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definition - Neurotransmitter

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Neurotransmitter

                   
Aufbau einer chemischen Synapse

Neurotransmitter (von altgriech. νεῦρον neuron „Nerv“ und lat. transmittere „hinüber schicken, übertragen“) sind endogene, biochemische Botenstoffe, welche die Information von einer Nervenzelle zur anderen über die Kontaktstelle der Nervenzellen, der Synapse, weitergeben. In die Synapse einlaufende elektrische Impulse (Aktionspotentiale) veranlassen die Ausschüttung der Botenstoffe aus ihren Speicherorten, den synaptischen Vesikeln. Das geschieht durch Exozytose, wobei durch die Fusion der Vesikelmembran mit der präsynaptischen Membran die Transmittermoleküle in den synaptischen Spalt gelangen und zu den Rezeptoren des nachgeschalteten postsynaptischen Neurons diffundieren. Die Neurotransmitter werden nach ihrer Ausschüttung auf verschiedene Weise deaktiviert und/oder abgebaut.

Der wichtigste erregende Neurotransmitter im zentralen Nervensystem (ZNS) ist Glutamat, und die wichtigsten hemmenden sind Gamma-Aminobuttersäure (GABA) und Glycin. Andere bekannte Neurotransmitter sind Noradrenalin, Acetylcholin, Dopamin und Serotonin. Häufig wird die Wirkung der Neurotransmitter noch durch weitere Stoffe moduliert, den sogenannten Neuromodulatoren.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Einteilung

Die Neurotransmitter können nach Stoffklassen in verschiedene Arten eingeteilt werden. Die wichtigsten Neurotransmitter sind:

  Biogene Amine

  Neuropeptide

  Aminosäuren

  • Inhibitorische Aminosäuretransmitter
  • Exzitatorische Aminosäuretransmitter

  Lösliche Gase

  Siehe auch

  Weblinks

 Commons: Neurotransmitter – Album mit Bildern und/oder Videos und Audiodateien
   
               

 

All translations of Neurotransmitter


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