definition of Wikipedia
|National Assembly of Pakistan|
|Founded||15 August 1947|
|Type||Lower house of Parliament of Pakistan|
|Speaker||Dr. Fahmida Mirza, (PPP)
since 18 March 2008
|Leader of the House||Raja Pervez Ashraf, (PPP)
since 22 June 2012
|Leader of the Opposition||Nisar Ali Khan, (PML N)
since 17 September 2008
|National Assembly Political groups||The Government (224)
PML (Q) (54)
PML (F) (5)
Official Opposition (91)
PML (N) (91)
Other Opposition (21)
Independent members (18)
Other members (3)
|National Assembly Voting system||List PR with 70 reserved seats|
|National Assembly Last election||18 February 2008|
|Parliament House, Islamabad|
|Official Website (English)|
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The National Assembly of Pakistan (Urdu: ایوان زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Senate (upper house). The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body, consisting of 272 directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities, thereby a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs).
Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation.
Each National Assembly is formed for a five year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. The National Assembly can be dissolved by the President of Pakistan, upon the advice of the Prime Minister of Pakistan. The current National Assembly term is set to expire on 18 March 2013.
The first session of the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was held on 10 August 1947 at Sindh Assembly Building Karachi. On 11 August 1947 Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was elected unanimously as the President of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and the National Flag was formally approved by the Assembly.
The foremost task before the first Constituent Assembly is of framing the Constitution for the nation. On 7 March 1949, the Objectives Resolution, which now serves as the grund norm of Pakistan, was introduced by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, and later adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 12 March 1949. On the same day, a Basic Principles Committee with 24 members was formed to prepare a draft Constitution on the basis of the Objectives Resolution. On 16 October 1951, Prime Minister Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, mover of the Objective Resolution, was assassinated and Khawaja Nazimuddin took over as the Prime Minister on 17 October 1951. The final draft of the Constitution was prepared in 1954. By that time, Muhammad Ali Bogra had taken over as the Prime Minister. However, just before the draft could be placed in the House for approval, the Assembly was dissolved by the then Governor General Ghulam Muhammad on 24th October1954. The Prime Minister was, however, not dismissed and was asked to run the administration, with a reconstituted Cabinet, until such time as the elections were held. Maulvi Tamizuddin, President of the Assembly, challenged the dissolution in the Sindh Chief Court, and won the case. The Government in return, went to the Federal Court, where the famous judgment was given by the then Chief Justice Muhammad Munir, according to which Maulvi Tamizuddin lost the case
The second Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was created on 28 May 1955 under Governor General's Order No.12 of 1955. The Electoral College for this Assembly was the Provincial Assemblies of respective Provinces. The strength of this Assembly was 80 Members, half each from East Pakistan and West Pakistan. One of the major decisions taken by this Assembly was the establishment of West Pakistan (One Unit), with the aim to create parity between the two wings (East and West Pakistan). This Assembly also achieved its target by giving the first Constitution to the nation i.e. the Constitution of Pakistan 1956. Choudhary Muhammad Ali was the Prime Minister at that time. Under this Constitution, Pakistan became an Islamic Republic, hence 23 March became our Republic day. It was the same day in 1940 that the historic Pakistan Resolution was adopted at Minto Park, Lahore. 1959, President Sikandar Mirza abrogated the Constitution, dissolved the National and Provincial Assemblies, and declared Martial Law, on 7 October 1958. He appointed General Muhammad Ayub Khan, Commander-in-Chief of the Army, as the Chief Martial Law Administrator. 27 October 1958 General Muhammad Ayub Khan took-over as a second President of Pakistan. A new Constitution was framed and given to the nation on 1 March 1962.
General elections under the new Constitution were held on 28 March 1962 and elections to the special seats reserved for women were held on 29 May 1962. The first session of the third National Assembly was held on 8 June 1962 at Ayub Hall, Rawalpindi.
