definition of Wikipedia
|Location||Monterey County, near Monterey, California, USA|
|Time zone||UTC-8 (UTC-7 DST)|
|Owner||Monterey County Parks Department|
|Operator||Sports Car Racing Association of the Monterey Peninsula|
|Construction cost||$1.5 million USD|
|Major events||United States motorcycle Grand Prix
American Le Mans Series
Monterey Historic Automobile Races
|Length||2.238 mi (3.602 km)|
|Lap record||1'05.786 (Marc Gené, Scuderia Ferrari, Ferrari F2003-GA, 2012, Formula 1)|
Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca (previously known as Laguna Seca Raceway) is a paved road racing track used for both auto racing and motorcycle racing, originally constructed in 1957 near both Salinas and Monterey, California, USA.
The current racetrack is 2.238 miles (3.602 km) in length with a 180 feet (55 m) elevation change. It has eleven turns, including the famous "Corkscrew" at Turns 8 and 8A. A variety of racing, exhibition and entertainment events are held at the raceway, ranging from superkarts to American Le Mans racing to music festivals.
The name Laguna Seca is Spanish for "dry lake". The area where the track is was originally a lake. The course was originally built around the lake, which has since dried up entirely. An artificial pond has since been added.
The track was built in 1957 at a cost of $1.5 million raised from local businesses and individuals on part of the US Army's Fort Ord (a maneuver area and field artillery target range) after the nearby Pebble Beach Road Races were abandoned for being too dangerous. In 1974, the property was deeded over to the Monterey County Parks Department and continues to be part of the park system to this day.
The first race, held on November 9, 1957, was won by Pete Lovely driving a Ferrari. In the intervening years, the track has hosted USRRC, Can-Am, Trans-Am, Formula 5000, IMSA GT, Champ Car, American Le Mans Series, Grand American, Monterey Historic Automobile Races, Speed World Challenge, AMA (American Motorcyclist Association), WSBK Superbike World Championship and MotoGP motorcycle races (but 125 and 250 are not admitted).
The day-to-day operations of the track, along with the management and promotion of major racing events, are handled by the Sports Car Racing Association of the Monterey Peninsula (SCRAMP), a non-profit organization. With oversight by a board of local residents, SCRAMP operates with a professional staff on-site with the goal of generating income through the operations of the racetrack which is then redistributed to local charities.
The track itself has undergone significant changes over the past two decades to meet evolving safety homologation requirements of the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM), Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and other sanctioning bodies. Changes include the addition of the entire infield area in 1988 (present day turns 3, 4, and 5, eliminating the straight that started at present day turn 2 and ended at present day turn 5) extending the track from its original 1.9-mile (3.1 km) length to meet the minimum-track-length criteria of the FIM for MotoGP events, plus the more recent relocation of pedestrian bridges and embankments, and the expansion of gravel pits outside turns 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 for additional runoff. The original media center was demolished in 2006 to make way for additional run-off room in Turn 1. Also in 2006, the 'hump' at the top of the Rahal Straight was flattened to accommodate the MotoGP riders, though some claim that this increases the wind effects that can perturb a race motorcycle.
The famous Turn 8 and 8A combination, popularly referred to as the Corkscrew, is considered one of the motorsport world's most challenging turns, due to the drop in elevation as well as its blind crest and apex on the uphill approach.
Turn 2, with its difficult and technical double-apex, has been renamed the 'Andretti Hairpin', in honor of former Formula 1 World Champion Mario Andretti, while Turn 9 has been renamed 'Rainey Curve' in honor of 500cc Grand Prix motorcycle racing World Champion Wayne Rainey, a resident of nearby Salinas, California. Also the straight that runs between Turn 6 and Turn 7 has been renamed the 'Rahal Straight' after four-time consecutive Champ Car race winner Bobby Rahal.
A Champ Car World Series weekend had been a prominent event from 1983 through 2004 when its spot on the calendar was shifted to the San Jose Grand Prix. Perhaps one of the most famous moments of racing took place at Laguna Seca's Corkscrew when Alex Zanardi passed Bryan Herta on the inside of the Corkscrew on the last lap of the 1996 CART race to take the victory. Uruguayan driver Gonzalo Rodríguez died during the practice session of the 1999 CART race after crashing at the same corner. Because of the incident, runoff was installed at the end of the Rahal Strait. Champ Car announced on September 11, 2007 that they would be returning the Northern California race to Laguna Seca from San Jose over the May 16–18 weekend in 2008. But the subsequent merger of Champ Car and IndyCar resulted in the race being canceled.
The track is also the site of the annual Monterey Historics event sponsored every August by Rolex that sees an extraordinarily eclectic mixture of race cars on the course. Each year features a different marque. Considered one of the two greatest historic racing events (along with the Goodwood Festival in England), attendance often rivals, or surpasses the professional racing events listed above.
There are many permanent dry and hook-up camping facilities located at the raceway, which are available year-round as part of the Laguna Seca Recreation Area, the county park in which the racetrack is set.
