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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
1.the image of something as reflected by a mirror (or other reflective material)"he studied his reflection in the mirror"
2.polished surface that forms images by reflecting light
3.a faithful depiction or reflection"the best mirror is an old friend"
1.reflect or resemble"The plane crash in Milan mirrored the attack in the World Trade Center"
2.reflect as if in a mirror"The smallest pond at night mirrors the firmament above"
MirrorMir"ror (?), n. [OE. mirour, F. miroir, OF. also mireor, fr. (assumed) LL. miratorium, fr. mirare to look at, L. mirari to wonder. See Marvel, and cf. Miracle, Mirador.]
1. A looking-glass or a speculum; any glass or polished substance that forms images by the reflection of rays of light.
And in her hand she held a mirror bright,
Wherein her face she often viewèd fair. Spenser.
2. That which gives a true representation, or in which a true image may be seen; hence, a pattern; an exemplar.
She is mirour of all courtesy. Chaucer.
O goddess, heavenly bright,
Mirror of grace and majesty divine. Spenser.
3. (Zoöl.) See Speculum.
Mirror carp (Zoöl.), a domesticated variety of the carp, having only three or fur rows of very large scales side. -- Mirror plate. (a) A flat glass mirror without a frame. (b) Flat glass used for making mirrors. -- Mirror writing, a manner or form of backward writing, making manuscript resembling in slant and order of letters the reflection of ordinary writing in a mirror. The substitution of this manner of writing for the common manner is a symptom of some kinds of nervous disease.
Glatzel mirror • Mirror Writing • Mirror-image atrial arrangement with situs inversus • Purkinje-Sanson's mirror images • car mirror • distorting mirror • dressing table mirror • driving mirror • full-length mirror • hand mirror • mirror carp • mirror glass • mirror image • mirror machine • mirror symmetry • mirror wardrobe • mirror writing • mirror-image atrial arrangement with situs inversus • mirror-image relation • outside mirror • parabolic mirror • pier mirror • rear-view mirror • rearview mirror • shaving mirror • side mirror • strip selection mirror • swing mirror • wing mirror
A Mirror in the Heart • A Mirror to the Blind • A Stranger in the Mirror • Behind the Mirror (Kreator song) • Black mirror • Bronze mirror • Chirped mirror • Clown in the Mirror • Cracked Mirror Publishing • Curse of the Hidden Mirror • Daily Mirror • Danny Mirror • Dark Mirror • Dark Mirror (Angel novel) • Deformable mirror • Diagonal mirror • Dichroic Mirror • Dielectric mirror • Disney's Magical Mirror • Disney's Magical Mirror Starring Mickey Mouse • Distorting mirror • Face the Mirror • Fairfield Mirror • Financial Mirror • Fresnel diffraction mirror • Fresnel mirror • Ghost in the Mirror • Gliding Mirror • Go to the Mirror! • Golf mirror • Homological mirror symmetry • Honey, This Mirror Isn't Big Enough for the Two of Us • Honeycomb mirror • I'll Be Your Mirror • IBM Global Mirror • Into the Mirror • Into the Mirror Black • Into the Mirror Live • Kodiak Daily Mirror • Lake Mirror Promenade • Liquid mirror space telescope • Lloyd's mirror • Magnetic mirror • Magnetic mirror point • Man in the Mirror • Mangin mirror • Maps in a Mirror • Mariner's Mirror • Mindanao Daily Mirror • Mirror (D'espairsRay album) • Mirror (Emitt Rhodes album) • Mirror (Lakeland College) • Mirror (Pakistani magazine) • Mirror (The Rapture album) • Mirror (computing) • Mirror (dinghy) • Mirror (song) • Mirror Blue • Mirror Buzz • Mirror Canon • Mirror Fusion Test Facility • Mirror Group Newspapers • Mirror Image • Mirror Image (album) • Mirror Image (novel) • Mirror Lake • Mirror Lake (Tuftonboro, New Hampshire) • Mirror Lake (Utah) • Mirror Lake Library • Mirror Lake State Park • Mirror Man (Captain Beefheart album) • Mirror Man (David Thomas album) • Mirror Master • Mirror Mirror • Mirror Mirror (10cc album) • Mirror Mirror (Blind Guardian song) • Mirror Mirror (Diana Ross song) • Mirror Mirror (EP) • Mirror Mirror (I See a Damsel) • Mirror Mirror (country song) • Mirror Mirror (pop song) • Mirror Mirror (rap song) • Mirror Mirror (rock song) • Mirror Mortgage • Mirror Moves • Mirror Music • Mirror System • Mirror Universe (Star Trek) • Mirror Weekly • Mirror armour • Mirror ball • Mirror cell • Mirror cells • Mirror dory • Mirror driver • Mirror for Magistrates • Mirror galvanometer • Mirror go • Mirror image • Mirror image rule • Mirror in the Bathroom • Mirror lock-up • Mirror manifold • Mirror matter • Mirror mount • Mirror neurone • Mirror of Deception • Mirror of Galadriel • Mirror of Human Salvation • Mirror of human salvation • Mirror of the Middle Ages • Mirror punishment • Mirror stage • Mirror symmetry (string theory) • Mirror syndrome • Mirror weekly • Mirror writing • Mirror, Mirror • Mirror, Mirror (Amazing Stories episode) • Mirror, Mirror (Look into My Eyes) • Mirror, Mirror (TV series) • Mirror, Mirror (novel) • Mirror, Mirror II • Mirror-symmetry breaking • Montreal Mirror • Mouth mirror • Mumbai Mirror • New York Daily Mirror • New York Evening Mirror • New York Mirror • North York Mirror • Objects in the Rear View Mirror May Appear Closer than They Are • One way mirror • Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature • Pictures In the Mirror • Pinhead mirror • Plane mirror • Primary mirror • Quadrature mirror filter • Quantum mirror • Rear-view mirror (disambiguation) • Record Mirror • Santa Monica Mirror • Scarborough Mirror • Secondary mirror • Segmented mirror • Shattered Mirror • Sky Mirror • Songs from the Mirror • Space mirror • Sydney Daily Mirror • Take a Look in the Mirror • The Black Mirror • The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka) • The Dark Mirror (film) • The Empty Mirror • The Ethereal Mirror • The Face in the Mirror • The Goblin Mirror • The Great Mirror • The Image in the Mirror • The Inquirer and Mirror • The Kiss Before the Mirror • The Mask and Mirror • The Men and the Mirror • The Mirror (1913 film) • The Mirror (1967 film) • The Mirror (1975 film) • The Mirror (1977 film) • The Mirror (1993 film I) • The Mirror (1993 film II) • The Mirror (1993 film) • The Mirror (1999 film) • The Mirror (German newspaper) • The Mirror (Ja Rule album) • The Mirror (The Twilight Zone) • The Mirror (UNC Newspaper) • The Mirror (William Penn Charter School) • The Mirror (film) • The Mirror Conspiracy • The Mirror Conspiracy (song) • The Mirror Crack'd from Side to Side • The Mirror Effect • The Mirror Has Two Faces • The Mirror World Asterix exhibition • The Mirror of Production • The Mirror of Simple Souls • The Other Side of the Mirror (album) • The Pink Mirror • The Sea and the Mirror • The Secret of Mirror Bay • The View from the Mirror • Three Way Mirror • Thru the Mirror • Trinity Mirror • Two-way mirror • Wing mirror • Your Mirror • Znamya (space mirror)
objet réfractant la lumière (fr)[Classe]
chose en verre (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
symbole chrétien (fr)[Symbolise]
objet d'ameublement, meuble (fr)[Classe...]
glass; looking-glass; mirror[ClasseHyper.]
accessoire de toilette (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
redirection des ondes (fr)[Classe]
phénomène optique (fr)[Classe]
renvoyer la lumière (fr)[Classe]
renvoyer un reflet (fr)[Classe]
icon, ikon, image, picture[Hyper.]