On 25 March 1969 the second Martial law was imposed and General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan took-over as the President of Pakistan and Chief Martial Law Administrator. He later issued a Legal Framework Order (LFO), under which the first ever general elections were held on 7 December 1970. This was the first Assembly elected on the adult franchise and population basis. It consist of 313 members, 169 from East Pakistan and 144 from West Pakistan including 13 reserved seats for women (6 were from West Pakistan and 7 from East Pakistan). Soon after the elections, due to grave political differences, the Province of East Pakistan seceded from West Pakistan and became Bangladesh. On 20 December 1971 Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto took over as the President of Pakistan as well as the first civil Chief Martial Law Administrator. The first session of the National Assembly, due to the delay caused by the separation of East Pakistan, was held on 14thApril 1972 at the State Bank Building, Islamabad, in which all 144 Members from West Pakistan and two from former East Pakistan (Mr. Noor-ul-Amin and Raja Tridev Roy who had chosen to join Pakistan) participated. On 17 April 1972 an Interim Constitution was adopted by the National Assembly, which provided for a Presidential form of Government. Under this Constitution, the National Assembly was not to be dissolved earlier than 14 August 1973. The Interim Constitution dealt in detail with the distribution of powers between the Centre and the Provinces. The Assembly also formed a Constitution Committee on 17 April 1972 to prepare the first draft for framing a Constitution. The report of the Committee was presented with a draft Constitution on 31 December 1972. It was unanimously passed by the Assembly in its session on 10 April 1973 and was authenticated by the President on 12 April 1973. This Constitution, called the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973, was promulgated on 14 August 1973. On the same day, Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto took oath as the Prime Minister, while Mr. Fazal Illahi Choudhary took oath as the President of Pakistan.
From 1947 to 1973, the country had a unicameral system of legislature. Under the 1973 Constitution, Pakistan adopted bicameral system at the centre, called “The Parliament”, composing the President, the National Assembly and The Senate. Originally, the general seats of the National Assembly were 200 with additional 10 seats reserved for women, bringing the total strength to 210. The newly created Upper House i.e. the Senate had 63 members. Later in 1985 through a Presidential Order (P.O. No. 14 of 1985), seven seats were added to the general seats and ten to the reserved seats for women in the National Assembly. Ten seats were exclusively reserved for minorities to be filled through separate electorate system. Thus the total strength of the lower house reached to 237 members. Similarly the strength of Senate was also increased from 63 to 87.
On 2 March 1985, the revival of Constitution Order (P.O.14 of 1985) was issued in which a large number of amendments were made in the Constitution. The first session of the National Assembly was held 20 March 1985. Mr. Muhammad Khan Junejo, was nominated as the Prime Minister of Pakistan by the President (General Zia-ul-Haq). He received vote of confidence on 24 March 1985. In November 1985, the 8th Constitutional Amendment was adopted by the Parliament. Besides changes in other Articles in the Constitution the significant Article 58(2)(b) was added, according to which the President acquired discretionary powers to dissolve the National Assembly. On 29 May 1988 the Assembly was dissolved by the President by using the power acquired under Article 58(2)(b).
The General elections for the eighth National Assembly was held on 16 November 1988. The first session was convened by the President on 30 November 1988. Mr. Miraj Khalid was elected as a Speaker National Assembly on 3 December 1988. Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto was nominated as Prime Minister of Pakistan and took the oath of the Office on 2 December 1988. The Assembly was dissolved by the President, Ghulam Ishaq Khan under Article 58(2)(b) on 6 August 1990.
The General elections for the ninth National Assembly was held on 24 October 1990. The first session was held on 3 November 1990. Mr. Gohar Ayub Khan elected as Speaker National Assembly and he took oath on 4 November 1990. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif took oath as Prime Minister of Pakistan on 11 November 1993. The Assembly was dissolved by the then President, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, under Article 58(2)(b) on 18 April 1993. The dissolution of the National Assembly was challenged in the Supreme Court of Pakistan and after hearing the case the Assembly was restored by the apex court on 26 May 1993. The Assembly was dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister on 18 July 1993.
