definition of Wikipedia
|New York Metropolitan Area
Combined Statistical Area (CSA)
|— Tri-State Area —|
|New York City|
|Country||United States of America|
|States||New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Pennsylvania|
|Largest city||New York City|
|• Total||11,842 sq mi (30,670 km2)|
|Elevation||509-0 ft (509.0 m)|
|• Density||1,900/sq mi (720/km2)|
|Ranked 1st in the US|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||212, 646 917, 718, 347, 917, 860, 929, 516, 631, 914, 845, 570, 203, 201, 551, 862, 973, 908, 609, 732,|
The New York metropolitan area, also known as the Tri-State area, consists of New York City and the surrounding region, the most populous metropolitan area in the United States (including both the Metropolitan Statistical Area definition and the Combined Statistical Area definition) and one of the most populous in the world. It includes the largest city in the United States (New York City), the five largest cities in New Jersey (Newark, Jersey City, Elizabeth, Paterson, and Trenton) and six of the seven largest cities in Connecticut (Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, and Danbury). The total area of the metropolitan area is 11,842 sq mi (30,671 km2). As a center of many industries including entertainment, finance, news media, and manufacturing, it is one of the most important regions in the United States and the world.
The U.S. Office of Management and Budget has two definitions of the area: the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and the Combined Statistical Area (CSA). The MSA definition is called the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, New York-New Jersey-Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area, and includes a population of 18,897,109 as of the 2010 census (roughly 1 in 16 Americans). The MSA is further subdivided into four metropolitan divisions. The 23-county metropolitan area includes ten counties in New York State (coinciding with the five boroughs of New York City, the two counties of Long Island, and three counties in the lower Hudson Valley); 12 counties in Northern and Central New Jersey; and one county in northeastern Pennsylvania. The largest urbanized area in the United States is at the heart of the metropolitan area, the New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT Urbanized Area (estimated to have a population of 18,319,939 as of 2008 and an area of 6,720 square miles).
The counties and county groupings constituting the New York metropolitan area are listed below with 2009 U.S. Census Bureau estimates of their populations.
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (19,069,796)
The Combined Statistical Area definition consists of the original MSA plus a wider region consisting of five adjacent metropolitan areas. The area is known as the New York-Newark-Bridgeport, New York-New Jersey-Connecticut-Pennsylvania Combined Statistical Area, with an estimated population of 22,085,649 as of 2009. About one out of every fifteen Americans resides in this region, which includes seven additional counties in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut, and is often referred to as the Tri-State Area and less commonly the Tri-State Region (but leaving out Pennsylvania). However, the New York City television designated market area (DMA) includes Pike County, Pennsylvania, which is also included in the CSA.
This wider region includes the largest city in the United States (New York City), the five largest cities in New Jersey (Newark, Jersey City, Elizabeth, Paterson and Trenton) and six of the seven largest cities in Connecticut (Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk & Danbury). The total land area of the extended metropolitan area is 11,842 sq mi (30,671 km2).
In addition to the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the following Metropolitan Statistical Areas are also included in the New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area (total pop. 22,232,494):
All five areas can be (and often are) further divided. For instance, Long Island can be divided into the South and North Shores (usually when speaking about Nassau County), Western Suffolk, and the East End. The Hudson Valley and Connecticut are sometimes grouped together and referred to as the Northern Suburbs, largely because of the shared usage of Metro-North Railroad.
It has a population of 7,568,304 as of the United States Census 2010 and is the most populated island in the United States and the 17th most populous island in the world. For transportation, it is served by the Long Island Expressway and the Long Island Railroad. It is also home to John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, two of the three major airport hubs in the area.
Northern New Jersey is typically defined as the following counties:
The region can be geographically diverse with wetlands, mountains, and valleys scattered throughout the area. It has a large network of expressways and public transportation rail services which are mostly operated by New Jersey Transit. It is also home to the second largest airport in the area, Newark Liberty International Airport.
Central Jersey is the middle portion of the state. It is home to both New York and Philadelphia commuters. Due to this fact it is loosely associated with the Delaware Valley and is considered to be part of both regions. Important towns such as Trenton (State capital of New Jersey) and Princeton (home to Princeton University) are located in this subregion.