The track's primary corporate sponsor is Mazda, who hold some of their own events there and display their products at major racing events. As part of the sponsorship, the track is now officially referred to as Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca.
The official track record for the 2.238-mile (3.602 km) course is 1 minute, 07.722 seconds, set in 2000 by Hélio Castroneves while qualifying his Marlboro Team Penske Honda/Reynard for the CART/FedEx Championship Series Honda Grand Prix of Monterey.
The all-time unofficial lap record around the current configuration is 1 minute, 5.786 seconds, set on May 19, 2012 by Marc Gené in a Ferrari F2003-GA Formula One car. The previous record was 1 minute, 5.880 seconds, set on March 10, 2007 by Sébastien Bourdais in a Panoz DP01 Champ Car, beating the previous unofficial record of 1 minute, 6.309 seconds, set by Ricardo Zonta in a Toyota TF106 Formula 1 car during the Historics on August 20, 2006.
Major events each year include the U.S. Sports Car Invitational featuring the Grand American Rolex Sports Car Series, Monterey Sports Car Championships featuring a six-hour endurance race for the ALMS, Monterey Historics for classic racecars, and the Red Bull U.S. Grand Prix featuring both the MotoGP World Championship and the U.S. AMA Superbike Series. In 2006, the A1 Grand Prix brought international open-wheel racing back to Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca.
In 1989, the year following the last Formula One race in Detroit, choices for a new location for the United States Grand Prix came down to Laguna Seca and Phoenix. The aforementioned 1988 improvements to the track were made in part to lure the F1 race. In the final decision, Laguna Seca was thought to be too remote and too small for an F1 crowd, and so Phoenix was granted the Grand Prix. It proved to be highly unsuccessful and lasted only three years.
On August 20, 2006, Toyota F1 test driver Ricardo Zonta set an unofficial lap record of 1'06.039. The previous record time was 1'07.722, set by Helio Castroneves in a Penske Champ Car during qualifying for the 2000 CART Honda Grand Prix of Monterey. The unofficial record was re-taken by a Champ Car on March 10, 2007 by Sébastien Bourdais, who lapped in 1'05.880 during Champ Car Spring Training. The unofficial record was again re-taken by a Formula One car on on May 19, 2012 by Marc Gené, who lapped in 1'05.786 in a Ferrari F2003-GA during the 2012 Ferrari Racing Days.
Officially, Castroneves is still the recordholder as Zonta's and Bourdais' times were set during exhibition and testing sessions, and official records can only be set in race conditions (either in practice, qualifying, or during a race).
Motor Trend has recently begun to use Laguna Seca as a benchmark in much the same way Car and Driver had used Virginia International Raceway in recent years. The track was the site of their "America's Best Handling Car" and "Best Driver's Car" comparisons. In total, over 30 street legal cars have set laps on the track in the hands of Motor Trend. The 2010 Dodge Viper ACR is the current leader.
When not being used by the major events the track can be rented. Approximately twice a year the Sports Car Club of America holds regional club races for the San Francisco Region. Various clubs rent the track throughout the year for informal high performance driving schools that allow the public to drive their own cars at speed. The raceway has also played host to prototype testing of the Nissan GT-R in 2007.
The track is featured in video games such as the Gran Turismo series (including the bike version Tourist Trophy), Forza Motorsport, and the MotoGP series. In a bid to compare real life versus video games, Jeremy Clarkson of the British automotive show Top Gear attempted to beat his Gran Turismo time of 1:41.148 in a Honda NSX by racing the real track in the same car in 2005. During the trials, Clarkson determined that the game omitted a few details of the track, and the game's physics allowed him to brake later when coming into turns than he could in real life. As a consequence, reality prevailed and he managed a best time of only 1:57 on the real course. However, both he and the track instructor agreed that it is possible to complete the course in 1:41 in a Honda NSX if the driver were sufficiently experienced, talented, and most importantly fearless.
Laguna Seca and the part of the old Fort Ord that is now Bureau of Land Management land annually host the Sea Otter Classic "Celebration of Cycling". As the first major event of the year – typically held in April – it kicks off both the road bike and mountain bike seasons.
Laguna Seca has proven popular in computer games in simulations, with over twenty popular packages containing interpretations at the venue.
On June 24, 2011, John Mueller of Muellerized Suspension Systems married Sheila Stone on the top of the corkscrew at Laguna Seca. This is the location where the ashes of Lee Mueller (4 time SCCA National Champion, IMSA GTU Champion, 3 time winner of the 24 hours of Daytona, and 12 hours of Sebring winner), John Mueller's father, were spread.
