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Mega Millions (MM) is a US multi-jurisdictional $1 lottery game. Since it replaced The Big Game in May 2002 (see below), Mega Millions' advertised jackpots have started at $12 million, paid in 26 yearly installments (unless the cash option is chosen), increasing when there is no jackpot winner.
Reflecting common practice among American lotteries, the jackpot is advertised as a nominal value of annual installments. A cash value option, when chosen by a jackpot winner (see below), pays the approximate present value of the installments. Mega Millions currently uses a 5/56 (white balls) + 1/46 (the Mega Ball) double matrix to select its winning numbers. Each game costs $1; in 43 of the 44 Mega Millions jurisdictions (California is the exception), there is an option, called Megaplier (such games are $2 each) where non-jackpot prizes are multiplied by 2, 3, or 4. The Megaplier was made available to all Mega Millions jurisdictions in January 2011; it began as a Texas-only option. Mega Millions is drawn at 10:59 p.m. Eastern time Tuesdays and Fridays, including holidays. Mega Millions is administered by a consortium of its original lotteries and the drawings are held at WSB-TV in Atlanta, Georgia. supervised by the Georgia Lottery.
The largest jackpot in Mega Millions, as well as in American lottery history, was $656 million annuitized (with a cash option of $474 million) for the March 30, 2012 drawing in which there were three jackpot-winning tickets; one each in Illinois, Kansas, and Maryland (all three tickets had been claimed as of April 18, with each set of winners choosing the cash option.) (Sorteo Extraordinario de Navidad (the Spanish Christmas Lottery) generally is considered the world's largest lottery. In its drawing on December 24, 2011, the main jackpot was €720 million (US$939 million), the total prize pool was approximately €1,513,000,000 (US$1,974,000,000).)
On October 13, 2009, the Mega Millions consortium and Multi-State Lottery Association (MUSL) reached an agreement in principle to cross-sell Mega Millions and Powerball in US lottery jurisdictions with this combination of the 2 lotteries being referred to as the Mega Power Lottery by many users. The expansion occurred on January 31, 2010, as 23 Powerball members began selling Mega Millions tickets for their first drawing on February 2, 2010; likewise, 10 Mega Millions members began selling Powerball tickets for their first drawing on February 3, 2010. Montana (joining Mega Millions on March 1, 2010) was the first jurisdiction to add either game after the cross-sell expansion. Nebraska (March 20, 2010), Oregon (March 28, 2010), Arizona (April 18, 2010), Maine (May 9, 2010), Colorado, and South Dakota (the latter two on May 16, 2010) also have joined Mega Millions since the expansion.
With Louisiana joining Mega Millions in November 2011, Mega Millions and Powerball each are played in 44 jurisdictions, with 43 lotteries selling tickets for both games. California is the only Mega Millions member that does not offer Powerball, while Florida is the only Powerball member that does not offer Mega Millions.
It is likely this cross-selling arrangement is a temporary measure, as lotteries investigate the possibility of merging the two games. (See Cross-selling expansion about a potential "national" lottery game.)
Powerball replaced Lotto*America in April 1992; Mega Millions replaced The Big Game in May 2002 (see below for the evolution of the name Mega Millions.)
|Arizona||1994||April 18, 2010|
|Arkansas||October 31, 2009||January 31, 2010|
|Connecticut||1995||January 31, 2010|
|Colorado||April 2001||May 16, 2010|
|Delaware||1991||January 31, 2010|
|Georgia||January 31, 2010||1996|
|Idaho||1990||January 31, 2010|
|Illinois||January 31, 2010||1996|
|Indiana||1990||January 31, 2010|
|Iowa||1988||January 31, 2010|
|Kansas||1988||January 31, 2010|
|Kentucky||1991||January 31, 2010|
|Maine||2004||May 9, 2010|
|Maryland||January 31, 2010||1996|
|Massachusetts||January 31, 2010||1996|
|Michigan||January 31, 2010||1996|
|Minnesota||1990||January 31, 2010|
|Missouri||1988||January 31, 2010|
|Montana||1989||March 1, 2010|
|Nebraska||1994||March 20, 2010|
|New Hampshire||November 8, 1995||January 31, 2010|
|New Jersey||January 31, 2010||1999|
|New Mexico||1996||January 31, 2010|
|New York||January 31, 2010||2002|
|North Carolina||May 30, 2006||January 31, 2010|
|North Dakota||2004||January 31, 2010|
|Ohio||April 16, 2010||2002|
|Oklahoma||2006||January 31, 2010|
|Oregon||1988||March 28, 2010|
|Pennsylvania||2002||January 31, 2010|
|Rhode Island||1988||January 31, 2010|
|South Carolina||2002||January 31, 2010|
|South Dakota||1990||May 16, 2010|
|Tennessee||2004||January 31, 2010|
|Texas||January 31, 2010||2003|
|US Virgin Islands||2002||October 4, 2010|
|Vermont||2003||January 31, 2010|
|Virginia||January 31, 2010||1996|
|Washington||January 31, 2010||2002|
|West Virginia||1988||January 31, 2010|
|Wisconsin||1992||January 31, 2010|
Alabama, Alaska, Hawaii, Mississippi, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming do not sell government-run lottery tickets. Although Puerto Rico has a lottery, it does not participate in either Mega Millions or Powerball; it does not plan to join either game.