The Hudson Valley is the valley centered around the Hudson River north of New York City. It is mostly suburban and contains fewer job centers than the rest of the region. It is one the fastest growing areas in the metropolitan area, because of high housing costs in New York City and the inner suburbs. Historically, the valley was home to many factories, but a significant number have closed. Cleanup efforts to improve the Hudson River water quality after years of pollution are currently planned and will be supervised by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Fairfield, New Haven, and Litchfield Counties are located in the western portion of Connecticut with large business and industrial parks scattered throughout the area although mostly contained within Fairfield County. The three counties (and Connecticut in general) have had a long-standing reputation for affluence. Geographically, the areas are flat along the coast with low hills eventually giving way to large mountain ranges such as The Berkshires further inland. Most of the largest cities in the state are located within New Haven and Fairfield Counties.
The combined statistical area is a multicore metropolitan region containing several urban areas.
The following is a list of "principal cities" and their respective population estimates from the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau publication. Principal cities are generally those where there is a greater number of jobs than employed residents.
As of the 2010 Census, the metropolitan area had a population of 22,085,649. The population density was 1,865 per square mile. The racial markup was that 61.6% or 13,595,960 were White,16.9% or 3,727,105 were African Americans, 0.5% or 102,349 were American Indian and Alaskan Native, Asians were 9.1% or 2,008,906 overall, Pacific Islanders were less than 1% with a population of 9,971, 8.8% or 1,944,165 listed themselves as "some other race", while 3.2% (697,193) were of two or more races. Hispanics were 21.7% of any race or 4,790,542.
The median age was 37.9. 25.5% were under 18, 9.5% were 18 to 24 years, 28% were 25 to 44 years of age, 26.6% were 45 to 64 years old, and 13.2% were over the age of 65. Males composed 48.3% of the population while females were 51.7% of the population.
97.7% of the population were in households, 2.3% were in group quarters, and 1% were institutionalized. There were 8,103,731 of which 30.2% or 2,449,343 had children. 46.1% or 3,736,165 were composted of opposite sex and married couples. Male households with no wife composed 4.9% or 400,534. 15.0% or 1,212,436 were female households, with no husbands. 34% or 2,754,596 were non-family households. The household density were 684 per square mile. 91.9% of housing units were occupied with a 3.8% vacancy rate. The average household size was 2.65 per household. The average income for non-family households was $90,335, and the average income for families was $104,715. 13.3% or 2,888,493 of the population were below the poverty line.
26.7% or 5,911,993 of the population were born outside the United States. Out of this,17.4% or 1,028,506 were born in Europe, 27.0% or 1,595,523 were born in Asia, 3.8% or 224,109 were born in Africa, 0.2% or 11,957 were born in Oceania, 50.6% or 2,992,639 were born in Latin America.
As of July 1, 2011, the United States Census Bureau registered the population of New York State at 19,378,104, a 0.4% change from the previous year.
The regional economy is a center in international banking and commerce. It is the largest in the United States and one of the most important in the world. New York is considered a global city. Finance, real estate, manufacturing, tourism, biotechnology, and education are the leading industries in the area. Other industries include entertainment and news media. In 2010, the gross metropolitan product was $1.28 trillion dollars, second only to Tokyo, and is larger than all but 14 countries.
Along with its wealth, the area has a cost of living that among the highest in the world. Changes in house prices for the area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the residential real estate market.
The metropolitan area has numerous higher education institutions. Prestigious colleges such as Columbia University, Princeton University (in Princeton, New Jersey), and Yale University (in New Haven, Connecticut) are located in the region. The New York City Department of Education is the largest school district in the United States serving over 1.2 million students. Public high schools such as High Technology High School in Monmouth County, New Jersey, Newcomers High School in Long Island City, Queens, and Stuyvesant High School are some of the most prestigious in the country.
According to the 2010 American Community Survey, of the 14,973,063 persons in this area over 25 years of age, 14.8% (2,216,578) had a graduate or professional degree, 21.1% (3,166,037) had a bachelor's degree, 6.4% (962,007) had a associate degree, 16.0% (2,393,990) had some college education but no degree, 26.8% (4,009,901) had a high school diploma or equivalent, 14.8% (2,224,557) had less than a high school education. In 2010, CNN Money ranked the area as one of the top 10 smartest regions in the United States.
Metro-North Railroad (MNRR), the busiest commuter railroad in the United States (as of 2012), is operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) (an agency of New York state that focuses on New York City-area transit), in conjunction with the Connecticut Department of Transportation and New Jersey Transit. Its major terminal is Grand Central Terminal. Trains on the Port Jervis Line and Pascack Valley Line terminate at Hoboken Terminal; commuters may transfer at either Secaucus Junction for New Jersey Transit trains to New York Pennsylvania Station or at Hoboken Terminal for PATH trains into Manhattan.
