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definition - NATO phonetic alphabet

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NATO phonetic alphabet

                   
  FAA radiotelephony alphabet and Morse code chart

The NATO phonetic alphabet, more accurately known as the NATO spelling alphabet and also called the ICAO phonetic or spelling alphabet, the ITU phonetic alphabet, and the international radiotelephony spelling alphabet, is the most widely used spelling alphabet. Though often called "phonetic alphabets", spelling alphabets are not in fact phonetic in the sense that linguists use the term, and they do not have any association with phonetic transcription systems like the International Phonetic Alphabet. Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) alphabet assigns code words to digits and acrophonically to the letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet (Alfa for A, Bravo for B, etc.) so that critical combinations of letters and numbers can be pronounced and understood by those who transmit and receive voice messages by radio or telephone regardless of their native language, especially when navigation or persons might be endangered due to transmission static.

Contents

  International adoption

After the phonetic alphabet was developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) (see history below) it was adopted by many other international and national organizations, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS), and the American Radio Relay League (ARRL). It is a subset of the much older International Code of Signals (INTERCO), which originally included visual signals by flags or flashing light, sound signals by whistle, siren, foghorn, or bell, as well as one, two, or three letter codes for many phrases.[1] The same alphabetic code words are used by all agencies, but each agency chooses one of two different sets of numeric code words. NATO uses the regular English numeric words (Zero, One, with some alternative pronunciations), whereas the IMO provides for compound numeric words (Nadazero, Unaone, Bissotwo...). In practice these are used very rarely, as they frequently result in confusion between speakers of different languages.

  NATO

A common name for this spelling alphabet, "NATO phonetic alphabet," exists because it appears in Allied Tactical Publication ATP-1, Volume II: Allied Maritime Signal and Maneuvering Book used by all allied navies of NATO, which adopted a modified form of the International Code of Signals. Because the latter allows messages to be spelled via flags or Morse code, it naturally named the code words used to spell out messages by voice its "phonetic alphabet". The name NATO phonetic alphabet became widespread because the signals used to facilitate the naval communications and tactics of NATO have become global.[2] However, ATP-1 is marked NATO Confidential (or the lower NATO Restricted) so it is not available publicly. Nevertheless, a NATO unclassified version of the document is provided to foreign, even hostile, militaries, even though they are not allowed to make it available publicly. The spelling alphabet is now also defined in other unclassified international military documents.[3]

  Language

Most of the words are recognizable by native English speakers because English must be used upon request for communication between an aircraft and a control tower whenever two different nations are involved, especially when they speak different languages. It is generally required internationally, not domestically, however; thus if both parties of a radio conversation are from the same country, then another phonetic alphabet of that nation's choice may be used.[4]

In most versions of the alphabet, the non-English spellings Alfa and Juliett are used. Alfa is spelled with an f as it is in most European languages. The English and French spelling alpha would not be pronounced properly by speakers of some other languages the native speakers of which may not know that ph should be pronounced as f. Juliett is spelled with a tt for French speakers because they may otherwise treat a single final t as silent. For English versions of the alphabet, like that from ATIS or the version used by the British armed forces and emergency services, one or both may revert to their standard English spelling.[5]

  Code words

The pronunciation of the codes for the letters of the alphabet and for the digits varies according to the language habits of the speaker. To eliminate wide variations in pronunciation, posters illustrating the pronunciation desired by the ICAO are available.[4] However, there are still differences in pronunciation between the ICAO and other agencies, and the ICAO has conflicting Roman-alphabet and IPA transcriptions. Also, although all codes for the letters of the alphabet are English words, they are not in general given English pronunciations. Assuming that the transcriptions are not intended to be precise, only 11 of the 26—Bravo, Echo, Hotel, Juliet(t), Kilo, Mike, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Whiskey, and Zulu—are given English pronunciations by all these agencies, though not always the same English pronunciations.