Tickets began to be sold in in Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Virginia on August 31, 1996, for the new game, then known as The Big Game. Drawings were initially held Fridays only.
The Georgia Lottery was a member of MUSL at the time and wanted to sell both games for the remainder of 1996; however, within a few days, Georgia was forcibly removed from MUSL, returning with the 2010 cross-selling expansion.
Beginning in January 1999, jackpot winners were given the option to receive their prize in cash.
In May 1999, New Jersey joined The Big Game, the only jurisdiction to do so before The Big Game became Mega Millions in 2002.
New York and Ohio joined The Big Game on May 15, 2002, when the game was changed to its second name, The Big Game Mega Millions, temporarily retaining the old name and its "gold ball" logo. The "Big Money Ball" became the "Mega Ball." After the game's name was altered, the yellow ball in the new Mega Millions logo read "The Big Game." The first (The Big Game) Mega Millions drawing was held on May 17, 2002. The first three additional lotteries offering Mega Millions were Washington (September 2002), Texas (2003), and California (2005). California was the last addition to Mega Millions before the cross-sell expansion of 2010. Montana joined Mega Millions on March 1, 2010, the first addition to Mega Millions after the cross-sell expansion.
When Texas added Mega Millions in 2003, it began offering an option then available only to Texas Lottery players, the Megaplier, which is similar to Powerball's Power Play. The 11 Mega Millions lotteries without Megaplier on the January 31, 2010 cross-selling date gradually added the multiplier; by January 2011, all Mega Millions lotteries offered the Megaplier.
For the drawing of November 15, 2005, a group called "The Lucky 7" held the only jackpot-winning ticket, purchased in Anaheim, California, winning $315 million. They chose the cash option, splitting $175 million before Federal tax. This remains the largest prize won by a single Mega Millions ticket.
On March 6, 2007, the Mega Millions jackpot reached $390 million, which is the record for the second largest jackpot in US history. The jackpot was shared by two tickets, both matching the numbers of 16-22-29-39-42 and Mega Ball 20. Both winners chose the cash option, with each share $116,557,083 before withholdings.
The New Jersey Lottery, among others, in early 2009 announced it would seek permission to sell Powerball tickets alongside Mega Millions. In October 2009, an agreement between Mega Millions and MUSL allowed all US lotteries, including New Jersey's, to offer both games. On January 31, 2010, Mega Millions expanded to include 23 Powerball lotteries. As of that date, 35 jurisdictions were participating in Mega Millions. On the same day, 10 existing Mega Millions lotteries began selling Powerball tickets, for a then total of 43 lotteries. Ohio joined Powerball on April 16, 2010; currently, only California offers Mega Millions without also offering Powerball. On March 1, 2010, Montana became the first Powerball member to add Mega Millions after the cross-sell expansion. On March 20, 2010, Nebraska became the 37th Mega Millions member. On March 28, 2010, Oregon became the 38th Mega Millions member. Arizona, on April 18, 2010, became Mega Millions' 39th member. Maine, on May 9, 2010, became Mega Millions' 40th member. Colorado and South Dakota added Mega Millions on May 16, 2010, bringing the total to 42 jurisdictions The most recent addition to Mega Millions was the US Virgin Islands in October 2010.