The elections for tenth National Assembly was held on 6 October 1993. The first session was held on 15 October 1993. Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani took oath of the office of the Speaker National Assembly on 17 October 1993. Mohtarma Benizar Bhutto administered the oath as Prime Minister of Pakistan on October 19 October 1993. The Assembly was dissolved by the President Farooq Ahmad Khan Laghari on 5 November 1996.
The elections for eleventh National Assembly was held on 3 February 1997. The first session was held on 15 February 1997. Mr. Illahi Bukhsh Soomro took oath of the office of the Speaker National Assembly on 16 February 1997. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif took oath as Prime Minister of Pakistan and Leader of the House on 17 February 1997. The new Assembly came into power with an overwhelming majority. The Article 58(2)(b) was later on omitted from the Constitution vide 13th Amendment in the Constitution in April 1997.
The elections for twelfth National Assembly was held on 10 October 2002. 41 per cent of the nearly 72 million eligible voters turned out. The first session of the 12th National Assembly of Pakistan was convened on November 16, 2002. On 19 November 2002, Mr. Chaudhry Amir Hussain from the PML-Q was elected the new Speaker of the National Assembly. Two days later, the National Assembly picked Mr. Mir Zafarullah Jamali (PML-Q) as the country's new civilian Prime Minister.
On 19 March, the newly-elected National Assembly held its first session. Ms. Fehmida Mirza (PPPP) became the first woman to assume the post of National Assembly Speaker in Pakistan. the National Assembly elected Mr. Yousaf Raza Gilani (PPPP), as Prime Minister.
The Constitution which was passed unanimously by the National Assembly in April 1973, provides a federal parliamentary system of government, with the President as the head of the State and an elected Prime Minister as the head of the government. Under Article 50 of the Constitution the federal legislature is the bicameral Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), which comprises the President and the two Houses, the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly, Pakistan's sovereign legislative body, makes laws for the federation under powers spelled out in the Federal Legislative List and also for subjects in the Concurrent List, as given in the fourth schedule of the Constitution. Through debates, adjournment motions, question hour, and Standing Committees, the National Assembly keeps a check on the government. It ensures the government functions within the parameters set out in the Constitution, and does not violate the people's fundamental rights. The Parliament scrutinizes public spending and exercises control of expenditure incurred by the government through the work of the relevant Standing Committees. The Public Accounts Committee has a special role to review the report of the Auditor General. Senate, the upper house of the Parliament, has equal representation from the federating units balancing the provincial inequality in the National Assembly, where the number of members is based on population of the provinces. The Senate's role is to promote national cohesion and harmony, and work as a stabilizing factor of the federation. The Senate numbers a total of 100 members who serve six-year terms which are alternated so that half the senators are up for re-election by the electoral college every three years. The National Assembly consists of 342 members. The Constitution empowers the President to dissolve the National Assembly, but the Senate is not subject to dissolution. Only the Parliament can amend the Constitution, by two-thirds majority vote separately in each House.
The Constitution of Pakistan lists a number of requirements for members of the National Assembly in Article 62. To qualify for membership within the National Assembly, an individual must, foremost, be a citizen of Pakistan and over the age of 25. Additionally, individuals must be of good character, honest, and not proven otherwise by a court of law. Though inapplicable upon non-Muslims, members are required to be well versed in Islam and its teachings, practice obligatory duties and abstain from major sins.
The constitution also details a number of disqualifications in Article 63, which include mental instability, insolvency, criminal conviction and accepting dual-citizenship or relinquishing their Pakistani nationality, among others. Furthermore, an individual would stand disqualified if he or she is found to have opposed Pakistan's ideology or worked against the integrity of the country, after its establishment in 1947.
The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise and one-man one-vote. The tenure of a Member of the National Assembly is for the duration of the House, or sooner, in case the Member dies or resigns. The tenure of the National Assembly also comes to an end if dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister or by the President in his discretion under the Constitution.
