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definitions - Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase

Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase (n.)

1.(MeSH)An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and calmodulin. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.

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Myosin light-chain kinase

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myosin, light polypeptide kinase, smooth muscle
Identifiers
SymbolMYLK
Entrez4638
HUGO7590
OMIM600922
RefSeqNM_053025
UniProtQ15746
Other data
EC number2.7.11.18
LocusChr. 3 qcen-q21
myosin light chain kinase 2, skeletal muscle
Identifiers
SymbolMYLK2
Entrez85366
HUGO16243
OMIM606566
RefSeqNM_033118
UniProtQ9H1R3
Other data
LocusChr. 20 q13.31
myosin light chain kinase 3, cardiac
Identifiers
SymbolMYLK3
Entrez91807
HUGO29826
OMIM612147
RefSeqNM_182493
UniProtQ32MK0
Other data
LocusChr. 16 q11.2
myosin light chain kinase family, member 4
Identifiers
SymbolMYLK4
Entrez340156
HUGO27972
RefSeqNM_001012418
UniProtQ86YV6
Other data
LocusChr. 6 p25.2

Myosin-light-chain kinase also known as MYLK or MLCK is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that phosphorylates the regulatory light chain of myosin II.[1]

Contents

Isoforms

Four different MLCK isoforms exist:[2]

Function

These enzymes are important in the mechanism of contraction in muscle. Once there is an influx of calcium cations (Ca++) into the muscle, either from the sarcoplasmic reticulum or, more importantly, from the extracellular space, contraction of smooth muscle fibers may begin. First, the calcium will bind to calmodulin. This binding will activate MLCK, which will go on to phosphorylate the myosin light chain at serine residue 19. This will enable the myosin crossbridge to bind to the actin filament and allow contraction to begin (through the crossbridge cycle). Since smooth muscle does not contain a troponin complex like striated muscle does, this mechanism is the main pathway for regulating smooth muscle contraction.

See also

References

  1. ^ Gao Y, Ye LH, Kishi H, Okagaki T, Samizo K, Nakamura A, Kohama K (June 2001). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Myosin light chain kinase as a multifunctional regulatory protein of smooth muscle contraction"]. IUBMB Life 51 (6): 337–44. PMID 11758800. 
  2. ^ Manning G, Whyte DB, Martinez R, Hunter T, Sudarsanam S (December 2002). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "The protein kinase complement of the human genome"]. Science (journal) 298 (5600): 1912–34. doi:10.1126/science.1075762. PMID 12471243. 

Further reading

  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences."]. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932. 
  • Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."]. Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMID 15489334. 
  • Clayburgh DR, Rosen S, Witkowski ED, et al. (2005). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "A differentiation-dependent splice variant of myosin light chain kinase, MLCK1, regulates epithelial tight junction permeability."]. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (53): 55506–13. doi:10.1074/jbc.M408822200. PMID 15507455. 
  • Wang F, Graham WV, Wang Y, et al. (2005). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha synergize to induce intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction by up-regulating myosin light chain kinase expression."]. Am. J. Pathol. 166 (2): 409–19. PMID 15681825. 
  • Russo JM, Florian P, Shen L, et al. (2005). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Distinct temporal-spatial roles for rho kinase and myosin light chain kinase in epithelial purse-string wound closure."]. Gastroenterology 128 (4): 987–1001. PMID 15825080. 
  • Shimizu S, Yoshida T, Wakamori M, et al. (2006). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase is essential for activation of TRPC5 channels expressed in HEK293 cells."]. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 570 (Pt 2): 219–35. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2005.097998. PMID 16284075. 
  • Kim MT, Kim BJ, Lee JH, et al. (2006). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Involvement of calmodulin and myosin light chain kinase in activation of mTRPC5 expressed in HEK cells."]. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 290 (4): C1031–40. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00602.2004. PMID 16306123. 
  • Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, et al. (2006). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes."]. Genome Res. 16 (1): 55–65. doi:10.1101/gr.4039406. PMID 16344560. 
  • Connell LE, Helfman DM (2007). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Myosin light chain kinase plays a role in the regulation of epithelial cell survival."]. J. Cell. Sci. 119 (Pt 11): 2269–81. doi:10.1242/jcs.02926. PMID 16723733. 
  • Seguchi O, Takashima S, Yamazaki S, et al. (2007). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "A cardiac myosin light chain kinase regulates sarcomere assembly in the vertebrate heart."]. J. Clin. Invest. 117 (10): 2812–24. doi:10.1172/JCI30804. PMID 17885681. 

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.


 

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