The Long Island Rail Road (LIRR), the second busiest commuter railroad in the United States, is also operated by the MTA. It has two major terminals at Pennsylvania Station in Midtown Manhattan and Atlantic Terminal in Downtown Brooklyn, with a minor terminal at the Long Island City station and a major transfer point at the Jamaica station in Queens.
New Jersey Transit (NJT), the third busiest commuter railroad in the United States by passenger miles and also third in trips (when direct operated and purchased transportation services are both included—fourth if only direct operated are included), is operated by the New Jersey Transit Corporation, an agency of the state of New Jersey, in conjunction with Metro-North Railroad and Amtrak. A map of the system can be found here. It has major terminals at Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken, and Pennsylvania Station in Newark, with a major transfer point at Secaucus Junction. New Jersey Transit also operates the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail through Hudson County, the Newark City Subway, and the River Line that runs along tracks shared with Conrail Shared Assets Operations from Trenton to Camden. NJ Transit also has commuter buses operating in and out of Manhattan.
Major stations in the metropolitan area are:
|Pennsylvania Station (New York City)||Amtrak, LIRR, NJT||NY||New York||Terminal and Transfer|
|Grand Central Terminal||MNRR||NY||New York||Terminal|
|Pennsylvania Station (Newark)||Amtrak, NJT, PATH||NJ||Essex||Terminal and Transfer|
|Hoboken Terminal||NJT, MNRR, PATH||NJ||Hudson||Terminal|
|Jamaica Station||LIRR||NY||Queens||Terminal and Transfer|
|Secaucus Junction||NJT, MNRR||NJ||Hudson||Transfer|
|New Haven Union Station||Amtrak, MNRR, Shore Line East||CT||New Haven||Terminal and Transfer|
|Trenton Station||Amtrak, NJT, SEPTA||NJ||Mercer||Terminal and Transfer|
The following table shows all train lines operated by these commuter railroads in the New York metropolitan area. New Jersey Transit operates an additional train line in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. (Shown counterclockwise from the Atlantic Ocean):
|Line or Branch||Railroad||Counties|
|Far Rockaway||LIRR||Kings, Queens, Nassau|
|West Hempstead||LIRR||Kings (weekdays), Queens, Nassau|
|Hempstead||LIRR||Kings, Queens, Nassau|
|Ronkonkoma (Main Line)||LIRR||Nassau, Suffolk|
|Port Jefferson||LIRR||Nassau, Suffolk|
|Port Washington||LIRR||Queens, Nassau|
|New Haven||MNRR, Shore Line East, Amtrak||Westchester, Fairfield, New Haven|
|Harlem||MNRR||New York, Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess|
|Hudson||MNRR, Amtrak||Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess|
|Pascack Valley||MNRR, NJT||Hudson, Bergen, Passaic, Rockland, Orange|
|Port Jervis / Main Line / Bergen County||MNRR, NJT||Hudson, Bergen, Passaic, Rockland, Orange|
|Montclair-Boonton||NJT||New York, Hudson, Essex, Passaic, Morris, Warren|
|Morris & Essex (Morristown Line and Gladstone Branch)||NJT||New York, Hudson, Essex, Union, Morris, Somerset, Warren|
|Raritan Valley||NJT||Hudson, Essex, Union, Middlesex, Somerset, Hunterdon|
|Northeast Corridor and Princeton Branch||NJT, Amtrak||New York, Hudson, Essex, Union, Middlesex, Mercer|
|North Jersey Coast||NJT||New York, Hudson, Essex, Union, Middlesex, Monmouth, Ocean|
Additionally, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, an agency of the states of New York and New Jersey, operates the PATH system. This heavy rail transportation service serves the counties of New York, Hudson, and Essex. A map can be found here.
||This section is incomplete. (November 2011)|
The following highways serve the region:
Some of these roads have a numerical designation assigned to it:
New Jersey Transit, Academy Bus, Coach USA, Adirondack Trailways (under the names of New York Trailways, Pine Hill Trailways, as well as Adirondack Trailways) and several other companies operate commuter coaches into the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan, and many other bus services in New Jersey. Bus services also operate in other nearby counties in the states of New York and Connecticut, but most terminate at a subway terminal or other rail station.