  Letters

Letter Code word Pronunciation
US Army
standard[6]
ICAO[4] and ITU
Roman standard[7]
FAA
standards[8][9]
ICAO
IPA standard[4]
Consolidated transcription
A Alfa
(ICAO, ITU,
IMO, FAA)

Alpha (ATIS)
AL fah AL FAH ALFAH or
AL-FAH
ˈælfɑ /ˈælfɑː/ AL-fah
B Bravo BRAH voh BRAH VOH BRAHVOH or
BRAH-VO
ˈbrɑːˈvo /ˈbrɑːv/ BRAH-voh or
/ˌbrɑːˈv/ BRAH-VOH
C Charlie CHAR lee CHAR LEE or
SHAR LEE
CHARLEE or
CHAR-LEE or
SHAR-LEE
ˈtʃɑːli  or
ˈʃɑːli
/ˈɑrl/ CHAR-lee or
/ˈɑːl/ CHAH-lee or
/ˈʃɑrl/ SHAR-lee or
/ˈʃɑːl/ SHAH-lee
D Delta DEL tah DELL TAH DELLTAH or
DELL-TAH
ˈdeltɑ /ˈdɛltɑː/ DEL-tah
E Echo EKK oh ECK OH ECKOH or
ECK-OH
ˈeko /ˈɛk/ EK-oh
F Foxtrot FOKS trot FOKS TROT FOKSTROT or
FOKS-TROT
ˈfɔkstrɔt /ˈfɒkstrɒt/ FOKS-trot
G Golf Golf GOLF GOLF ɡʌlf [sic] /ˈɡɒlf/ GOLF or
/ˈɡʌlf/ GULF
H Hotel HO tell HOH TELL HOHTELL or
HOH-TELL
hoːˈtel /hˈtɛl/ hoh-TEL or
/ˈhtɛl/ HOH-tel
I India IN dee ah IN DEE AH INDEE AH or
IN-DEE-AH
ˈindiˑɑ /ˈɪndiɑː/ IN-dee-ah
J Juliett
(ICAO, ITU,
IMO, FAA)

Juliet (ATIS)
JEW lee ett JEW LEE ETT JEWLEE ETT or
JEW-LEE-ETT
ˈdʒuːliˑˈet /ˈliɛt/ JEW-lee-et or
/ˌliˈɛt/ JEW-lee-ET
K Kilo KEY loh KEY LOH KEYLOH or
KEY-LOH
ˈkiːlo /ˈkl/ KEE-loh
L Lima LEE mah LEE MAH LEEMAH or
LEE-MAH
ˈliːmɑ /ˈlmɑː/ LEE-mah
M Mike Mike MIKE MIKE mɑik /ˈmk/ MYK
N November NOH vem ber NO VEM BER NOVEMBER or
NO-VEM-BER
noˈvembə /nˈvɛmbə/ noh-VEM-bə or
/ˈnvɛmbər/ NOH-vem-bər[10]
O Oscar OSS car OSS CAH OSSCAH or
OSS-CAH
ˈɔskɑ /ˈɒskɑː/ OS-kah or
/ˈɒskɑr/ OS-kar
P Papa PAH pah PAH PAH PAHPAH or
PAH-PAH
pəˈpɑ /pɑːˈpɑː/ pah-PAH or
/pəˈpɑː/ pə-PAH or
/ˈpɑːpɑː/ PAH-pah
Q Quebec keh BECK KEH BECK KEHBECK or
KEH-BECK
keˈbek /kɛˈbɛk/ ke-BEK
R Romeo ROW me oh ROW ME OH ROWME OH or
ROW-ME-OH
ˈroːmiˑo /ˈrmi/ ROH-mee-oh
S Sierra see AIR ah SEE AIR RAH SEEAIRAH or
SEE-AIR-AH
siˈerɑ /siˈɛrɑː/ see-ERR-ah
T Tango TANG go TANG GO TANGGO or
TANG-GO
ˈtænɡo /ˈtæŋɡ/ TANG-goh
U Uniform YOU nee form YOU NEE FORM or
OO NEE FORM
YOUNEE FORM or
YOU-NEE-FORM or
OO-NEE-FORM
ˈjuːnifɔːm  or
ˈuːnifɔrm
/ˈjuːnifɔrm/ EW-nee-form or
/ˈjuːnifɔːm/ EW-nee-fawm or
/ˈnifɔrm/ OO-nee-form
V Victor VIK ter VIK TAH VIKTAH or
VIK-TAH
ˈviktɑ /ˈvɪktɑː/ VIK-tah or
/ˈvɪktər/ VIK-tər
W Whiskey WISS key WISS KEY WISSKEY or
WISS-KEY
ˈwiski /ˈwɪski/ WIS-kee
X X-ray or
Xray
EKS ray ECKS RAY ECKSRAY [sic] or
ECKS-RAY
ˈeksˈrei /ˈɛksr/ EKS-ray or
/ˌɛksˈr/ EKS-RAY
Y Yankee YANG kee YANG KEY YANGKEY [sic] or
YANG-KEY
ˈjænki /ˈjæŋki/ YANG-kee
Z Zulu ZOO loo ZOO LOO ZOOLOO or
ZOO-LOO
ˈzuːluː /ˈzl/ ZOO-loo
(hyphen) Dash /ˈdæʃ/ DASH