Presumably due to their experience with the Power Play option for Powerball, all 23 lotteries joining Mega Millions on January 31, 2010 immediately offered Megaplier to their players. The Megaplier continues to be drawn by Texas Lottery computers, even though most Mega Millions members offer the multiplier. Montana, offering Powerball before the expansion date, became the 24th lottery to offer Megaplier. Nebraska became the 25th lottery to offer Megaplier. Oregon became the 26th lottery to offer Megaplier. Arizona, by joining Mega Millions, became the 27th lottery to offer Megaplier. Maine, by joining Mega Millions, became the 28th lottery to offer Megaplier. Colorado and South Dakota joining Mega Millions, raised the number to 37 lotteries offering Megaplier.
Mega Millions tickets bought on or after September 12, 2010, with the Megaplier activated automatically win $1 million if the second-prize level is won.
On March 13, 2010, New Jersey became the first Mega Millions member (just before the cross-sell expansion) to produce a jackpot-winning ticket for Powerball after joining Powerball. The ticket was worth over $211 million annuity (the cash option was chosen.) On May 28, 2010, North Carolina became the first Powerball member (just before the cross-selling expansion) to produce a jackpot-winning Mega Millions ticket after joining Mega Millions. That jackpot was $12 million annuity.
The largest Mega Millions jackpot, advertised as $640 million at the time of the drawing (annuitized) or $462 million (cash value), was drawn on Friday, March 30, 2012. The initial estimate for this drawing (following the March 27 drawing, which was $363 million annuity) was $476 million (later increased to $500 million and again to $540 million); brisk ticket sales pushed the jackpot values, both annuitized (to $656 million) and the cash option ($474 million) higher. The amount spent on Mega Millions for drawings following its most recent jackpot win, on January 24, 2012, was at least $1.5 billion. Three jackpot-winning tickets had been confirmed (one each in Illinois, Kansas, and Maryland.)
Mega Millions' second-largest jackpot, $390 million, was for the March 6, 2007 drawing. Two tickets, one each from Georgia and New Jersey, split the then-record prize; both sets of winners chose the cash option, splitting $233 million. (As noted below, interest rates change, resulting in different ratios between the cash values and annuity values of jackpots.)
Mega Millions' third-largest jackpot annuity value ($380 million), and second-largest cash jackpot ($240 million), was for the January 4, 2011 drawing; two tickets, one each from Post Falls, Idaho, and Ephrata, Washington, matched all six winning numbers, winning $190 million (annuity) each. The holders of each ticket also chose the cash option.
Since June 2005, a player picks, or allows the lottery terminal to pick, five different numbers from 1 through 56 (white balls) and one number from 1 through 46 (the Mega Ball number, a gold-colored ball). The Mega Ball number is drawn from a separate machine, so it can be a duplicate of one of the white ball numbers. The Mega Ball number cannot cross over to be used for matching a white ball number, or vice versa. Each play (a selection of six numbers for one drawing) costs $1. Tickets may be obtained from retail locations; some lotteries also allow subscription play.
Two drawing machines are used in Mega Millions. The model used for Mega Millions is the Criterion II, manufactured by Smartplay International of Edgewater Park, New Jersey. The balls are moved around by means of counter-rotating arms which randomly mix the balls. One by one, the five white ball numbers drop through a hole in the bottom of the mixing drum. There are 56 white balls in the first machine; the 46 Mega Balls in the second machine are gold-colored.
Previous incarnations of The Big Game and Mega Millions have used different matrices:
|Date||Pick 5 out of||Pick 1 out of||Jackpot odds|
|September 6, 1996||50||25||1:52,969,000|
|January 13, 1999||50||36||1:76,275,360|
|May 15, 2002||52||52||1:135,145,920|
|June 22, 2005 (current)||56||46||1:175,711,536|
Mega Millions players, in 43 of its 44 jurisdictions, have the option to activate a multiplier, called Megaplier; it is functionally similar to Powerball's original Power Play. (Megaplier is not yet offered in California.) By doubling the wager in a game (to $2), players have an opportunity to multiply any non-jackpot prize by 2, 3, or 4. The Megaplier is drawn by the Texas Lottery (before the cross-sell expansion on January 31, 2010, it was the only lottery to offer Megaplier) by a random number generator (RNG). Prior to Powerball's price increase and subsequent change to a fixed prize table for Power Play, Megaplier had differed from Power Play in two ways: (1) there is no 5x Megaplier, and (2) the odds for each Megaplier possibility are not uniform (the 4x multiplier is heavily weighted so that it has a 12-in-21 chance of being selected.)