The metropolitan area is served by three major airports.
|Airport||IATA code||ICAO code||County||State|
|John F. Kennedy International Airport||JFK||KJFK||Queens||New York|
|Newark Liberty International Airport||EWR||KEWR||Essex/Union||New Jersey|
|LaGuardia Airport||LGA||KLGA||Queens||New York|
The following smaller airports are also in the metro area and provide daily commercial service:
|Airport||IATA code||ICAO code||County||State|
|Long Island MacArthur Airport||ISP||KISP||Suffolk||New York|
|Stewart International Airport||SWF||KSWF||Orange||New York|
|Tweed New Haven Regional Airport||HVN||KHVN||New Haven||Connecticut|
|Westchester County Airport||HPN||KHPN||Westchester||New York|
According to the 2010 American Community Survey, 54.3% (5,476,169) of commuters used a car or other private vehicle alone, 7.0% (708,788) used a carpool, 27.0% (2,721,372) used public transportation, 5.5% (558,434) walked to work, 2.0% (200,448) used some other means of transportation such as a bicycle to get to work.
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During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the region was at the edge of a large ice sheet that was over 1000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving bedrock. Later on, the ice sheet would help split apart what are now Long Island and Staten Island.
The region was inhabited by Native American tribes such as the Lenape and others. The tribes used the abundant waterways in the area for many purposes such as fishing and trade routes. Later, when Henry Hudson visited the area, he built a settlement called New Amsterdam in Lower Manhattan Island. In 1664, the English conquered Dutch land holdings that included New Amsterdam. The English renamed it New Amsterdam New York, for the Duke of York. As the fur trade expanded north, New York became a trade hub. The trading bought in a diverse set of ethnic groups including Africans, Jews, and the Portuguese. The island of Manhattan had an extraordinary natural harbor formed by New York Bay (actually the drowned lower river valley of the Hudson River, enclosed by glacial moraines), the East River (actually a tidal strait), and the Hudson River, all of which are confluent at the southern tip, from which all later development spread.
During the American Revolution, New York was an important region for battle. Many battles such as the Battle of Long Island and the Battle of New York were fought here. However, New York City remained in the hands of the British until the war ended in 1783. After the war, New York was made capital of the United States. After a rather short term the capitol moved to Philadelphia. In 1792, the Buttonwood Agreement, made by a group of merchants, created what is now the New York Stock Exchange. Today, many people in the Tri-State Area work in this important stock exchange. Large-scale immigration into New York was a result of a large demand for manpower. A cosmopolitan attitude in the city created tolerance for various cultures and ethnic groups. German, Irish, and Italian immigrants were among the largest ethnic groups. Today, many of their descendents continue to live in the region. Cultural buildings such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Metropolitan Opera, the American Museum of Natural History were built. New York newspapers were read around the country as media moguls James Gordon Bennett, Sr., Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst battled for readership. In 1884, over 70% of exports passed through ports in New York or in one of the surrounding towns. The modern New York City was founded in 1898, with the consolidation of what is now Manhattan, Staten Island, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx.
The now-unified New York City encouraged both more physical connections between the boroughs and the growth of bedroom communities. The New York City Subway began operating in 1905 as different private systems that were later taken over by the city. Railroad stations such as Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station helped fuel suburban growth. During the era of the Prohibition, when alcohol was banned nationwide, organized crime grew to supply the high demand for bootleg alcohol. The iconic Broadway Theater District developed with the showing of the musical, Show Boat.
The Great Depression suspended the region's fortunes as a period of widespread unemployment and poverty began. City planner Robert Moses began his automobile-centered career of building bridges, parkways, and later expressways. During World War II, the city economy was hurt by blockades of German U-Boats, which limited of shipping with Europe.
After its population peaked in 1950, much of the city's population began leaving for the suburbs. The effects were a result of white flight. Industry and commerce also declined in this era, with businesses leaving for the suburbs and other cities. Crime affected the city severely. Urban renewal projects alleviated the decay in Midtown Manhattan to a certain extent, but later failed. Blackouts such as the Northeast Blackout of 1965 and the New York City Blackout of 1977 caused massive rioting. A rare highlight was the completion of the World Trade Center, which was once the tallest buildings in the world. When conservative Ed Koch was elected, he helped rebuild the city to usher in a new era of prosperity.
In the 1980s, the city economy was booming. Wall Street was fueling an economic surge in the real estate market. Despite this, crime was still an issue. In the 1990s crime dropped substantially, as the city transformed itself from a decaying city into an world-class city.