A mirror is an object that reflects light or sound in a way that preserves much of its original quality prior to its contact with the mirror. Some mirrors also filter out some wavelengths, while preserving other wavelengths in the reflection. This is different from other light-reflecting objects that do not preserve much of the original wave signal other than color and diffuse reflected light. The most familiar type of mirror is the plane mirror, which has a flat surface. Curved mirrors are also used, to produce magnified or diminished images or focus light or simply distort the reflected image.
Mirrors are commonly used for personal grooming or admiring oneself (in which case the archaic term looking-glass is sometimes still used), decoration, and architecture. Mirrors are also used in scientific apparatus such as telescopes and lasers, cameras, and industrial machinery. Most mirrors are designed for visible light; however, mirrors designed for other types of waves or other wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation are also used, especially in non-optical instruments.
The first mirrors used by people were most likely pools of dark, still water, or water collected in a primitive vessel of some sort. The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as obsidian, a naturally occurring volcanic glass. Examples of obsidian mirrors found in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) have been dated to around 6000 BC. Polished stone mirrors from Central and South America date from around 2000 BC onwards. Mirrors of polished copper were crafted in Mesopotamia from 4000 BC, and in ancient Egypt from around 3000 BC. In China, bronze mirrors were manufactured from around 2000 BC, some of the earliest bronze and copper examples being produced by the Qijia culture. Mirrors made of other metal mixtures (alloys) such as copper and tin speculum metal may have also been produced in China and India. Mirrors of speculum metal or any precious metal were hard to produce and were only owned by the wealthy.
Metal-coated glass mirrors are said to have been invented in Sidon (modern-day Lebanon) in the first century AD, and glass mirrors backed with gold leaf are mentioned by the Roman author Pliny in his Natural History, written in about 77 AD. The Romans also developed a technique for creating crude mirrors by coating blown glass with molten lead.
Parabolic mirrors were described and studied in classical antiquity by the mathematician Diocles in his work On Burning Mirrors. Ptolemy conducted a number of experiments with curved polished iron mirrors, and discussed plane, convex spherical, and concave spherical mirrors in his Optics. Parabolic mirrors were also described by the physicist Ibn Sahl in the 10th century, and Ibn al-Haytham discussed concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries, carried out a number of experiments with mirrors, and solved the problem of finding the point on a convex mirror at which a ray coming from one point is reflected to another point. By the 11th century, clear glass mirrors were being produced in Moorish Spain.[verification needed]
In China, people began making mirrors with the use of silver-mercury amalgams as early as 500 AD. Some time during the early Renaissance, European manufacturers perfected a superior method of coating glass with a tin-mercury amalgam. The exact date and location of the discovery is unknown, but in the 16th century, Venice, a city famed for its glass-making expertise, became a centre of mirror production using this new technique. Glass mirrors from this period were extremely expensive luxuries. The Saint-Gobain factory, founded by royal initiative in France, was an important manufacturer, and Bohemian and German glass, often rather cheaper, was also important.
The invention of the silvered-glass mirror is credited to German chemist Justus von Liebig in 1835. His process involved the deposition of a thin layer of metallic silver onto glass through the chemical reduction of silver nitrate. This silvering process was adapted for mass manufacturing and led to the greater availability of affordable mirrors. Nowadays, mirrors are often produced by the vacuum deposition of aluminium (or sometimes silver) directly onto the glass substrate.
Mirrors are manufactured by applying a reflective coating to a suitable substrate. The most common substrate is glass, due to its transparency, ease of fabrication, rigidity, hardness, and ability to take a smooth finish. The reflective coating is typically applied to the back surface of the glass, so that the reflecting side of the coating is protected from corrosion and accidental damage by the glass on one side and the coating itself and optional paint for further protection on the other.
In classical antiquity, mirrors were made of solid metal (bronze, later silver) and were too expensive for widespread use by common people; they were also prone to corrosion. Due to the low reflectivity of polished metal, these mirrors also gave a darker image than modern ones, making them unsuitable for indoor use with the artificial lighting of the time (candles or lanterns).
The method of making mirrors out of plate glass was invented by 16th-century Venetian glassmakers on the island of Murano, who covered the back of the glass with mercury, obtaining near-perfect and undistorted reflection. For over one hundred years, Venetian mirrors installed in richly decorated frames served as luxury decorations for palaces throughout Europe, but the secret of the mercury process eventually arrived in London and Paris during the 17th century, due to industrial espionage. French workshops succeeded in large scale industrialization of the process, eventually making mirrors affordable to the masses, although mercury's toxicity remained a problem.