According to The Constitution
The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the National Assembly. The Speaker is assisted by the Deputy Speaker. Both officers are elected from within the ranks of the National Assembly and, by current convention, are usually members of the majority party. The election of the two officers is the first matter an incoming National Assembly deals with, as mandated by the constitution. Apart from presiding over National Assembly debates, the Speaker may also assume the duties of Acting President, if the position is vacant.
The life of National Assembly is divided into sessions. It must meet for at least 130 days and there must be at least three sessions in a year. A session of the National Assembly is summoned by the President of Pakistan under Article 54(1) of the Constitution. In the summoning order the President gives the date, time and place (which is usually the Parliament House), for the National Assembly to meet. The date and time for the summoning of the National Assembly is immediately announced over Radio and Television. Generally, a copy of the summon is also sent to the Members at their home address. The National Assembly can also be summoned by the Speaker of National Assembly on a request made by at one-fourth of the total membership of the National Assembly. If the National Assembly is so requisitioned, it must be summoned within 14 days.
Article 50 of the Constitution provides that the Parliament of Pakistan shall consist of President and the two Houses known as the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly has an edge over the Senate by legislating exclusively on money matters. With exception to money Bills, however, both the Houses work together to carryout the basic work of the Parliament, i.e. law making.
The Bill relating to the Federal Legislative List can be originated in either House. If the House passed the Bill through majority vote, it shall be transmitted to the other House. If the other House passes it witdout amendment, it shall be presented to the President for assent.
If the Bill, transmitted to the other House, is not passed within ninety days or rejected, it shall be considered in a joint sitting to be summoned by the President on the request of the House in which the Bill was originated. If the Bill is passed in the joint sitting, with or without amendments, by the votes of majority of the members of the two Houses, it shall be presented to the President for assent.
If the Bill is presented to the President for assent, he shall assent to the Bill in not later than ten days.If it is not a Money Bill, the President may return the Bill to the Majlis-e-Shoora with a message requesting that the Bill be reconsidered and that an amendment specified in the message be considered. The Majlis-e-Shoora shall reconsider the Bill in a joint sitting.If the Bill is passed again, with or without amendment, by vote of the majority of the members present and voting, it shall be presented to the President and the President shall give his assent within ten days; failing which such assent shall be deemed to have been given.
Under the Constitution, the Parliament may also legislate for two or more Provinces by consent and request made by those Provinces. If the Federal Government proclaims State of Emergency in any province, the power to legislate about that province is vested in the Parliament.But the Bills passed by the Parliament during the State of Emergency, shall cease to be in force after the expiration of six months from the date Emergency is lifted. Nevertheless, the steps already taken under these Acts shall remain valid.
In exercises of its constitutional role, the Parliament also has other very important duties to perform.The President, who is at the apex, is elected by members of both Houses of the Parliament and the Provincial Assemblies. The Prime Minister, who heads the Cabinet and is meant to aid and advise the President in his functions, belongs to the National Assembly. He enjoys the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly. Members of the Cabinet are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
In the formation of the Cabinet the major portion (75%), goes to National Assembly while the rest (25%) are taken from the Senate.
There is a democratic procedure to remove the Prime Minister from his office if he loses confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly. In this respect a resolution for a vote of no-confidence is moved by not less than 20% of the total membership of the National Assembly. If the resolution is passed by majority of the total membership of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister immediately relinquished powers.
Similarly, for the removal or impeachment of the President, not less than one-half of the total membership of either House may give in writing its intention to do so, to the Speaker National Assembly, or, as the case may be, to the Chairman Senate, for moving a resolution for the purpose. In a joint sitting of the two Houses, convened for the purpose, and after the deliberations, if the resolution is passed by the votes of not less than two thirds of the total membership of the Parliament, the President shall cease to hold office immediately on the passing of the resolution.
In case emergency is proclaimed, the Parliament holds the authority to extend the term of the National Assembly. Under the Constitution, the Parliament may also, on the request of the Federal Government, by law, confer functions upon officers or authorities subordinate to the Federal Government.