Despite not having a 5x possibility, the extra weighting for a higher Megaplier results in the average expected Megaplier to be 3.476x. This is similar to the $1 Powerball's Power Play expectation of just over 3.5x.
Megaplier wagers made for drawings on or after September 12, 2010 that win second prize are automatically elevated to 4x, winning $1 million. This second-prize guarantee had been added to Powerball's Power Play; with Powerball now a $2 game, second prize winners win $1 million without Power Play, or $2 million if activated.
As part of the Megaplier expansion to all Mega Millions members, its RNG drawings are expected to move to Atlanta, Mega Millions' home base.
A player wins a prize according to the following chart:
(pool of 56)
(pool of 46)
|5||1||Jackpot||1 in 175,711,536 (56C5×46)|
|5||0||$250,000||1 in 3,904,701 (56C5×46/45)|
|4||1||$10,000||1 in 689,065 |
|4||0||$150||1 in 15,313|
|3||1||$150||1 in 13,781|
|2||1||$10||1 in 844|
|3||0||$7||1 in 306|
|1||1||$3||1 in 141|
|0||1||$2||1 in 74.8 (the probability for this prize is NOT 1:46, because there is also the possibility of matching one or more normal balls, which decreases the likelihood of matching only the Mega Ball.)|
In California, prize levels are paid on a parimutuel basis, rather than the fixed lower-tier amounts for winners in other Mega Millions jurisdictions.
In Georgia, New Jersey, and Texas, players must choose, in advance, whether they wish to collect a jackpot in cash or annuity. Georgia and New Jersey winners can change an annuity ticket to cash should they be eligible for a jackpot share; however, the choice is binding in Texas.
If a jackpot prize is not claimed within the respective jurisdiction's time limit, each of the 44 Mega Millions members get back the money they contributed to that jackpot. Each of the 44 lotteries have rules in regards to unclaimed prizes; most Mega Millions members set aside unclaimed winnings for educational purposes.
This app let's you figure out how much $$ you walk away with from the office lottery pool--after taxes. http://www.elfga.com/LottoCalc/
Mega Millions winners have either 180 days (California non-jackpot prizes only) or one year to claim prizes, including the jackpot (although some Mega Millions winners lose the right to collect a jackpot in cash if they wait more than 60 days after the drawing).
Generally (an exception is Virginia), minors can win on tickets received as gifts; the rules according to each Mega Millions member vary for minors receiving prizes.
Rules vary according to the applicable laws and regulations in the jurisdiction where the ticket is sold, and the winner's residence (e.g. if a New Jerseyan wins on a ticket bought near their workplace in Manhattan.) Mega Millions winnings are exempt from state income tax in California and Pennsylvania, while New Hampshire, Texas, and Washington do not have an income tax. On the other hand, some residents of New York City, Buffalo, and Yonkers, New York pay three levels if income tax, as these cities levy income taxes.
Drawings are usually held at WSB-TV in Atlanta, Georgia. The original host was WSB's chief meteorologist, Glenn Burns. Currently, most drawings are emceed by the full-time host of Georgia Lottery drawings, John Crow, with Courtney Cason subbing on occasion. For very large jackpots, the drawing sometimes is moved to Times Square in New York City, with New York Lottery announcer Yolanda Vega co-hosting.
Before January 31, 2010, Mega Millions was the only multi-jurisdictional lottery whose drawings were carried nationally, instead of airing only in participating jurisdictions. Powerball drawings also began to air after that date nationally via Chicago cable superstation WGN-TV. WGN simulcasts Mega Millions drawings on its national WGN America superstation feed on Tuesdays and Fridays immediately following WGN's 9 p.m. (Central time) newscast with Powerball drawings being aired on Wednesdays and Saturdays after the 9 p.m. newscast (though both drawings air a minute later than on some television stations that carry either drawing).