  Digits

Digit Code word Pronunciation Wikipedia transcription
0 Zero (FAA)
Nadazero (ITU, IMO)
ZE-RO (ICAO), ZE RO or ZEE-RO (FAA)
NAH-DAH-ZAY-ROH (ITU, IMO)
/ˈzɛr/ ZERR-oh or /ˈzr/ ZEE-roh
/ˌnɑːˌdɑːˌzˈr/ NAH-DAH-ZAY-ROH
1 One (FAA)
Unaone (ITU, IMO)
WUN (ICAO, FAA)
OO-NAH-WUN (ITU, IMO)
/ˈwʌn/ WUN
/ˌˌnɑːˈwʌn/ OO-NAH-WUN
2 Two (FAA)
Bissotwo (ITU, IMO)
TOO (ICAO, FAA)
BEES-SOH-TOO (ITU, IMO)
/ˈt/ TOO
/ˌbˌsˈt/ BEE-SOH-TOO
3 Three (FAA)
Terrathree (ITU, IMO)
TREE (ICAO, FAA)
TAY-RAH-TREE (ITU, IMO)
/ˈtr/ TREE
/ˌtˌrɑːˈtr/ TAY-RAH-TREE
4 Four (FAA)
Kartefour (ITU, IMO)
FOW-ER (ICAO), FOW ER (FAA)
KAR-TAY-FOWER (ITU, IMO)
/ˈf.ər/ FOH-ər
/ˌkɑrˌtˈf.ər/ KAR-TAY-FOH-ər
5 Five (FAA)
Pantafive (ITU, IMO)
FIFE (ICAO, FAA)
PAN-TAH-FIVE (ITU, IMO)
/ˈff/ FYF[11]
/ˌpænˌtɑːˈfv/ PAN-TAH-FYV
6 Six (FAA)
Soxisix (ITU, IMO)
SIX (ICAO, FAA)
SOK-SEE-SIX (ITU, IMO)
/ˈsɪks/ SIKS
/ˌsɒkˌsˈsɪks/ SOK-SEE-SIKS
7 Seven (FAA)
Setteseven (ITU, IMO)
SEV-EN (ICAO), SEV EN (FAA)
SAY-TAY-SEVEN (ITU, IMO)
/ˈsɛvɛn/ SEV-en
/ˌsˌtˈsɛvɛn/ SAY-TAY-SEV-en
8 Eight (FAA)
Oktoeight (ITU, IMO)
AIT (ICAO, FAA)
OK-TOH-AIT (ITU, IMO)
/ˈt/ AYT
/ˌɒkˌtˈt/ OK-TOH-AYT
9 Niner (FAA)
Nine or niner (ICAO)
Novenine (ITU, IMO)
NIN-ER (ICAO), NIN ER (FAA)
NO-VAY-NINER (ITU, IMO)
/ˈnnər/ NY-nər[12]
/ˌnɒvˌˈnnər/ NOV-AY-NY-nər
100 Hundred (ICAO) HUN-dred (ICAO) /ˈhʌndrɛd/ HUN-dred
1000 Thousand (ICAO) TOU-SAND (ICAO) /ˌtˈsænd/ TOW-SAND (??)
. (decimal point) Point (FAA)
Decimal (ITU, ICAO)
DAY-SEE-MAL (ITU) (ICAO) /ˌdˌsˈmæl/ DAY-SEE-MAL
. (full stop) Stop (ITU) STOP (ITU) /ˈstɒp/ STOP

  Other words

Several important short words and responses have set equivalents designed to make them more reliably intelligible, and are used in the same situations as the NATO alphabet.

For "yes" and "no", radio operators say affirmative and negative, though to avoid possible confusion affirm is sometimes used for affirmative

"Help" is mayday – emergency, often shortened to mayday; this "mayday" is based on French m'aidez 'help me!'.

