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Muslim conquest of Egypt

                   
Muslim conquest of Egypt
Part of the Muslim conquests and the Arab–Byzantine Wars
Giza Plateau - Great Sphinx with Pyramid of Khafre in background.JPG
Date 639–642
Location Egypt, Libya
Result Rashidun victory.
Territorial
changes
Muslim annexed Egypt, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan.
Belligerents
Byzantine Empire Rashidun Caliphate
Commanders and leaders
Emperor Heraclius

Theodorus
Aretion
Cyrus of Alexandria

Caliph Umar

Amr ibn al-Aas
Zubair ibn al-Awam
Miqdad bin Al-Aswad
Ubaida bin As-Samit
Kharija bin Huzafa

At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital at Constantinople. However, it had been conquered just a decade before by the Persian Empire under Khosrau II (616 to 629 AD). Emperor Heraclius re-captured Egypt after a series of campaigns against the Sassanid Persians, only to once again lose it to the Muslim Rashidun army ten years later. Before the Muslim invasion of Egypt had begun, the Byzantines had already lost the Levant and its Arab ally, the Ghassanid Kingdom, to the Muslims. All this left the Byzantine Empire dangerously exposed and vulnerable to the invaders.[1]

Contents

  Byzantine Egypt

At the dawn of the seventh century A.D, Egypt was a tributary of the Byzantine Empire. The country was governed by the Byzantine civil service and military, both of which were filled by the Greek-speaking ruling class to the general exclusion of the native Coptic-speaking Egyptians. Locally, the Byzantines ruled Egypt from the capital of Alexandria, and from the ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis, with its great bulwark, the fortress of Babylon, on the eastern bank of the Nile. A chain of fortress towns ran across the country. From these towns, soldiers and tax-gatherers patrolled the country, keeping order and collecting money, while Roman merchants and Jewish traders settled freely under protection of the garrisons, keenly competing with their native Egyptian rivals.[2]

The geographical separation was not the only isolating factor for Egypt from the rest of Byzantine Empire. The Chalcedonian Christianity of the Byzantines held to the doctrine of Christ having two natures, one divine and one human. In Egypt however, the christological position of Miaphysitism, Oriental Orthodox Christianity prevailed, maintaining the doctrine of Christ having one united nature, where the Divinity and Humanity were inseparably united. Although the Council of Chalcedon, held in 451 AD, had ruled in favor of the Byzantine position, Egypt remained a stronghold of Miaphysitism.[3] However, even though the Chalcedonians held the principal churches in Alexandria, the native Egyptians were able to build or rebuild their own churches, such as those of St. Michael, St. Angelus, and Sts. Cosmas and Damian, in addition to various monasteries, to all of which Pope Anastasius appointed priests and ordained bishops.[4]

In view of these religious rivalries, the Byzantine emperor Heraclius was genuinely anxious to win over the native Egyptians, and to reconcile the two branches of the Church of Alexandria.[4] The Miaphysite popes resided in Alexandria without being subject to any harassment.[5]

  Rashidun invasion of Egypt

  Prologue

  Rashidun army crossing the Egyptian border

  Pyramids of Gizah.

In December 639 'Amr ibn al-'As left for Egypt with a force of 4,000 troops. Most of the soldiers belonged to the Arab tribe of 'Ak, although Al-Kindi mentions that one third of the soldiers belonged to the Arab tribe of Ghafik. The Arab soldiers were also joined by some Byzantines and Persians who had converted to Islam. However, 'Umar, the Muslim caliph, reconsidered his orders to Amr, thinking it foolhardy to expect to conquer such a large country as Egypt with a mere 4,000 soldiers. Accordingly, he wrote a letter to 'Amr commanding him to come back.[6] He added a postscript, however:

"If you receive this letter when you have already crossed into Egypt, then you may proceed. Allah will help you and I will also send such reinforcements as may be needed."[citation needed]

The messenger, 'Uqbah ibn 'Amr, caught up to Amr at Rafah, a little short of the Egyptian frontier. Guessing what might be in the letter, 'Amr ordered the army to quicken its pace. Turning to 'Uqbah, 'Amr said that he would receive the caliph's letter from him when the army had halted after the day's journey. 'Uqbah, being unaware of the contents of the letter, agreed and marched along with the army. The army halted for the night at Shajratein, a little valley near the city of El Arish, which 'Amr knew to be beyond the Egyptian border.[7] 'Amr then received and read the 'Umar's letter and went on to consult his companions as to the course of action to be adopted. The unanimous view was that as they had received the letter on Egyptian soil, they had permission to proceed. To the caliph, 'Amr wrote:

"We have received your letter when we have reached Egypt. Therefore in the fulfillment of destiny, we proceed seeking Allah's blessing."[citation needed]

When 'Umar received the reply, he decided to watch further developments and started concentrating fresh forces at Madinah which could be dispatched to Egypt as reinforcements. On Eid al-Adha, the Muslim army marched from Shajratein to El Arish,[6] a small town lacking a garrison. The town put up no resistance, and the citizens offered allegiance on the usual terms. The Muslim soldiers celebrated the Eid festival there.

  Fall of Pelusium and Belbeis

In the later part of December 639 or in early January 640, the Muslim army reached Pelusium. It was a fortified town manned by a Byzantine garrison, which contained many ancient Egyptian monuments, as well as many Christian churches and monasteries. The city was considered Egypt's eastern gate, and a branch of the Nile, known as the Pelusiac Branch, used to empty into the Mediterranean near the city. The Muslims besieged the town. The siege dragged on for two months. Towards the fall of February 640 an assault group led by a prominent field commander Huzaifah ibn Wala assaulted the fort and city was captured by the Muslims.[8][9][10][11][12][13] Armanousa, the daughter of Cyrus who fiercely resisted the Muslims in Pelusium and fell hostage in their hands, was sent to her father in the Babylon Fortress.[14]

The losses of the Arab Muslim army in the recent fighting were more than compensated for by the number of Bedouins living in the desert of Sinai, who, sensing war and plunder, had joined the invaders in conquering Egypt.[15] These Bedouins belonged to the tribes of Rashidah and Lakhm[16] The ease with which Pelusium fell to the Muslim Arabs, and the lack of Byzantine reinforcements to aid the city during the month-long siege is often attributed to the treachery of the Egyptia governor, Cyrus, who was also the Melchite (i.e., Byzantine–Chalcedonian Diaphysite) Patriarch of Alexandria.[3][15] He is one of the authors of monothelism, a seventh century heresy, and some supposed him to have been secretly a convert to Islam.

After the fall of Pelusium the Muslims marched to Bilbeis, 40 miles from Memphis via desert roads and besieged it. Belbeis was the first place in Egypt where the Byzantines showed some measure of resistance towards the Arab invaders. Two Christian monks accompanied by Cyrus of Alexandria and the famous Byzantine general Aretion came out to negotiate with 'Amr ibn al-'As. Aretion was previously the Byzantine governor of Jerusalem, and had fled to Egypt when the city fell to the Muslims. 'Amr gave them three options: to either convert to Islam, or to pay Jizya, or to fight the Muslims. They requested three days to reflect, then - as mentions al-Tabari - requested two extra days. At the end of the five days, the two monks and the Byzantine general decided to reject Islam and Jizya and fight the Muslims. They thus disobeyed their ruler, Cyrus of Alexandria, who wanted to surrender and pay Jizya. Cyrus subsequently left for the Babylon Fortress, while the two monks and Aretion decided to fight the Arabs. The fight resulted in the victory of the latter and the death of Aretion. 'Amr ibn al-'As subsequently attempted to convince the native Egyptians to aid the Arabs and surrender the city, based on the kinship between Egyptians and Arabs via Hagar.[17] When the Egyptians refused, the siege of Bilbeis was continued until the city fell after a month. Towards the end of March 640 the city surrendered to the Muslims.[3] With the fall of Belbeis, the Arabs were only one day away from the head of the Delta.

  Siege of Babylon

  Map detailing the route of Muslim's invasion of Egypt.