In modern times, the mirror substrate is shaped, polished and cleaned, and is then coated. Glass mirrors are most often coated with non-toxic silver or aluminium, implemented by a series of coatings:
The tin(II) chloride is applied because silver will not bond with the glass. The activator causes the tin/silver to harden. Copper is added for long-term durability. The paint protects the coating on the back of the mirror from scratches and other accidental damage.
In some applications, generally those that are cost-sensitive or that require great durability, mirrors are made from a single, bulk material such as polished metal. For technical applications such as laser mirrors, the reflective coating is typically applied by vacuum deposition on the front surface of the substrate. This eliminates double reflections (a weak reflection from the surface of the glass, and a stronger one from the reflecting metal) and reduces absorption of light by the mirror. Technical mirrors may use a silver, aluminium, or gold coating (the latter typically for infrared mirrors), and achieve reflectivities of 90–95% when new. A protective transparent overcoat may be applied to prevent oxidation of the reflective layer. Applications requiring higher reflectivity or greater durability, where wide bandwidth is not essential, use dielectric coatings, which can achieve reflectivities as high as 99.999% over a narrow range of wavelengths.
There are many types of glass mirrors, each representing a different manufacturing process and reflection type.
An aluminium glass mirror is made of a float glass manufactured using vacuum coating, i.e. aluminium powder is evaporated (or "sputtered") onto the exposed surface of the glass in a vacuum chamber and then coated with two or more layers of waterproof protective paint.
A low aluminium glass mirror is manufactured by coating silver and two layers of protective paint on the back surface of glass. A low aluminium glass mirror is very clear, light transmissive, smooth, and reflects accurate natural colors. This type of glass is widely used for framing presentations and exhibitions in which a precise color representation of the artwork is truly essential or when the background color of the frame is predominantly white.
A safety glass mirror is made by sticking a special protective film on the back surface of a silver glass mirror, which prevents injuries in case the mirror is broken. This kind of mirror is used for furniture, doors, glass walls, commercial shelves, or public areas.
A silkscreen printed glass mirror is produced using inorganic color ink that prints patterns through a special screen onto glass. Various colors, patterns, and glass shapes are available. Such a glass mirror is durable and more moisture resistant than ordinary printed glass and can serve for over 20 years. This type of glass is widely used for decorative purposes (e.g., on mirrors, table tops, doors, windows, kitchen chop boards, etc.).
A silver glass mirror is an ordinary mirror, coated on its back surface with silver, which produces images by reflection. This kind of glass mirror is produced by coating a silver, copper film and two or more layers of waterproof paint on the back surface of float glass, which perfectly resists acid and moisture. A silver glass mirror provides clear and actual images, is quite durable, and is widely used for furniture, bathroom and other decorative purposes.
Decorative glass mirrors are usually handcrafted. A variety of shades, shapes and glass thickness are often available.
A beam of light reflects off a mirror at an angle of reflection equal to its angle of incidence (if the size of a mirror is much larger than the wavelength of light). That is, if the beam of light is shining on a mirror's surface at a ° angle vertically, then it reflects from the point of incidence at a ° angle from vertically in the opposite direction. This law mathematically follows from the interference of a plane wave on a flat boundary (of much larger size than the wavelength).
If one looks in a mirror, one's image reverses (e.g., if one raises one's right hand, his left hand will appear to go up in the mirror). However, a mirror does not "swap" left and right, any more than it swaps top and bottom. A mirror reverses the forward/backward axis, and we define left and right relative to front and back. Flipping front/back and left/right is equivalent to a rotation of 180 degrees about the vertical axis (in the same way that text which is back-to-front and upside-down simply looks like it has been rotated 180 degrees on the page). Therefore, looking at an image of oneself with the front/back axis flipped is the same as looking at an image with the left/right axis flipped and the whole figure rotated 180 degrees about the vertical axis, which is exactly what one sees when standing in front of a mirror.