Acknowledgement of a message is expressed with roger message, often shortened to roger; "roger" was the WWII-era word for R (modern 'romeo'), which stood for "received".

Ending a turn is signaled by over, short for over to you; the end of a message is signaled by out.

Telegraphese is used, with functions words like the, a/an, and is/are dropped, and contractions are avoided for full forms such as do not (don't). And, as noted above, stop is used to end a sentence, contrasting with decimal for a decimal point in a number.

  Pronunciation

Pronunciations are somewhat uncertain because the agencies, while ostensibly using the same pronunciations, give different transcriptions, which are often inconsistent from letter to letter. The ICAO gives different pronunciations in IPA transcription than in respelling, and the FAA also gives different pronunciations depending on the publication consulted, the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (§ 4-2-7), the FAA Flight Services manual (§ 14.1.5), or the ATC manual (§ 2-4-16). ATIS gives English spellings, but does not give pronunciations or numbers. The ICAO, NATO, and FAA use modifications of English numerals, with stress on one syllable, while the ITU and IMO compound pseudo-Latinate numerals with a slightly different set of modified English numerals, and with stress on each syllable. Numbers 10–99 are spelled out (that is, 17 is "1-7" and 60 is "6-0"), while for hundreds and thousands the English words hundred and thousand are used.[4][5][7][8][9][13]

The short set of digit words consistently differ from English at 3, 4, 5, and 9. These are pronounced tree, fower, fife, and niner. 3 is specified as tree so that it is not pronounced "sri"; the long pronunciation of 4 (still found in some English dialects) keeps it somewhat distinct from for; 5 is pronounced with a second "f" because the normal pronunciation with a "v" is easily confused with "fire" (a command to shoot); and 9 has an extra syllable to keep it distinct from German nein 'no'.

Only the ICAO prescribes pronunciation with the IPA, and then only for letters.[4] Several of the pronunciations indicated are slightly modified from their normal English pronunciations: /ˈælfɑ, ˈbrɑːˈvo, ˈʃɑːli, ˈdeltɑ, ˈfɔkstrɔt, ɡʌlf, ˈliːmɑ, ˈɔskɑ, siˈerɑ, ˈtænɡo, ˈuːnifɔrm, ˈviktɑ, ˈjænki/, partially due to the substitution of final schwas with the ah vowel; in addition, the intended distinction between the short vowels /o ɑ ɔ/ and the long vowels /oː ɑː ɔː/ is obscure, and has been ignored in the consolidated transcription above. Both the IPA and respelled pronunciations were developed by the ICAO before 1956 with advice from the governments of both the United States and United Kingdom,[14] so the pronunciations of both General American English and British Received Pronunciation are evident, especially in the rhotic and non-rhotic accents. The respelled version is usually at least consistent with a rhotic accent ('r' pronounced), as in CHAR LEE, SHAR LEE, NO VEM BER, YOU NEE FORM, and OO NEE FORM, whereas the IPA version usually specifies a non-rhotic accent ('r' pronounced only before a vowel), as in ˈtʃɑːli, ˈʃɑːli, noˈvembə, and ˈjuːnifɔːm. Exceptions are OSS CAH, VIK TAH and ˈuːnifɔrm. The IPA form of Golf implies it is pronounced gulf, which is not either General American English or British Received Pronunciation. Different agencies assign different stress patterns to Bravo, Hotel, Juliett, November, Papa, X-ray; the ICAO has different stresses for Bravo, Juliett, X-ray in its respelled and IPA transcriptions. The mid back [ɔ] vowel transcribed in Oscar and Foxtrot is actually a low vowel in both Received British and General American, and has been interpreted as such above. Furthermore, the pronunciation prescribed for "whiskey" agrees with General American but not with RP, in which the h of wh- is pronounced.