Amr had visualized that the conquest of Egypt would be a walkover. This expectation turned out to be wrong. Even at the outposts of Pelusium and Bilbeis the Muslims had met stiff resistance. The siege of Pelusium had lasted for two months and that of Bilbeis for one month. Babylon was a larger and more important city. Close to it was Memphis, the ancient capital of the pharaohs. Here resistance on a larger scale was expected.[18] Nevertheless, 'Amr persevered and pushed on towards Babylon. Meanwhile the reinforcements at Madinah were almost ready to march. After the fall of Bilbeis the Muslims advanced to Babylon, near modern Cairo. The Muslims arrived at Babylon some time in May 640 A.D.[19] Babylon was a fortified city, and the Byzantines had prepared it for a siege. Outside the city, a ditch had been dug, and a large force was positioned in the area between the ditch and the city walls. The Muslims besieged the fort of Babylon some time in May 640. The fort was a massive structure 60 ft. high with walls more than 6 ft. thick and studded with numerous towers and bastions. As soon as 'Amr arrived at Babylon he formed up his force of 4,000 men in assault formation and attacked the Byzantine positions in front of him. The attack was repulsed by the Byzantines after a hard fight. 'Amr pulled his men back and struck camp near the east bank of the Nile.[3] Early Muslim sources place the strength of the Byzantine force in Babylon about six times the strength of the Muslim force. For the next two months fighting remained inconclusive, with the Byzantines having the upper hand by repulsing every Muslim assault.[20]

Some time in May 640 A.D, 'Amr sent a detachment to raid the city of Fayoum. The Byzantines had anticipated this raid, and thus strongly guarded the roads leading to the city. They had also fortified their garrison in the nearby town of Lahun. When the Muslim Arabs realized that Fayoum was too strong for them to invade, they headed towards the Western Desert where they looted all the cattle and animals they could. They subsequently headed to Oxyrhynchus (Per-Medjed), which was defeated. The Arabs then returned to Lower Egypt down the River Nile.[21]

  Reinforcements from Madinah

In July, 'Amr wrote to 'Umar requesting reinforcement; but before the letter reached him, the caliph had already dispatched the first reinforcement, which was 4000 strong. The army was composed mostly of the veterans of Syrian campaigns. Even with these reinforcements, 'Amr was unsuccessful. By August 640, 'Umar's assembling of the 4000 strong elite force had been completed. It consisted of four columns. Each column was one thousand strong and appointed a commander each, while Zubair ibn al-Awam, a renowned warrior and commander, veteran of the Battle of Yarmouk and once a part of Khalid ibn Walid's elite force mobile guard, was appointed the supreme commander of army. 'Umar had indeed offered Zubair the chief command and governorship of Egypt, but Zubair had declined the offer. Other commanders were Miqdad ibn al-Aswad; Ubaidah ibn as-Samit, and Kharijah ibn Huzaifah. These reinforcements arrived at Babylon sometime in September 640. The total strength of the Muslim force now rose to 12,000, quite a modest strength to resume the offensive.[7]

  Battle of Heliopolis

Ten miles from Babylon was Heliopolis.[22] It was the city of the Sun Temple of the Pharaohs, and was famous for its grandiose monuments and learning institutions.[23] There was the danger that Byzantine forces from Heliopolis could attack the Muslims from the flank while it was engaged with the Byzantine army at Babylon. With some detachments 'Amr and Zubair marched to Heliopolis. There was a cavalry clash near the current neighbourhood of Abbaseya. The engagement was not decisive although it resulted in the occupation of the fortress located between the current neighbourhoods of Abdyn and Azbakeya. The defeated Byzantine soldiers retreated to either the Babylon Fortress or the fortress of Nikiû.[24] At an unguarded point of the wall of Heliopolis, Zubair and some of his picked soldiers scaled the wall of the city, (similar to what Khalid did at the Siege of Damascus) and after overpowering the guards, opened the gates for the main Muslim army to enter the city. Heliopolis was thus captured by the Muslims. 'Amr and Zubair returned to Babylon.

  Occupation of Fayoum and Babylon

When news of the Muslims' victory at Heliopolis reached Fayoum, its Byzantine garrison under the command of Domentianus evacuated the city during the night and fled to Abuit. From Abuit, they fled down the Nile to Nikiu without informing the people of Fayoum and Abuit that they were abandoning their cities to the enemy. When news of this reached 'Amr, he ordered a body of his troops to cross the Nile and invade Fayoum and Abuit. The Muslim soldiers captured the entire province of Fayoum without any resistance from the Byzantines.[25]