With the sun as light source, a mirror can be used to signal by variations in the orientation of the mirror. The signal can be used over long distances, possibly up to 60 kilometres on a clear day. This technique was used by Native American tribes and numerous militaries to transmit information between distant outposts.
Mirrors can also be used for rescue to attract the attention of search and rescue helicopters. Specialized signalling mirrors are available and are often included in military survival kits.
Microscopic mirrors are a core element of many of the largest high-definition televisions and video projectors. A common technology of this type is Texas Instruments' DLP. A DLP chip is a postage stamp-sized microchip whose surface is an array of millions of microscopic mirrors. The picture is created as the individual mirrors move to either reflect light toward the projection surface (pixel on), or toward a light absorbing surface (pixel off).
Other projection technologies involving mirrors include LCoS. Like a DLP chip, LCoS is a microchip of similar size, but rather than millions of individual mirrors, there is a single mirror that is actively shielded by a liquid crystal matrix with up to millions of pixels. The picture is formed as light is either reflected toward the projection surface (pixel on), or absorbed by the activated LCD pixels (pixel off). LCoS-based televisions and projectors often use 3 chips, one for each primary color.
Large mirrors are used in rear projection televisions. Light (for example from a DLP as mentioned above) is "folded" by one or more mirrors so that the television set is compact.
Telescopes and other precision instruments use front silvered or first surface mirrors, where the reflecting surface is placed on the front (or first) surface of the glass (this eliminates reflection from glass surface ordinary back mirrors have). Some of them use silver, but most are aluminium, which is more reflective at short wavelengths than silver. All of these coatings are easily damaged and require special handling. They reflect 90% to 95% of the incident light when new. The coatings are typically applied by vacuum deposition. A protective overcoat is usually applied before the mirror is removed from the vacuum, because the coating otherwise begins to corrode as soon as it is exposed to oxygen and humidity in the air. Front silvered mirrors have to be resurfaced occasionally to keep their quality. There are optical mirrors such as mangin mirrors that are second surface mirrors (reflective coating on the rear surface) as part of their optical designs, usually to correct optical aberrations.
The reflectivity of the mirror coating can be measured using a reflectometer and for a particular metal it will be different for different wavelengths of light. This is exploited in some optical work to make cold mirrors and hot mirrors. A cold mirror is made by using a transparent substrate and choosing a coating material that is more reflective to visible light and more transmissive to infrared light. A hot mirror is the opposite, the coating preferentially reflects infrared. Mirror surfaces are sometimes given thin film overcoatings both to retard degradation of the surface and to increase their reflectivity in parts of the spectrum where they will be used. For instance, aluminum mirrors are commonly coated with silicon dioxide or magnesium fluoride. The reflectivity as a function of wavelength depends on both the thickness of the coating and on how it is applied.
For scientific optical work, dielectric mirrors are often used. These are glass (or sometimes other material) substrates on which one or more layers of dielectric material are deposited, to form an optical coating. By careful choice of the type and thickness of the dielectric layers, the range of wavelengths and amount of light reflected from the mirror can be specified. The best mirrors of this type can reflect >99.999% of the light (in a narrow range of wavelengths) which is incident on the mirror. Such mirrors are often used in lasers.
Although most mirrors are designed to reflect visible light, surfaces reflecting other forms of electromagnetic radiation are also called "mirrors". The mirrors for other ranges of electromagnetic waves are used in optics and astronomy. Mirrors for radio waves (sometimes known as reflectors) are important elements of radio telescopes.
Two or more mirrors placed exactly face to face can give an infinite regress of reflections. Some devices use this to generate multiple reflections:
It has been said that Archimedes used a large array of mirrors to burn Roman ships during an attack on Syracuse. This has never been proven or disproved; however, it has been put to the test. Recently, on a popular Discovery Channel show, MythBusters, a team from MIT tried to recreate the famous "Archimedes Death Ray". They were successful at starting a fire on a ship at 75 feet away; however, previous attempts to light the boat on fire using only the bronze mirrors available in Archimedes' time were unsuccessful, and the time taken to ignite the craft would have made its use impractical, resulting in the MythBusters team deeming the myth "busted". It was however found that the mirrors made it very difficult for the passengers of the targeted boat to see, likely helping to cause their defeat, which may have been the origin of the myth. (See solar power tower for a practical use of this technique.)
