com/2007/03/tagalog-verbs.html
  5. ^ http://salitablog.blogspot.com

  External links


   
               

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