The Byzantine garrison at Babylon now grew bolder then ever before and had begun to sally forth across the ditch, though with little success. There had been a stalemate between the Muslim and Byzantine forces at Babylon, until the Muslim commanders devised an ingenious strategy and inflicted heavy casualties on the Byzantine forces by encircling them from three sides in one of their such sallies. The Byzantines were able to retreat back to the fort but were left too weak for any further offensive action. This situation forced the Byzantines to enter in negotiations with the Muslims. The Byzantine general Theodorus shifted his headquarters to the Isle of Rauda, whilst Cyrus of Alexandria, popularly known as Muqawqis in Muslim history entered in negotiations with the Muslims, which failed to give any productive results. Emissaries were also exchanged between Theodorus and 'Amr, leading to 'Amr meeting Theodorus in person. After fruitless negotiations, the Muslims acted on 20 December, when, in a night assault, a company of hand picked warriors led by Zubair managed to scale the wall, kill the guards and open the gates for the Muslim army to enter. The city of Babylon was captured by the Muslims on 21 December 640, using tactics similar to those used by Khalid ibn Walid at Damascus. However Theodorus and his army managed to slip away to the island of Rauda during the night.[26]

  Surrender of Thebaid (South eastern Egypt)

On the 22nd of December, Cyrus of Alexandria entered into a treaty with the Muslims.[27] By the treaty, Muslim sovereignty over the whole of Egypt, and effectively on Thebaid, was recognized, and the Egyptians agreed to pay Jizya at the rate of 2 diners per male adult.[28] The treaty was subject to the approval of the emperor Heraclius, but Cyrus stipulated that even if the emperor repudiated the treaty, he and the Copts of whom he was the High Priest would honor its terms, recognize the supremacy of the Muslims and pay them Jizya.[29] Cyrus submitted a report to Heraclius and asked for his approval to the terms of the treaty. He also offered reasons in justification of the acceptance of the terms of the treaty. 'Amr submitted a detailed report to 'Umar and asked for his further instructions. When 'Umar received this report, he wrote back to say that he approved of the terms provided Heraclius agreed to submit to them.[30] He desired that as soon as the reactions of Heraclius were known, he should be informed so that further necessary instructions could be issued promptly.[31]d Heraclius's reaction to Cyrus's report was violent. He removed him from the viceroyship of Egypt, but he remained the Head of the Coptic Church: this was a matter in which the emperor could not interfere. Heraclius sent strict orders to the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine forces in Egypt that the Muslims should be driven out from Egypt. Cyrus waited on 'Amr and told him that Heraclius had repudiated the treaty of Babylon. He assured 'Amr that so far as the Copts were concerned the terms of the treaty would be followed. 'Amr reported these developments to 'Umar. 'Umar desired that before the Byzantines could gather further strength the Muslims should strike at them and drive them from Alexandria. It is recorded that Cyrus requested three favors from the Muslims, namely:

  1. Do not break your treaty with the Copts;
  2. If the Byzantines after this repudiation ask for peace, do not make peace with them, but treat them as captives and slaves; and
  3. When I am dead allow me to be buried in the Church of St. John at Alexandria.[7][32]

This position was to the advantage of the Muslims as the Copts were the real natives of the land of Egypt and[33] both the Byzantines and the Muslims were strangers. Though some Copts from personal considerations continued to support the Byzantines, the sympathies of the Copts were now by and large with the Muslims. The Copts were not supposed to fight against the Byzantines on behalf of the Muslims, but they undertook to help the Muslims in the promotion of war effort and in the provision of stores, build roads and bridges for them, and provide them moral support.[34]

  March to Alexandria

  Ancient Roman theaters in Alexandria.