The Leader of the House is the highest ranking representative of the majority party in National Assembly usually the Prime Minister, currently Leader of the House is Raja Pervaiz Ashraf of PPP.
List of All The Prime Ministers
The Leader of the Opposition is the highest ranking representative of the main opposition party, currently leader of the opposition is Nisar Ali Khan from Pakistan Muslim League (N).
List of Leaders of the Opposition
While recognizing the Committee System, the committees have been empowered to go into all matters of the ministry. A matter can be remitted to a standing committee by the Speaker or the Assembly suo moto and without moving any motion.
The committees have also been empowered to invite or summon before it any member or any other person having a special interest in relation to any matter under its consideration and may hear expert evidence and hold public hearing.
|Cabinet||Dewan Syed Ashiq Hussain Bukhari (PML-Q)|
|Climate Change||Ghulam Hyder Samejo (PML-Q)|
|Commerce||Khuram Dastgir Khan (PML-N)|
|Communication||Saeed Ahmed Zafar (Independent)|
|Defence||Azra Fazal Pechuho (PPP)|
|Defence Production||Sheikh Aftab Ahmad (PML-N)|
|Economic Affairs and Statistics||Usman Khan Tarakai (Independent)|
|Finance & Revenue and Planning & Development|
|Finance Committee of the National Assembly Secretariat||Fehmida Mirza (PPP)|
|Foreign Affairs||Asfandyar Wali Khan (ANP)|
|Government Assurances||Mehmood Hayat Khan (PPP)|
|House and Library||Faisal Karim Kundi (PPP)|
|Housing and Works||Pervaiz Khan Advocate (ANP)|
|Human Resource Development||Shagufta Jumani (PPP)|
|Human Rights||Riaz Fatiana (PML-Q)|
|Industries||Abdul Wahid Soomro (PPP)|
|Information and Broadcasting||Belum Hasnain (PPP)|
|Information Technology & Telecommunication||Ch. Muhammad Barjees Tahir (PML-N)|
|Inter Provincial Coordination||Mir Ahmadan Khan Bugti (PML-Q)|
|Interior||Abdul Qadir Patel (PPP)|
|Kashmir Affairs & Gilgit-Baltistan||Shahzada Muhi-ud-din (PML-Q)|
|Law and Justice||Begum Nasim Akhtar Chaudhry (PPP)|
|Narcotics Control||Murtaza Javed Abbasi (PML-N)|
|National Food Security and Research||Javed Iqbal Warraich (PPP)|
|National Harmony||Mahesh Kumar (PPP)|
|National Heritage and Integration||Syed Amir Ali Shah (PPP)|
|National Regulations and Services||Mohammad Usman Advocate (Independent)|
|Overseas Pakistanis||Muhammad Jadam Mangrio (PML-F)|
|Petroleum & Natural Resources||Sardar Talib Hassan Nakai (PML-Q)|
|Ports & Shipping||Rana Mahmood-ul-Hassan (PML-N)|
|Postal Services||Pir Muhammad Aslam Bodla (PML-Q)|
|Privatization||Malik Bilal Rehman (Independent)|
|Production||Iqbal Muhammad Ali Khan (MQM)|
|Professional & Technical Training||Sheikh Rohale Asghar (PML-N)|
|Public Accounts Committee||Nadeem Afzal Gondal (PPP)|
|Railways||Sardar Ayaz Sadiq (PML-N)|
|Religious Affairs||Moulana Mohammad Qasim (MMAP)|
|Rules of Procedure & Privileges||Abdul Ghafoor Chaudhry (PPP)|
|Science & Technology||Abdul Kadir Khanzada (MQM)|
|State & Frontier Regions (SAFRON)||Sajid Hussain Turi (Independent)|
|Textile Industry||Haji Muhammad Akram Ansari (PML-N)|
|Water & Power||Syed Ghulam Mustafa Shah (PPP)|
|Special Committee||Faisal Karim Kundi (PPP)|
|Special Committee on Delay in All Flights including Hajj Flights & Grounding of the Aircrafts of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA)||Syed Sumsam Ali S. Bukhari (PPP)|
|Special Committee on Law and Order Situation in Karachi(Sindh) and Quetta(Balochistan)||Syed Khurshid Ahmed Shah (PPP)|
