» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - Mongolic_languages

definition of Wikipedia

   Advertizing ▼

Wikipedia

Mongolic languages

                   
Mongolic
Geographic
distribution:
Mongolia; Inner Mongolia and regions close to its border, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai (China); Buryatia and Kalmykia (Russian Federation)
Linguistic classification: Altaic (controversial)
  • Mongolic
Subdivisions:
Central Mongolic
ISO 639-5: xgn
Linguistic map of the Mongolic languages.png
Geographic distribution of the Mongolic languages

The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia. The best-known member of this language family, Mongolian, is the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia and the Mongolian residents of Inner Mongolia, China with an estimated 5.2 million speakers.[1] A minority of linguists have grouped Mongolic with Turkic, Tungusic and possibly Korean and Japonic as part of the larger Altaic family.[2]

Contents

  Classification

Historical Mongolic:

Contemporary Mongolic:

  • Dagur (=Daur) (ca. 100,000 speakers)
  • Central Mongolic
  • Shirongolic (part of a Gansu–Qinghai Sprachbund)
    • Eastern Yugur (Shira Yugur) (ca. 3000 speakers)
    • Monguor (also known as Tu; dialects: Mongghul (Huzhu), Mangghuer (Minhe)) (ca. 100,000+30,000 speakers)
    • Bonan (ca. 10,000 speakers)
    • Dongxiang (Santa) (ca. 600,000 speakers)
    • Kangjia
  • Moghol (=Mogholi) (unclear whether there are speakers left)

The classification and speaker numbers above follow Janhunen[5] except that Mongghul and Mangghuer are treated as a sub-branch[6] and that Kangjia has been added.[7] In another classificational approach,[8] there is a tendency to call Central Mongolian a language consisting of Mongolian proper, Oirat and Buryat, while Ordos (and implicitly also Khamnigan) is seen as a variety of Mongolian proper. Within Mongolian proper, they then draw a distinction between Khalkha on the one hand and Southern Mongolian (containing everything else) on the other hand. A less common subdivision of Central Mongolian is to divide it into a Central dialect (Khalkha, Chakhar, Ordos), an Eastern dialect (Kharchin, Khorchin), a Western dialect (Oirat, Kalmyk), and a Northern dialect (consisting of two Buryat varieties).[9] The broader delimitation of Mongolian may be based on mutual intelligibility, but an analysis based on a tree diagram such as the one above faces other problems due to the close contacts between e.g. Buryat and Khalkha Mongols during history thus creating or preserving a dialect continuum. Another problem lies in the sheer comparability of terminology as Western linguists use language and dialect, while Mongolian linguists use the Grimmian trichotomy language (kele), dialect (nutuγ-un ayalγu) and Mundart (aman ayalγu).

  Proto-Mongolic

Proto-Mongolic, the ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages, is very close to Middle Mongol, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire. Most features of modern Mongolic languages can thus be reconstructed from Middle Mongol. An exception would be the voice suffix like -caga- 'do together', which can be reconstructed from the modern languages but is not attested in Middle Mongol.

The languages of Donghu, Wuhuan and Xianbei might be related to Proto-Mongolic,[10] as might be Tabghach (the language of the founders of the Northern Wei dynasty) and Khitan. In the case of Tabghach, the surviving evidence is very sparse, thus one can state that a generic relationship is possible. In the case of Khitan, there is rich evidence, but most of it is written in the two Khitan scripts that have as yet not been fully deciphered. However, from the available evidence it has to be concluded that a generic relationship to Mongolic is likely.[11]

  Notes

  1. ^ Svantesson et al. 2005: 141
  2. ^ e.g. Starostin et al. 2003; contra e.g. Vovin 2005
  3. ^ Rybatzki 2003: 57
  4. ^ Poppe 1964: 1
  5. ^ Janhunen 2006: 232-233
  6. ^ Slater 2003
  7. ^ Siqinchaoketu 1999
  8. ^ eg Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 193–194
  9. ^ Luvsanvandan 1959 quoted from Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 167–168.
  10. ^ Peter A. Andrews (1999). Felt tents and pavilions: the nomadic tradition and its interaction with princely tentage, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Melisende. p. 72. ISBN 1-901764-03-6. http://books.google.com/books?ei=3DNVTuWsNOHe0QGYnNScAg&ct=result&id=AD1SAAAAMAAJ&dq=for+a+later+emperor+descended+from+them%2C+Ming+Yuan+Ti+of+the+T%27o-pa+Wei%2C+had+a+long+yellow+beard.307+Like+the+Hsiung-&q=Hsien-pei+yellow+beard. Retrieved 2012 February ninth. "believed that at least some of their constituent tribes spoke a Mongolian language, though there is still some argument that a particular variety of Turkic may have been spoken among them.306" 
  11. ^ Janhunen 2003b: 391–394, Janhunen 2003a: 1–3

  References

  • Janhunen, Juha (ed.) (2003): The Mongolic languages. London: Routledge.
  • Janhunen, Juha (2003a): Proto-Mongolic. In: Janhunen 2003: 1–29.
  • Janhunen, Juha (2003b): Para-Mongolic. In: Janhunen 2003: 391–402.
  • Janhunen, Juha (2006): Mongolic languages. In: Brown, K. (ed.): The encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Amsterdam: Elsevier: 231-234.
  • Luvsanvandan, Š. (1959): Mongol hel ajalguuny učir. Mongolyn sudlal, 1.
  • Poppe, Nicholas (1964 [1954]): Grammar of Written Mongolian. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Rybatzki, Volker (2003): Middle Mongol. In: Janhunen 2003: 47–82.
  • Sechenbaatar, Borjigin (2003): The Chakhar dialect of Mongol – A morphological description. Helsinki: Finno-Ugrian society.
  • [Sechenbaatar] Sečenbaγatur, Qasgerel, Tuyaγ-a, B. ǰirannige, U Ying ǰe. 2005. Mongγul kelen-ü nutuγ-un ayalγun-u sinǰilel-ün uduridqal. Kökeqota: ÖMAKQ.
  • Siqinchaoketu [=Sečenčoγtu] (1999): Kangjiayu yanjiu. Shanghai: Shanghai Yuandong Chubanshe.
  • Slater, Keith (2003): A grammar of Mangghuer. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
  • Starostin, Sergei A., Anna V. Dybo, Oleg A. Mudrak (2003): Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages. Leiden: Brill.
  • Svantesson, Jan-Olof, Anna Tsendina, Anastasia Karlsson, Vivan Franzén (2005): The Phonology of Mongolian. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Vovin, Alexander (2005): The end of the Altaic controversy (review of Starostin et al. 2003). Central Asiatic Journal 49.1: 71–132.

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Mongolic_languages


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

4907 online visitors

computed in 0.063s

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