(in millions USD)
(in millions USD)
|$474||$656||March 30, 2012||3 (MD, KS, IL)||World's largest jackpot (cash or annuity)
|$240||$380||January 4, 2011||2 (ID, WA)|
|$233||$390||March 6, 2007||2 (GA, NJ)|
|$210||$336||August 28, 2009||2 (NY, CA)||NY winner chose annuity (the cash/annuity choice made "when playing" required per then-NY Lottery rules)|
|$208.3||$330||August 31, 2007||4 (NJ, MD, TX, VA)|
|$202.9||$319||March 25, 2011||1 (Albany, NY)||Largest Mega Millions jackpot ever won on 1 ticket|
|$180||$363||May 9, 2000||2 (IL, MI)||Largest The Big Game jackpot|
Approximately 50 percent of Mega Millions sales is returned to players as prizes; the remainder is split among retailers, marketing, and operations, as well as the 44 jurisdictions offering the game; different lotteries uses the proceeds in different ways.
In January 2012, Mega Millions' rival Powerball was altered; among the changes are a price increase of $1 for each play, which means a base game costs $2, or, $3 with the Power Play option. There are no plans to change the price of a Mega Millions play, with or without the Megaplier.
The price increase for playing Powerball was a major factor in Louisiana deciding to pursue joining Mega Millions. Louisiana joined Mega Millions on November 16, 2011.
In the aftermath of the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the legislature in Albany, fearing a monumental loss of revenue, passed legislation the following month, which was signed by Gov. George Pataki, that included joining a multi-jurisdictional lottery game. Around the same time, for entirely different reasons, Ohio's governor also gave the green light to joining a multi-jurisdictional game. Both lotteries opted to join the then-The Big Game, which, at the time, had seven members. The added populations of the two new jurisdictions, in turn, led to a larger double matrix. The first machine continued to hold 52 balls, while 16 gold balls were added in the second, meaning there were 52 numbers to pick from in each part of a $1 game. On May 15, 2002, the game was renamed The Big Game Mega Millions; soon after, it became just Mega Millions. Except for the 2010 cross-selling expansion, this was the only time The Big Game, Mega Millions, or Powerball simultaneously added more than one lottery.
In 2005, Mega Millions was the target of a mailing scam. A letter bearing the Mega Millions logo was used in a string of lottery scams designed to trick people into providing personal financial information by cashing bogus checks. The letter, which had been sent to people in several states via standard mail, included a check for what the scammers said was an unclaimed Mega Millions prize. If the check was cashed, it bounced, but not before the bank stamped it with a routing number and personal account information and sent it back to the fraudulent organization, providing them with the recipients' financial information.
A budget impasse due to the 2006 New Jersey Government shutdown led to the temporary closing of its less-important agencies on July 1, 2006. Among the casualties were the Atlantic City casinos and the New Jersey Lottery. Not only were New Jersey's in-house games (such as Pick-6) not drawn for about a week, but all New Jersey lottery terminals were shut down, meaning Mega Millions could not be played in New Jersey, even though Mega Millions was drawn as usual. A similar shutdown happened in Minnesota on July 1, 2011.
Elecia Battle made national headlines in January 2004 when she claimed that she had lost the winning ticket in the Mega Millions drawing of December 30, 2003. She then filed a lawsuit against the woman who had come forward with the ticket, Rebecca Jemison. Several days later, when confronted with contradictory evidence, she admitted that she had lied. She was charged with filing a false police report the following day. As a result of this false report, Battle was fined $1,000, ordered to perform 50 hours of community service, and required to compensate the police and courts for various costs incurred.
The January 4, 2011 Mega Millions drawing drew attention for its similarity to "The Numbers," a sequence of six numbers that served as a plot device of the television series Lost. One such usage involved character Hugo "Hurley" Reyes playing the sequence in a similar "Mega Lotto" game, winning a nine-figure jackpot and subsequently experiencing numerous misfortunes in his personal life. The first three numbers (4, 8, 15) and mega ball (42) in the Mega Millions drawing matched the first three numbers and the final number (which Hurley also used as the "mega ball" number) in the Lost sequence. The last two numbers in the Mega Millions drawing did not match the last two numbers that were used in the scene. Those who played "The Numbers", including from quick-picks, won $150 ($118 in California) in a non-Megaplier game; $600 with the multiplier.
The 12 original (before the 2010 cross-sell expansion) Mega Millions members have each produced at least one Mega Millions jackpot winner.
|World's largest lottery jackpot
May 9, 2000–February 18, 2006
|World's largest lottery jackpot
March 6, 2007–present
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