|Special Committee on Millennium Development Goals (MDGS)||Shahnaz Wazir Ali (PPP)|
|Special Committee on Missing Persons||Vacant|
|Special Committee on Petroleum Prices||Syed Naveed Qamar (PPP)|
|Special Committee to Investigate the Issue of Threatening Messages Being Received by the Journalists and Media Personnel||Ahsan Iqbal (PML-N)|
|Special Committee to Look into the Matter of Delay in Construction Work on Gandhi Dera Ismail Khan Road||Faisal Karim Kundi (PPP)|
|Special Committee to Look into the Reasons Leading to the Current Power Crisis in the Country and Propose Steps to Alleviate the Power Shortage||Usman Khan Tarakai (Independent)|
|Special Committee To Oversee the Implementation of Resolutions of All Parties Conference (APC)||Raja Pervez Ashraf (PPP)|
|Appointment of Chief Election Commissioner and Members of the Election Commission of Pakistan||Syed Khurshid Ahmed Shah (PPP)|
|Constitutional Reforms||Mian Raza Rabbani (PPP)|
|Judges Appointment in the Superior Courts||Aftab Shaban Mirani (PPP)|
|Kashmir||Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman (MMAP)|
|National Security||Mian Raza Rabbani (PPP)|
|Select Committee on Information Technology & Telecommunications on Prevention of Electronic Crime Bill, 2010||Khawaja Sohail Mansoor (MQM)|
The composition of the National Assembly is specified in Article 51 of the Constitution of Pakistan. There are a total of 342 seats in the National Assembly. Of these, 272 are filled by direct elections. In addition, the Pakistani Constitution reserves 10 seats for religious minorities and 60 seats for women, to be filled by proportional representation among parties with more than 5% of the vote. As of 2006, there are 72 women members in the Assembly.
Members of the National Assembly are elected by the people in competitive multi-party elections, to be held at most five years apart. According to Article 62 of the Constitution, candidates must be citizens of Pakistan and not less than eighteen years of age.
|#||Political Party||Votes||%||Elected seats||Reserved seats (Women)||Reserved seats (Minorities/Non-Muslims)||Total|
|1||Pakistan Peoples Party||10,606,486||30.6%||94||23||4||121|
|2||Pakistan Muslim League (N)||6,781,445||19.6%||71||17||3||91|
|3||Pakistan Muslim League (Q)||7,989,817||23.0%||42||10||2||54|
|4||Muttahida Qaumi Movement||2,507,813||7.4%||19||5||1||25|
|5||Awami National Party||700,479||2.0%||10||3||0||13|
|6||Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan||772,798||2.2%||5||1||0||6|
|7||Pakistan Muslim League (F)||4||1||0||5|
|8||Pakistan Peoples Party (Sherpao)||140,707||0.4%||1||0||0||1|
|9||National Peoples Party||1||0||0||1|
|10||Balochistan National Party (Awami)||1||0||0||1|
|Source: Election Commission of Pakistan, Adam Carr's Electoral Archive|
| Ruling coalition majority
National Assembly can be dissolved at the initiative of the Prime Minister. If dissolved, new elections are conducted for the Assembly. Article 58 of the Constitution of Pakistan deals with the dissolution of the Assembly:
Now with the introduction of 18th amendment to the constitution the Article 58(2)B stands null and void.
Accordance of Election Commission of Pakistan who is playing a great rule in making of government distribute the country into 272 National Assembly seats. Starting from NA-1 Peshawar-I till NA-272 Kech-Cum-Gwadar. FATA 12 Federal Capital 2 KPK 35 Punjab 148 Sindh 61 Balochistan 14 Seats.
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