The Byzantine commanders knew that the next target of the Muslims would be Alexandria. They accordingly prepared for the expected siege of the city. Their strategy was to keep the Muslims away from Alexandria by destroying their power through continued sallies and attacks from the fort. Even if this did not keep them away, it would weaken them morally and physically. It would be more of a war of patience than strength.[35] In February 641, 'Amr set off for Alexandria from Babylon with his army. All along the road from Babylon to Alexandria, the Byzantines had left regiments to delay, and if possible, inflict losses on the advancing Muslims. On the third day of their march from Babylon the Muslims' advance guard encountered a Byzantine detachment at Tarnut on the west bank of the Nile.[36] The Byzantines failed to inflict heavy losses, but they were able to delay the advance by one more day. The Muslim commanders decided to halt the main army at Tarnut and send the advance guard cavalry forward to clear the way from the possible Byzantine detachments. This was done so that the main army could reach Alexandria as soon as possible without being delayed by Byzantine regiments mid-way. Twenty miles from Tarnut, the Byzantine detachment that had withdrawn from Tarnut the day before, joined the detachment already present at Shareek to form a strong offensive force. They attacked and routed the Muslim advance guard. The next day, before the Byzantines could resume their offensive to annihilate the Muslim advance guard completely, the main Muslim army arrived, prompting the Byzantines to withdraw. At this point the Muslim commanders decided not to send forward the advance guard, so the whole army marched forward, beginning the following day. The Muslims reached Sulteis where they encountered a Byzantine detachment. Hard fighting followed, but the Byzantine resistance soon broke down and they withdrew to Alexandria. The Muslims halted at Sulteis for a day. Alexandria was still two days' march from Sulteis. After one day's march the Muslim forces arrived at Kirayun, twelve miles from Alexandria. Here the Muslim advance to Alexandria was blocked by a Byzantine detachment about 20,000 strong. The strategy of the Byzantines was that either the Muslims would be driven away before they actually arrived at Alexandria, or that they would be as weak as possible if they did. The two armies were deployed and fighting followed, but action remained indecisive,.[7] This state of affairs persisted for ten days. On the tenth day the Muslims launched a vigorous assault. The Byzantines were defeated and they retreated to Alexandria. The way to Alexandria was now cleared, and the Muslim forces resumed the march from Kirayun and reached the outskirts of Alexandria in March 641 A.D.

  Conquest of Alexandria and fall of Egypt

The Muslims laid siege to Alexandria in March 641 A.D.[37] The city was heavily fortified: there were walls within walls, and forts within forts. There was no dearth of provisions and food supply in the city. The city also had direct access to the sea, and through the sea route help from Constantinople in the form of men and supplies could come at any time.

As 'Amr surveyed the military situation, he felt that Alexandria would be a hard nut to crack.[38] The Byzantines had high stakes in Alexandria, and they were determined to offer stiff resistance to the Muslims. They mounted catapults on the walls of the city, and these engines pounded the Muslims with boulders. This caused considerable damage to the Muslims and 'Amr ordered his men back from the advance position so that they might be beyond the range of the missiles. A see-saw war followed.[7] When the Muslims tried to go close to the city they were hit with missiles. When the Byzantines sallied from the fort, they were invariably beaten back by the Muslims.

It is said that Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor, collected a large army at Constantinople. He intended to march at the head of these reinforcements personally to Alexandria. But before he could finalize the arrangements, he died. The troops mustered at Constantinople dispersed, and consequently no help came to Alexandria. This further demoralized the Byzantines. The siege dragged on for six months, and in Madinah 'Umar got impatient. In a letter addressed to 'Amr, the caliph expressed his concern at the inordinate delay in the invasion of Egypt. He further instructed that the new field commander would be 'Ubaidah, and he would launch an assault on the fort of Alexandria. 'Ubaidah's assault was successful and Alexandria was captured by the Muslims in September 641. Thousands of Byzantine soldiers were killed or taken captive while others managed to flee to Constantinople on ships that had been anchored in the port. Some wealthy traders also left.[39]

On behalf of the Egyptians, Cyrus of Alexandria sued for peace, and his request was granted. After the invasion of Egypt 'Amr is reported to have written to Caliph 'Umar:

"We have conquered Alexandria. In this city there are 4,000 palaces, 400 places of entertainment, and untold wealth."

The permanent loss of the Egypt left the Byzantine Empire without an irreplaceable source of food and money. The loss of Egypt and Syria, followed later by the invasion of the Exarchate of Africa also meant that the Mediterranean, for long a "Roman lake", was now contested between two powers: the Muslim Caliphate and the Byzantine Empire. In these events, the Byzantine Empire, although sorely tested, would be able to hold on to Anatolia, while the mighty walls of Constantinople would save it, during two great Arab sieges, from the fate of the Persian Empire.[40]

An attempt was made in the year 645 to regain Alexandria for the Byzantine Empire, but it was retaken by 'Amr in 646. In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed. From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country.