|Season||Sprint Race Winner||Feature Race Winner|
|2005–2006||Salvador Durán||Salvador Durán|
|1995|| Anthony Gobert
Promotor Ducati Corse
|1996|| John Kocinski
|1997|| John Kocinski
|1998|| Troy Corser
Yamaha World Superbike Team
|1999|| Anthony Gobert
|Vance & Hines Ducati
Vance & Hines Ducati
|2000|| Noriyuki Haga
|Yamaha World Superbike Team
|2001|| Ben Bostrom
|2002|| Troy Bayliss
|Infostrada Ducati Corse
|2003|| Pierfrancesco Chili
FILA Ducati Corse
|2004|| Chris Vermeulen
|ten Kate Honda
ten Kate Honda
|1972||Thomas Herman||Harley-Davidson Motor Co||Harley-Davidson|
|1973||Gary Nixon||Erv Kanemoto/Kawasaki||Kawasaki Heavy Industries|
|1974||Kenny Roberts||Yamaha Factory Team||Yamaha|
|1975||Kenny Roberts||Yamaha Factory Team||Yamaha|
|1976||Steve Baker||Yamaha Factory Team||Yamaha|
|1976||Reg Pridmore||Butler & Smith BMW||BMW|
|1979||Freddie Spencer||Kawasaki Factory||Kawasaki|
|1980||Freddie Spencer||American Honda||Honda|
|1981||Eddie Lawson||Team Muzzy||Kawasaki|
|1982||Eddie Lawson||Team Muzzy||Kawasaki|
|1983||Wayne Rainey||Team Muzzy||Kawasaki|
|1984||Fred Merkel||American Honda||Honda|
|1985||John Ashmead||Ashmead / Gary Meadley||Honda|
|1986||Wayne Rainey||American Honda||Honda|
|1987||Bubba Shobert||American Honda||Honda|
|1989–1991: No race|
|1992||Doug Polen||Fast by Ferracci||Ducati|
|1993||Doug Polen||Fast by Ferracci||Ducati|
|1994||Pascal Picotte||Fast by Ferracci||Ducati|
|1995||Freddie Spencer||Fast by Ferracci||Ducati|
|1996||Doug Chandler||Team Muzzy||Kawasaki|
|1997||Doug Chandler||Team Muzzy||Kawasaki|
|1998||Miguel Duhamel||Erion Racing||Honda|
|1999||Anthony Gobert||Vance & Hines||Ducati|
|2000||Nicky Hayden||American Honda||Honda|
|2001||Eric Bostrom||Kawasaki Factory||Kawasaki|
|2002||Eric Bostrom||Kawasaki Factory||Kawasaki|
|2003||Mat Mladin||Yoshimura Racing||Suzuki|
|2004||Ben Bostrom||Parts Unlimited American Honda||Honda|
|2005||Eric Bostrom||Parts Unlimited MotoAustin||Ducati|
|2006||Ben Spies||Yoshimura Racing||Suzuki|
|Ben Spies||Yoshimura Racing||Suzuki|
|Ben Spies||Yoshimura Racing||Suzuki|
|Mat Mladin||Yoshimura Racing||Suzuki|
|Mat Mladin||Yoshimura Racing||Suzuki|
|2009||Aaron Yates||Michael Jordan Motorsports||Suzuki|
|2010||Ben Bostrom||Pat Clark Motorsports||Yamaha|
|2011||Tommy Hayden||Yoshimura Racing||Suzuki|
|2005||Luis Díaz / Scott Pruett||Riley Mk XI-Lexus||Chip Ganassi Racing with Felix Sabates|
|2006||Max Angelelli / Jan Magnussen / Wayne Taylor||Riley Mk XI-Pontiac||SunTrust Racing|
|2007||Patrick Long / Jörg Bergmeister||Crawford DP03-Porsche||Alex Job Racing|
|2008||Ryan Dalziel / Henri Zogaib||Riley Mk XI-BMW||SAMAX Motorsport|
|2009||Jon Fogarty / Alex Gurney||Riley Mk XI-Pontiac||GAINSCO/Bob Stallings Racing|
|2010||Event not held|
|2011||Jon Fogarty / Alex Gurney||Riley Mk XI-Chevrolet||GAINSCO/Bob Stallings Racing|
| Mark Donohue
| Parnelli Jones
Alfa Romeo GTA
|1971||Event not held|
|1972||Under 2500cc||John Morton||Datsun 510|
|1973–1977||Event not held|
| Bob Tullius
| Bob Tullius
|1980||Greg Pickett||Chevrolet Corvette|
|1981||George Follmer||Chevrolet Camaro|
|1982||Elliott Forbes-Robinson||Pontiac Trans Am|
|1983–1999||Event not held|
|2000||Kenny Wilden||Chevrolet Camaro|
|2001||Justin Bell||Chevrolet Corvette|
|2002–2003||Event not held|
|2004||Tommy Kendall||Jaguar XKR|
Many scenes in the film The Love Bug were filmed at Laguna Seca. Herbie is even shown competing at the Monterey Grand Prix. (Despite this, the Monterey Grand Prix had not used production cars since 1965, three years prior to this film's debut.)
"Laguna Seca Raceway: 40 Years Through the Corkscrew: 1957-1997" (David and Mary-Ellen Wright-Rana, 1997) — ISBN 0966024818
Dictionary and translator for handheld
New : sensagent is now available on your handheld
A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !
With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.
Improve your site content
Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.
Crawl products or adds
Get XML access to reach the best products.
Index images and define metadata
Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.
Please, email us to describe your idea.
Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.