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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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|Indigenous music of North America:
|Native American/First Nations|
|Chicken scratch||Ghost Dance|
|Hip hop||Native American flute|
|Peyote song||Pow wow|
|Tribal music articles|
|Navajo||Pueblo (Hopi, Zuni)|
|Seminole||Sioux (Lakota, Dakota)|
|Music of the United States - Music of Canada|
There are many stories about how different Native American peoples invented the flute. In one tale, woodpeckers pecked holes in hollow branches while searching for termites; when the wind blew along the holes, people nearby heard its music.
The oldest extant Native American flute made of wood was collected by the Italian adventurer Giacomo Costantino Beltrami in 1823 on his search for the headwaters of the Mississippi River. It is now in the collection of the Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali in Bergamo, Italy.
Earlier flutes of river cane have been found, the earliest being a flute in the collection of the Museum Collections of the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. It was recovered in about 1931 by Samuel C. Dellinger and recently identified as a flute by James A. Rees, Jr. of the Arkansas Archeological Society. The artifact is known colloquially as “The Breckenridge Flute” and is likely to date in the range 750-1350 CE.
The Native American flute is the earliest flute recognized to have two air chambers. An internal wall (sometimes called a plug) inside the instrument partitions the two chambers: The slow air chamber (also called the compression chamber or mouth chamber) and the sound chamber (otherwise known as the pipe body, playing chamber, resonating chamber, tone chamber, or variable tube). The sound chamber contains the sound hole (or distal mouth opening or true sound hole) and the tone holes (finger holes).
The slow air chamber can serve as a secondary resonator, which can give some flutes a distinctive sound. The two chambers are acoustically connected by an narrow channel, called a flue, that is formed by the top of the plug and the bottom of a removable block (or "bird", "fetish", "saddle", or "totem").
The "traditional" Native American flute was constructed using measurements based on the body - the length of the flute would be the distance from inside of the elbow to tip of the index finger. The length of the top air chamber, as well as the distance between the whistle and first hole, would be one fist-width. The distance between individual holes would be one thumb-width, and the distance from the last hole to the end would generally be one fist-width.
In a plains flute, a spacer is added or a channel is carved into the block itself to form a thin, flat air stream for the whistle hole (or "window"). In contrast, a woodlands flute has the channel carved into the top of the flute, allowing for a less reedy sound. However, the use of the terms plains and woodlands are not consistent in common use.
The drone flute, which is of Aztec origin, comprises two or more flutes built together. Generally, the drone chamber plays a fixed note which the other flute can play against in harmony. The drone may also change octaves as it resonates with the melody played on the adjacent flute.
Native American flutes can be made from various materials. Juniper, Redwood and Cedar are popular, as they provide a nice aroma. The soft woods are generally preferred by most flute players, because of the softer tones produced by the wood. Other harder woods such as walnut and cherry are appreciated for the clear, crisp, richness of sound that they can produce. Flute have also been found made of bird and other animal bones.
Although traditionally flutes would be made from river cane, bamboo or a local wood, more exotic rain forest woods or even plastics are now used. Today flute makes use may exotic materials too, like ceramic, bone, and glass.
Performed on a 1987 flute crafted by Chief Arthur Two-crows.
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Performed on a 2001 flute crafted by Rick Heller.
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Modern Native American flutes are generally tuned to a variation of the minor pentatonic scale, which gives the instrument its distinctive plaintive sound. Recently some makers have begun experimenting with different scales, giving players new melodic options. Also, modern flutes are generally tuned in concert keys (such as A or D) so that they can be easily played with other instruments. The root keys of modern Native American flutes span a range of about three and a half octaves, from C2 to A5.
Early recordings of Native American flutes are available from several sources.
Native American flutes typically have either five or six holes, but an instrument may have zero to seven, including a thumb hole. Various makers employ different scales and fingerings for their flutes.
During the late 1960s, the United States saw a roots revival of the flute, with a new wave of flautists and artisans such as Doc Tate Nevaquaya, John Rainer, Jr., Sky Walkinstik Man Alone, and Carl Running Deer. Mary Youngblood one two Grammy Awards in the Native American Music category for her flute music. She remains the only Native American flautist to be distinguished in this way, as the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences retired the category in 2011.
Notable and award winning Native American flautists include: R. Carlos Nakai, Joseph Firecrow, Robert Mirabal, Charles Littleleaf, David R. Maracle, Kevin Locke, Joanne Shenandoah, Douglas Spotted Eagle, Timothy Archambault, Troy De Roche, Jeff Ball (non-native), Douglas Blue Feather, Jonny Lipford, Jay Red Eagle, Robert Tree Cody, David Atlas, Arvel Bird, John Two-Hawks.
A few classical composers have written for the Native American flute, including James DeMars, David Yeagley, Brent Michael Davids,Jayce Allisson Karl, Philip Glass and Jerod Impichchaachaaha' Tate.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2012)|
The 1990 Indian Arts And Crafts Act of the United States criminalized deceptive product-labeling of goods that are ostensibly made by Native Americans. In the United States, wrongfully claiming that an artifact is made by Native Americans is a felony offense. Only a flute fashioned by a Native American person can legally be sold as a "Native American flute". However, any manufacturer or vendor may legally describe this type of flute as a "Native-American-style flute".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Native American Flute|