  Invasion of Nubia

The land of Nubia lay to the south of Egypt. It stretched from Aswan to Khartoum and from the Red Sea to the Libyan Desert. The Nubians were Christians and were ruled by a king. The capital of the kingdom was Dongola. In the summer of 642, 'Amr ibn al-'As sent an expedition to Nubia under the command of his cousin 'Uqbah ibn Nafi. The expedition was ordered by 'Amr on his own account. It was not a whole scale invasion but merely a pre-emptive raid to display the power of the new regime in Egypt to the bordering kingdoms.[41] 'Uqbah ibn Nafi, who later made a great name for himself as the Conqueror of Africa, and led his horse to the Atlantic complaining that there were no lands left for him to conquer in the way of Allah, came in for an unhappy experience in Nubia. In Nubia, no pitched battle was fought. There were only skirmishes and haphazard engagements and in such type of warfare the Nubians excelled at. They were skilful archers and subjected the Muslims to a merciless barrage of arrows. These arrows were aimed at the eyes and in the encounter 250 Muslims lost their eyes.

The Nubians were very fast in their movements.[3] The Muslim cavalry was known for its speed and mobility, but it was no match for the Nubian horse riders. The Nubians would strike hard against the Muslims, and then vanish before the Muslims could recover their balance and take counter action. The hit-and-run raids by the Nubians caused considerable damage to the Muslims. 'Uqbah wrote to 'Amr of this state of affairs.[42] He said that the Nubians avoided pitched battle, and in the guerilla tactics that they followed the Muslims suffered badly. 'Uqbah further came to know that Nubia was a very poor land, and there was nothing therein worth fighting for or to tempt by way of booty.[citation needed] Thereupon 'Amr ordered 'Uqbah to withdraw from Nubia. 'Uqbah accordingly pulled out of Nubia with his forces.

  Conquest of North Africa

After the preemptive raid on Nubia in the south 'Amr decided to undertake campaigns in the west, so as to secure the western borders of Egypt and clear the region of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan from Byzantine influence. Some time in September 642, 'Amr led his troops west. After one month of marching the Muslim forces reached the city of Pentapolis. From Burqa, 'Uqbah bin Nafi was sent at the head of a column to undertake a campaign against Fezzan. 'Uqbah marched to Zaweela, the capital of Fezzan. No resistance was offered, and the entire district of Fezzan, what is present day north-western Libya, submitted to the Muslims. 'Uqbah then returned to Burqa. Soon after the Muslim army marched westward from Burqa. They arrived at Tripoli in the spring of 643 C.E. and laid siege to the city. The city fell after a siege of one month. From Tripoli, 'Amr sent a detachment to Sabratha, a city forty miles from Tripoli. The city put up feeble resistance, and soon surrendered and agreed to pay Jizya. From Tripoli, 'Amr is reported to have written to the caliph the details of the operations in the following words:

"We have conquered Burqa, Tripoli and Sabratha. The way to the west is clear, and if the Commander of the Faithful wishes to conquer more lands, we could do so with the grace of God."

'Umar, whose armies were already engaged in a massive campaign of conquering the Sassanid Empire did not wanted to engage himself further along north Africa, when Muslim rule in Egypt was as yet insecure. The caliph accordingly disapproved of any further advances and ordered 'Amr to first consolidate the Muslims' position in Egypt, and issued strict orders that there should be no further campaigning. 'Amr obeyed, abandoning Tripoli and Burqa and returning to Fustat. This was towards the close of the year 643 A.D.[43]

  Stance of the Egyptians towards the invading Muslims

The Copts did find the Muslims more tolerant than the Byzantines. In return for a tribute of money and food for the troops of occupation, the Christian inhabitants of Egypt were excused from military service and left free in the observance of their religion and the administration of their affairs. This system was not a new institution. It was adopted by the Muslims from previous poll tax systems in the ancient Middle East. Indeed, the Egyptians had been subject to it - as non-Romans - during Roman rule before the adoption of Christianity by the Roman state. After that, all non-Christian subjects of the Roman Empire had to pay it, including non-Christian Egyptians. The Persians also had a similar poll tax system.