  History

The first internationally recognized spelling alphabet was adopted by the ITU during 1927. The experience gained with that alphabet resulted in several changes being made during 1932 by the ITU. The resulting alphabet was adopted by the International Commission for Air Navigation, the predecessor of the ICAO, and was used for civil aviation until World War II.[14] It continued to be used by the IMO until 1965:

Amsterdam Baltimore Casablanca Denmark Edison Florida Gallipoli Havana Italia Jerusalem Kilogramme Liverpool Madagascar New_York Oslo Paris Quebec Roma Santiago Tripoli Upsala Valencia Washington Xanthippe Yokohama Zurich

Military alphabets before 1956
United Kingdom United States
Royal Navy Western Front slang
or "signalese"
RAF phonetic alphabet U.S. phonetic
alphabet
1914–1918 (WWI) 1924–1942 1943–1956 1941–1956
Apples
Butter
Charlie
Duff
Edward
Freddy
George
Harry
Ink
Johnnie
King
London
Monkey
Nuts
Orange
Pudding
Queenie
Robert
Sugar
Tommy
Uncle
Vinegar
Willie
Xerxes
Yellow
Zebra
Ack
Beer
Charlie
Don
Edward
Freddie
Gee
Harry
Ink
Johnnie
King
London
Emma
Nuts
Oranges
Pip
Queen
Robert
Essex
Toc
Uncle
Vic
William
X-ray
Yorker
Zebra
Ace
Beer
Charlie
Don
Edward
Freddie
George
Harry
Ink
Johnnie
King
London
Monkey
Nuts
Orange
Pip
Queen
Robert
Sugar
Toc
Uncle
Vic
William
X-ray
Yorker
Zebra
Able/Affirm
Baker
Charlie
Dog
Easy
Fox
George
How
Item/Interrogatory
Jig/Johnny
King
Love
Mike
Nab/Negat
Oboe
Peter/Prep
Queen
Roger
Sugar
Tare
Uncle
Victor
William
X-ray
Yoke
Zebra
Able
Baker
Charlie
Dog
Easy
Fox
George
How
Item
Jig
King
Love
Mike
Nan
Oboe
Peter
Queen
Roger
Sugar
Tare
Uncle
Victor
William
X-ray
Yoke
Zebra

For military use, British and American armed forces each developed their spelling alphabets before both forces adopted the ICAO alphabet during 1956. British forces adopted the RAF phonetic alphabet, which is similar to the phonetic alphabet used by the Royal Navy during World War I. The U.S. adopted the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet during 1941 to standardize systems among all branches of its armed forces. The U.S. alphabet became known as Able Baker after the words for A and B. The United Kingdom adapted its RAF alphabet during 1943 to be almost identical to the American Joint-Army-Navy (JAN) one.

After World War II, with many aircraft and ground personnel from the allied armed forces, "Able Baker" continued to be used for civil aviation. But many sounds were unique to English, so an alternative "Ana Brazil" alphabet was used in Latin America. But the International Air Transport Association (IATA), recognizing the need for a single universal alphabet, presented a draft alphabet to the ICAO during 1947 that had sounds common to English, French, and Spanish. After further study and modification by each approving body, the revised alphabet was implemented on 1 November 1951 for civil aviation (but it may not have been adopted by any military):[14]

Alfa Bravo Coca Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliett Kilo Lima Metro Nectar Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Union Victor Whisky Extra Yankee Zulu

Problems were soon found with this list. Some users believed that they were so severe that they reverted to the old "Able Baker" alphabet. To identify the deficiencies of the new alphabet, testing was conducted among speakers from 31 nations, principally by the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States. Confusion among words like Delta, Nectar, Victor, and Extra, or the unintelligibility of other words during poor receiving conditions were the main problems. After much study, only the five words representing the letters C, M, N, U, and X were replaced. The final version given in the table above was implemented by the ICAO on 1 March 1956,[14] and the ITU adopted it no later than 1959 when they mandated its usage via their official publication, Radio Regulations.[15] Because the ITU governs all international radio communications, it was also adopted by all radio operators, whether military, civilian, or amateur (ARRL). It was finally adopted by the IMO in 1965. During 1947 the ITU adopted the compound number words (Nadazero Unaone, etc.), later adopted by the IMO during 1965.

  Usage

A spelling alphabet is used to spell parts of a message containing letters and numbers to avoid confusion, because many letters sound similar, for instance "n" and "m" or "b" and "d"; the potential for confusion increases if static or other interference is present. For instance the message "proceed to map grid DH98" could be transmitted as "proceed to map grid Delta-Hotel-Niner-Ait". Using "Delta" instead of "D" avoids confusion between "BH98" and "DH98". The unusual pronunciation of certain numbers was designed to reduce confusion.