A major event in the regions history was the September 11th attacks, killing nearly 3,000 people as two planes crashed into the World Trade Center, later causing them to collapse. Businesses led an exodus from Lower Manhattan because of this. In 2003, another blackout occurred, the 2003 North America blackout, but the city suffered no looting. A building boom in New York City continues to this day although this has been slowed down by the Great Recession.
The U.S. Census Bureau first designated metropolitan areas in 1950 as standard metropolitan areas (SMAs). The "New York-Northeastern NJ SMA" was defined to include 17 counties: 9 in New York (the five boroughs of New York City, Nassau, Suffolk, Westchester, Rockland) and 8 in New Jersey (Bergen, Hudson, Pasaic, Essex, Union, Morris, Somerset, Middlesex). In 1960, the metropolitan area standards were modified and renamed standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs). The new standards resulted in the splitting of the former SMA into several pieces: the nine New York counties became the "New York SMSA"; three of the New Jersey counties (Essex, Union, Morris) became the "Newark SMSA"; two other New Jersey counties (Bergen, Passaic) became the "Paterson-Passaic-Clifton SMSA"; Hudson County was designated the "Jersey City SMSA"; and Middlesex and Somerset counties lost their metropolitan status. In 1973, a new set of metropolitan area standards resulted in further changes: Nassau and Suffolk counties were split off as their own SMSA ("Nassau-Suffolk SMSA"); Bergen County (originally part of the Paterson-Clifton-Passaic SMSA) was transferred to the New York SMSA; the New York SMSA also received Putnam County (previously non-metropolitan); Somerset County was added to the Newark SMSA; and two new SMSAs, the "New Brunswick-Perth Amboy-Sayreville SMSA" (Middlesex County) and "Long Branch-Asbury Park SMSA" (Monmouth County), were established. In 1983, the concept of a consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA) was first implemented. A CMSA consisted of several primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs), which were individual employment centers within a wider labor market area. The "New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island CMSA" consisted of 12 PMSAs. Seven PMSAs were based on the original 1950 New York SMA that were split up: New York, Bergen-Passaic, Jersey City, Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon (Hunterdon added for the first time), Monmouth-Ocean (Ocean added for the first time), Nassau-Suffolk, and Newark (Sussex added for the first time). One additional PMSA was the Orange County PMSA (previously the Newburgh-Middletown SMSA). The other four PMSAs were former SMSAs in Connecticut: Bridgeport, Stamford, Norwalk, and Danbury. In 1993, four PMSAs were added to the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island CMSA: Trenton PMSA (Mercer County), Dutchess County PMSA, Waterbury PMSA, and New Haven PMSA. Several new counties were also added to the CMSA: Sussex, Warren, and Pike. The CMSA model was originally utilized for tabulating data from the 2000 census. In 2003, a new set of standards was established using the core-based statistical area (CBSA) model was adopted and remains in use as of 2010. The CBSA model resulted in the splitting up of the old CMSA into several metropolitan statistical areas: New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, Trenton-Ewing, Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk (includes Danbury), and New Haven-Milford (includes Waterbury).
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The New York metropolitan area hosts a religious diversity in line with its ethnic diversity. Houses of worship exist for numerous Christian denominations, especially Catholicism, but also various churches within both Eastern Orthodoxy and Protestantism. New York has a large Jewish population, is a major center of Orthodox Judaism and is home to the headquarters of many Hasidic movements, particularly in the borough of Brooklyn. Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism, Taoism, and many other religions have formal houses of worship in the area. Along with these religions, there are also many people who practice no religion at all.
Listing of the professional sports teams in the New York metropolitan area:
The New York City metropolitan area is home to the headquarters of several well-known media companies, subsidiaries, and publications, including Thomson Reuters, The New York Times Company, News Corporation, The Wall Street Journal, Fox News, ABC, CBS, and NBC. Local television channels include WCBS-TV 2 (CBS), WNBC 4 (NBC), WNYW 5 (FOX), WABC-TV 7 (ABC), WWOR-TV 9 (MyNetworkTV), WPIX 11 (CW), WNET 13 (PBS), WNYE-TV 25 (NYC Media) and WPXN-TV 31 (Ion). NY1 is a 24/7 local news provider available only to cable subscribers. Radio stations serving the area include: WNYC, WFMU, WABC-AM, and WFAN. Many television and radio stations use the top of the Empire State Building to broadcast their terrestrial television signals.
The area is served by 24 area codes:
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