On the twentieth of Maskaram Theodore and all his troops and officers (the Byzantines) set out and proceeded to the island of Cyprus, abandoning the city of Alexandria. Thereupon 'Amr, the Muslim commander, made his entry into the city of Alexandria. The inhabitants received him with respect, for they were in great tribulation and affliction. 'Amr exacted the taxes which had been determined upon, but he took none of the property of the churches, and he committed no act of spoliation or plunder.

  Egypt under Muslim rule

  Rashidun Empire at its peak under third Rashidun Caliph, Uthman- 654
  Strongholds of Rashidun Caliphate

The ease with which Egypt was wrenched from the Byzantine Empire appears to have been due to the treachery of the governor of Egypt, Cyrus,[3]the Melchite (i.e., Byzantine–Chalcedonian Orthodox, not Coptic) Patriarch of Alexandria, and the incompetence of the Byzantine generals. Cyrus had persecuted the local Coptic Christians.[44] He is one of the authors of monothelism, a seventh century heresy, and some supposed him to have been secretly a convert to Islam. An attempt was made in the year 645 to regain Alexandria for the Byzantine Empire, but it was retaken by 'Amr in 646. In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repelled. From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of Egypt.

  Fustat, the new Capital

With the fall of Alexandria the Muslims were the masters of Egypt. At the time of their Egyptian campaign, Alexandria was the capital of the country. When Alexandria was captured by the Muslims, the houses vacated by the Byzantines were occupied by the Muslims. The Muslims were impressed and attracted by Alexandria, "the queen of cities". 'Amr wished for Alexandria to remain the capital of Muslim Egypt.[7] He wrote to Caliph 'Umar seeking his permission to do this. 'Umar rejected the proposal on the basis that Alexandria was a maritime city and there would always be a danger of Byzantine naval attacks.[45]

He suggested that the capital should be established further inland at a central place, where no mass of water intervened between it and Arabia.[46] As per the treaty with Cyrus of Alexandria, the wealth of the Egyptians in Alexandria was spared and that of Romans and Greeks was taken as booty. Greek citizens were given a choice, to return to Greek territories safely without their wealth, or to stay in Alexandria and pay Jizya. Some chose to stay, while others went to Byzantine lands.

'Amr next proceeded to choose a suitable site for the capital of Egypt. His choice fell on the site where he had pitched his tent at the time of the battle of Babylon. His tent had been fixed about a quarter of a mile north east of the fort. It is reported that after the battle was over, and the army was about to march to Alexandria, the men began to pull down the tent and pack it for the journey, when it was found that a dove had nested on top of the tent and laid eggs. 'Amr ordered that the tent should remain standing where it was. The army marched away but the tent remained standing in the plain of Babylon. In this unusual episode 'Amr saw a sign from Heaven. He decided "where the dove laid its nest, let the people build their city". As 'Amr's tent was to be the focal point of the city, the city was called Fustat, which in Arabic means the tent. The first structure to be built was the mosque which later became famous as Mosque of 'Amr ibn al-'As.[47] The city of Fustat was built due east of Babylon. In the course of time, Fustat extended to include the old town of Babylon. It grew to become a bustling city and the commercial centre of Egypt.[48]

  Reforms of Caliph Umar

To consolidate his rule in Egypt, 'Umar imposed a very low Jizya (tribute) on Egyptians, unlike the Romans. The Egyptians found themselves economically at ease under Rashidun rule. However, during Umayyad rule unbearably high taxes were imposed on the Egyptians.

By 'Umar's permission, 'Amr ibn al-'As decided to build a canal to join the Nile with the Red Sea; it would help the traders and Arabia would flourish through this new trade route. Moreover it would open new markets for the Egyptian merchants and open for them an easy route for the markets of Arabia and Iraq. This project was presented to Caliph 'Umar, who approved it. A canal was dug, and within a few months was opened for merchants. It was named Nahar Amir ul-Mu'mineen i.e. The canal of Commander of the Faithful referring to the title of the Caliph 'Umar.[49]

Amr proposed another project: digging a canal that would join the Red sea and the Mediterranean Sea.[50] The project was once again sent to 'Umar for approval, but Umar viewed it as a threat to national security and rejected on the basis that it would open a way for Byzantine navy to enter the Red Sea via that canal and posing a threat to Madinah itself.[7] This project however was completed in the form of what is now known as the Suez Canal 1300 years later. The British Empire, like Caliph Umar resisted the construction of Suez Canal on the same basis that it would threaten its rule over India.[47]

Each year a large amount of Jizya according to the caliph's instructions was used on the building and repairing of canals and bridges.[51] The Arabs remained in control of the country from this point until 1250, when it fell under the control of the Mamelukes (however, the Ayyubids, whom the Mameluke sultans replaced, were Kurdish by origin).