In addition to the traditional military usage, civilian industry uses the alphabet to avoid similar problems in the transmission of messages by telephone systems. For example, it is often used in the retail industry where customer or site details are spoken by telephone (to authorize a credit agreement or confirm stock codes), although ad hoc coding is often used in that instance. It has been used often by information technology workers to communicate serial/reference codes (which are often very long) or other specialised information by voice. Additionally, most major airlines use the alphabet to communicate Passenger Name Records (PNRs) internally, and in some cases, with customers.

Several letter codes and abbreviations using the spelling alphabet have become well-known, such as Bravo Zulu (letter code BZ) for "well done",[16] Checkpoint Charlie (Checkpoint C) in Berlin, and Zulu Time for Greenwich Mean Time or Coordinated Universal Time. During the Vietnam War, Viet Cong guerrillas and the group itself were referred to as VC, or Victor Charlie; the name "Charlie" became synonymous with this force.

  Variants

  Aviation

  Other

Many unofficial spelling alphabets are in use that are not based on a standard, but are based on words the transmitter can remember easily, including first names, states, or cities. The LAPD phonetic alphabet has many first names. The German spelling alphabet ("Deutsches Funkalphabet") also uses first names.

  Additions in other languages

Certain languages' standard alphabets have letters, or letters with diacritics (e.g., umlauts), that do not exist in the English alphabet. If these letters have two-letter ASCII substitutes, the ICAO/NATO code words for the two letters are used.

  German and Swedish

In German and Swedish, Alfa-Alfa (aa) is used for ⟨å⟩, Alfa-Echo (ae) for ⟨ä⟩, Oscar-Echo (oe) for ⟨ö⟩, Sierra-Sierra (ss) for ⟨ß⟩, and Uniform-Echo (ue) for ⟨ü⟩.[18]

  Czech

Czechů⟩, historically uo, is Uniform-Oscar (uo).

  See also

  References

  1. ^ International Code of Signals, United States Edition, 1969 Edition (Revised 2003), Chapter 1, pages 18–19, 148.
  2. ^ Globalization and Sea Power
  3. ^ Communication instructions – General, Allied Communications Publication ACP 121(H), Combined Communications-Electronics Board, April 2007, section 318
  4. ^ a b c d e f International Civil Aviation Organization, Aeronautical Telecommunications: Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Volume II (Fifth edition, 1995), Chapter 5, 38–40.
  5. ^ a b "Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions ATIS-0100523.2011, ATIS Telecom Glossary 2011". Atis.org. http://www.atis.org/glossary/definition.aspx?id=2568. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
  6. ^ Military phonetic alphabet by US Army
  7. ^ a b "ITU Phonetic Alphabet and Figure Code". Life.itu.ch. http://life.itu.ch/radioclub/rr/ap14.htm. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "ICAO Phonetics in the FAA ATC Manual, §2-4-16". Faa.gov. 11 February 2010. http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/ATC/atc0204.html#atc0204.html.5. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
  9. ^ a b Phonetic alphabet in the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual, §4-2-7
  10. ^ The ITU and ICAO (romanized) transcribe this as /nɔːˈvɛmbər/ naw-VEM-bər, presumably an error.
  11. ^ The pronunciation "fife" is required. Failure to use this pronunciation has resulted in '5' being misheard as '9'. (McMillan, 1998, "Miscommunications in Air Traffic Control")
  12. ^ Transcribed as if it were /ˈnɪnər/ NIN-ər, but this pronunciation is never used.
  13. ^ "ICAO phonetic alphabet by Canada". Tc.gc.ca. 20 May 2010. http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/civilaviation/publications/tp11957-appendices-appendixa-1182.htm. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
  14. ^ a b c d L.J. Rose, "Aviation's ABC: The development of the ICAO spelling alphabet", ICAO Bulletin 11/2 (1956) 12–14.
  15. ^ International Telecommunication Union, "Appendix 16: Phonetic Alphabet and Figure Code", Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1959) 430–431.
  16. ^ "Where does the term "Bravo Zulu" originate?". 6 March 2005. Archived from the original on 6 March 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20050306051400/http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/questions/bzulu.html. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
  17. ^ Civil Aviation Authority, "Aircraft Call Sign Confusion Evaluation Safety Study", April 2000
  18. ^ "Sambandsregelmente för Försvarsmakten, Telefoni – HKV 12800: 70799" dated 26 June 2006.

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of NATO phonetic alphabet


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WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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