Due to its location in a steep-sided valley, the Italian town of Viganella gets no direct sunlight for seven weeks each winter. In 2006 a €100,000 computer-controlled mirror, 8×5 m, was installed to reflect sunlight into the town's piazza. In early 2007 the similarly situated village of Bondo, Switzerland, was considering applying this solution as well. Mirrors can be used to produce enhanced lighting effects in greenhouses or conservatories.
Painters depicting someone gazing into a mirror often also show the person's reflection. This is a kind of abstraction—in most cases the angle of view is such that the person's reflection should not be visible. Similarly, in movies and still photography an actor or actress is often shown obstensibly looking at him- or herself in the mirror, and yet the reflection faces the camera. In reality, the actor or actress sees only the camera and its operator in this case, not their own reflection.
The mirror is the central device in some of the greatest of European paintings:
Mirrors have been used by artists to create works and hone their craft:
Mirrors are sometimes necessary to fully appreciate art work:
Some other contemporary artists use mirrors as the material of art:
Mirrors are frequently used in interior decoration and as ornaments:
Mirrors play a powerful role in cultural literature.
Spectrophobia is the fear of mirrors.
There are many legends and superstitions surrounding mirrors. Mirrors are said to be a reflection of the soul, and they were often used in traditional witchcraft as tools for scrying or performing other spells. It is also said that mirrors cannot lie. They can show only the truth, so it is a bad omen to see something in a mirror which should not be there. Also there is a European legend that a newborn child should not see a mirror until its first birthday as its soul is still developing. If the child sees its reflection it is said that it will die.
It is a common superstition that someone who breaks a mirror will receive seven years of bad luck. The reason for this belief is that the mirror is believed to reflect part of the soul. Therefore, breaking a mirror will break part of the soul. However, the soul is said to regenerate every seven years, thus coming back unbroken. To prevent a broken mirror from reflecting a broken soul during the seven-year interim, one of many rituals must be performed. Two alternatives include grinding the broken mirror to dust (perhaps the easiest approach) or burying the mirror. It is also said that tapping the broken mirror on a gravestone seven times will allow the soul to heal. However, if the mirror is both touched to the gravestone and buried, the bad luck will remain. The only course of action for one in this position is to dig up the mirror and grind it to dust. This dust must be sprinkled around the same gravestone on which the mirror was initially tapped.
There is a Buddhist belief that negative spirits will enter houses through the door if they have triangular-shaped roofs. Hanging a small circular mirror in front of the door will prevent the bad spirits from entering.
In days past, it was customary in the southern United States to cover the mirrors in a house where the wake of a deceased person was being held. It was believed that the person's soul would become trapped in a mirror if it was left uncovered. This practice is still followed in other countries (e.g., Romania), extending to everything that could reflect the deceased person's face (such as TVs and appliances). Another explanation given is that the devil will appear in the reflection of the dead. Mirrors falling from walls or otherwise breaking or cracking mysteriously were said to be haunted. A similar custom existed in Greece, in the belief that use of mirrors is a sign of vanity that does not become mourning. (Other Greek mourning customs include not playing music, not entertaining guests, and using no festive decorations, e.g. on Christmas, during the customary year-long mourning period).
Another superstition claims it is bad luck to have two mirrors facing each other.
A staple of childhood slumber parties is the game Bloody Mary, which involves chanting "Bloody Mary" three times in a darkened room while staring into a mirror. There are many versions of the game, but the general idea is that "Mary" will appear in the mirror and attempt to harm or kill the person who has summoned her. Thanks to a series of popular horror movies based on a supernatural killer who haunted mirrors, the phrase "Candyman" may be substituted for Mary.
Only a few animal species have been shown to have the ability to recognize themselves in a mirror, most of them mammals. Experiments have found that the following animals are able to pass the mirror test:
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Other types of reflecting device are also called "mirrors".
|Look up mirror in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
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