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:18 page no:453
  2. ^ Alfred Butler, the Arab invasion of Egypt, page 42-43
  3. ^ a b c d e f http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04597c.htm
  4. ^ a b Alfred Butler, the Arab invasion of Egypt, page 47
  5. ^ Alfred Butler, the Arab invasion of Egypt, page 51-53
  6. ^ a b Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal, chapter no:19
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Al-Maqrizi, Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar,
  8. ^ Al-Kamil, page 451 - 452
  9. ^ Al-Gawzi, Al-Montazim, page 532 - 534
  10. ^ al-Tabari, history of the kings, page 862
  11. ^ Abu Salih the Armenian, The churches and monasteries of Egypt and some neighbouring countries, tr. B.T.A.Evetts, page 168
  12. ^ Alfred Butler, The invasion of Egypt, page 234
  13. ^ Kamil Salih, Pope Benjamin the First and the Arab invasion of Egypt, page 65
  14. ^ Al-Maqrizi, Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar, page 231
  15. ^ a b Alfred Butler, the invasion of Egypt, page 213
  16. ^ Al-Maqrizi, Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar
  17. ^ Alfred Butler, the invasion of Egypt, page 216
  18. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:19
  19. ^ Butler, Alfred, The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty years of Roman Dominion
  20. ^ Butler, Alfred, The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty years of Roman Dominion
  21. ^ Alfred Butler, the invasion of Egypt, page 254-255
  22. ^ Butler, Alfred, The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty years of Roman Dominion
  23. ^ Alfred Butler, the invasion of Egypt, page 258
  24. ^ Alfred Butler, the invasion of Egypt, page 263
  25. ^ Alfred Butler, the invasion of Egypt, page 264
  26. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:21
  27. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:22
  28. ^ Butler, Alfred, The Arab Invasion of Egypt and the Last Thirty years of Roman Dominion
  29. ^ "Umar (634-644)", The Islamic World to 1600 Multimedia History Tutorials by the Applied History Group, University of Calgary. Last accessed 20 Oct 2006
  30. ^ Butler, Alfred, The Arab Invasion of Egypt and the Last Thirty years of Roman Dominion
  31. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:22
  32. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:23
  33. ^ "Umar (634-644)", The Islamic World to 1600 Multimedia History Tutorials by the Applied History Group, University of Calgary. Last accessed 20 Oct 2006
  34. ^ Butler, Alfred, The Arab Invasion of Egypt and the Last Thirty years of Roman Dominion
  35. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:22
  36. ^ Butler, Alfred, The Arab Invasion of Egypt and the Last Thirty years of Roman Dominion
  37. ^ "Umar (634-644)", The Islamic World to 1600 Multimedia History Tutorials by the Applied History Group, University of Calgary. Last accessed 20 Oct 2006
  38. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:22
  39. ^ Butler, Alfred, The Arab Invasion of Egypt and the Last Thirty years of Roman Dominion
  40. ^ Kaegli, Walter. Heraclius: Emperor of Byzantium.
  41. ^ A.I.Akram's Muslim Conquest of Egypt and North Africa, ISBN 978-0-19-597712-7
  42. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:22
  43. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:24
  44. ^ Charles, R. H. The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu: Translated from Zotenberg's Ethiopic Text, 1916. Reprinted 2007. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-87-9.
  45. ^ Butler, Alfred, The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty years of Roman Dominion
  46. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:22
  47. ^ a b http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/nikiu2_chronicle.htm
  48. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:22
  49. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:22
  50. ^ "Umar (634-644)", The Islamic World to 1600 Multimedia History Tutorials by the Applied History Group, University of Calgary. Last accessed 20 Oct 2006
  51. ^ Al Farooq, Umar By Muhammad Husayn Haykal. chapter no:25
  • Charles, R. H. The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu: Translated from Zotenberg's Ethiopic Text, 1916. Reprinted 2007. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-87-9. [1]

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